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The axes of long bones are very useful in defining how the mechanical (weight, gait, flexion, extension, etc) forces impact the morphology of the bone structure. They help in the surgical planning of deformed bones.

Video summary[edit | edit source]

  • 10:35 Tibial Axis Lines
  • 13:55 Femoral Axis Lines

Mechanical axis of long bones[edit | edit source]

Fig. 3a. Mechanical axis of long bones in the frontal and sagittal plane.

The mechanical axis of a long bone is a straight line connecting the joint center points of the proximal and distal joint regions, whether in the frontal or sagittal plane (Fig. 3a).

Anatomical axis of long bones[edit | edit source]

Fig. 3b. Anatomical axis of long bones in the frontal and sagittal plane.

The anatomic axis of a bone is the mid-diaphyseal line (Fig. 3b). The anatomic axis line may be straight in the frontal plane but curved in the sagittal plane, as in the femur.

Distance of mechanical and anatomical axes[edit | edit source]

Fig. 3c. Distance of medical and anatomical axes, as seen in the tibia and the femur.

In the tibia, the frontal plane mechanical and anatomic axes are parallel and only a few millimeters apart. Therefore, the tibial anatomic-mechanical angle (AMA) is 0° (Fig. 3c).

In the femur, the mechanical and anatomic axes are different and converge distally. The normal femoral AMA is 7±2° (Fig. 3c)

Page data
Part of Deformity Correction Of Lower Limb Bones
Type Medical knowledge page
Keywords orthopedic surgery, complex bone deformity, lower-limb, surgical training, surgical simulation, x-ray planning, 3d printing, cloud software
SDG Sustainable Development Goal SDG03 Good health and well-being
Authors Amit Dinanath Maurya, OpenSurgiSim
Published 2021
License CC-BY-SA-4.0
Affiliations AlgoSurg Inc, Mangal Anand Hospital (Mumbai), Global Surgical Training Challenge
Language English (en)
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