3D printed magnetic nanoparticle soft actuator

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Creating 3D printed magnetic nanoparticle soft actuator[edit | edit source]

Magnetic programming of 4D printed shape memory composite structures[edit | edit source]

Source: Zhang, Fenghua, Linlin Wang, Zhichao Zheng, Yanju Liu, and Jinsong Leng, "Magnetic programming of 4D printed shape memory composite structures" Elsevior (2019): 105571

• Properties of filaments composites were analyzed by

1)differential scanning calorimeter
2)thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)
3)FT-IR
4)dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA)
5)SEM

• Printing structures by FDM

• Material: PLA/ Iron oxide (Fe_3O_4)

• Notes on the preparation of magnetic filaments of iron oxide and PLA composites using a thermally controlled extruder

• The actuation mechanism is through temperature increase and shape change, temperature increase happens as the vibration magnetic particles inside the alternating magnetic field at 27.5 KHz

3D‐Printed Artificial Microfish[edit | edit source]

Source: Zhu, Wei, Jinxing Li, Yew J. Leong, Isaac Rozen, Xin Qu, Renfeng Dong, Zhiguang Wu et al. 3D‐printed artificial microfish Advanced materials 27, no. 30 (2015): 4411-4417.

• Using 3D printing mechanism of the microscale continuous optical printing, UV light optical curing enabling small scale micrometer resolution

• Adding Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles to fish head for steering

• Adding Pt to tail section for propulsion mechanism which happens as the result of chemical reaction of Pt and Hydrogen peroxide

• Using EDX imaging to show Dispersion of Iron and platinum elements at the head and tail section of the printed fish structures

Inkjet printing of magnetic materials with aligned anisotropy[edit | edit source]

Source: Song, Han, Jeremy Spencer, Albrecht Jander, Jeffrey Nielsen, James Stasiak, Vladek Kasperchik, and Pallavi Dhagat. Inkjet printing of magnetic materials with aligned anisotropy. Journal of Applied Physics 115, no. 17 (2014): 17E308.

• Using commercial inkjet paper to absorb the ink's solvent at the substrate as the printing is being performed

• Using electromagnet at the print head and a design for it to align magnetic particles in the printed structures

• Shielding the nozzle with mu-metal to avoid clogging from applying the magnetic field at nozzle head

Bio-Inspired Terrestrial Motion of Magnetic Soft Millirobots[edit | edit source]

Venkiteswaran, Venkatasubramanian Kalpathy, Luis Fernando Pena Samaniego, Jakub Sikorski, and Sarthak Misra. Bio-Inspired Terrestrial Motion of Magnetic Soft Millirobots IEEE Robotics and automation letters 4, no. 2 (2019): 1753-1759.

• time required for doing the same displacement is way higher compared to the helical coil structure 40 mm displacement in 80 s, 0.25 mm/s

• designe of the alternating magnetic field to acheived motion

• ability to travel rough / semi non-smooth trains

• material: silicon rubber - ecoflex, praseodymium-iron-boron (PrFeB)

• using mold to fabricate the inchworm. turtle, millipede

Printing ferromagnetic domains for untethered fast-transforming soft materials[edit | edit source]

Source: Kim, Yoonho, Hyunwoo Yuk, Ruike Zhao, Shawn A. Chester, and Xuanhe Zhao. Printing ferromagnetic domains for untethered fast-transforming soft materials. Nature 558, no. 7709 (2018): 274.

• Using commercial inkjet paper to absorb the ink's solvent at the substrate as the printing is being performed

• Using electromagnet or permanent magnet at the print head for particle alignment and shielding at the print head

• Design and modeling of various structures with the sections with different magnetic particle alignment in order to achieve various locomotion by applying magnetic field as crawling, bending, rotating and etc.

• Material: Silicon based Eccoflex, magnetic neodymium–iron–boron (NdFeB) microparticles

• Extensive characterizations: mechanical, SEM, magnetic moment density per magnetic loading ratio in composite, etc

• Ink is printed through needle ( kinda syringe printed), a secondary support material is also used for printing structures.

A magnetic poly(dimethylesiloxane) composite membrane incorporated with uniformly dispersed, coated iron oxide nanoparticles[edit | edit source]

Source: Pirmoradi, Fatemeh Nazly, Luna Cheng, and Mu Chiao. A magnetic poly (dimethylesiloxane) composite membrane incorporated with uniformly dispersed, coated iron oxide nanoparticles, Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering 20, no. 1 (2009): 015032.

• This paper works on the disperesion and choise of magnetic nanoparticles.

• Three different kind of magnetic nanoparticle were used: normal iron oxide, EMG1200 ferrotec-proprietary fatty acid-coated iron oxide, EMG1400 ferrotec- proprietary hydrophobic surfactant coated

• Using Toluene as the solvent for dissolving particles in PDMS, along with bath sonication and ultrasonication and degassing for particle dispersion

• coated particles, extended sonication time: 4-6 hours

• Using permanent magnet and imaging for actuation characterization

UNTETHERED SOFT ROBOTS WITH BIOINSPIRED BONE-AND-FLESH CONSTRUCTS FOR FAST DETERMINISTIC ACTUATION[edit | edit source]

Source: Xu, Renxiao, Fanping Sui, Gaurav Jalan, Pinghsun Lee, Liangjie Ren, Mohan Sanghadasa, and Liwei Lin. Untethered Soft Robots with Bioinspired Bone-and-Flesh Constructs for Fast Deterministic Actuation, In 2019 20th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems & Eurosensors XXXIII (TRANSDUCERS & EUROSENSORS XXXIII), pp. 80-83. IEEE, 2019.

• material: Ecoflex / permanent magnet

• with 3D printing, mold were made, ecoflex polymer were poured and permanent magnet, no nano particles

• due to force of the magnetic field, permanent cylindrical magnet rotate and this movement led to movement of the ecoflex arm

• high energy density and fast response

High-resolution 3D printing magnetically-active microstructures using micro-CLIP process[edit | edit source]

Source: Shao, Guangbin, Henry Oliver T. Ware, Xiangfan Chen, Longqiu Li, and Cheng Sun. High-resolution 3D printing magnetically-active microstructures using micro-CLIP process In Nano-, Bio-, Info-Tech Sensors and 3D Systems III, vol. 10969, p. 109690M. International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2019.

• continuous liquid interface production, stereolithography (printing in a vat resin?)

• mixture of PEGDA, Irgacure, a monomer, and 15% magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles

• material processing: Monomer was heated to 90 C and PEGDA was added, then mixed for 40 min in ultrasonic bath, then magnetic nanoparticle was added and sonicated for another two hours in ultrasonicbath, then freezed to have the particle stable till next use

• with using vat photopolymerization, an spring was printed

• no further characterization on the magnetic properties of the spring

Fully 3D-Printed, Monolithic, Mini Magnetic Actuators for Low-Cost, Compact Systems[edit | edit source]

Source: Taylor, Anthony P., Camilo Vélez Cuervo, David P. Arnold, and Luis Fernando Velásquez-García. Fully 3D-Printed, Monolithic, Mini Magnetic Actuators for Low-Cost, Compact Systems Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 28, no. 3 (2019): 481-493.

• Explaining the key factor for characterization of the magnetic behavior:

-In figure 1, discuss these parameters as three key properties of permanent magnets, i.e., intrinsic coercivity, remanence, and maximum energy product.

• Using NdFeB as it is stronger magnet than Ferrite, however, it is also more expensive

• printing commercially available materials: magnetic pallets, NdFeB and Nylon 12 , then extruded through three stage extrusion screw at 250 C

• Simple finite element modeling and application of the magnet as the switch for displacing a membrane,

• maximum displacement of 50 um for a 6 m height and 5 mm diameter cylinder

Magnetomotility of untethered helical soft robots[edit | edit source]

Source: Park, Jeong Eun, Jisoo Jeon, Jae Han Cho, Sukyoung Won, Hyoung-Joon Jin, Kwang Hee Lee, and Jeong Jae Wie. Magnetomotility of untethered helical soft robots RSC advances 9, no. 20 (2019): 11272-11280.

• The helical geometry of soft robot is advantageous for achieving:

1-Efficient motility as helix introduce rolling resistance instead of sliding resistance
2-Reduced weight in comparison of that cylindrical geometry


• Helical coils were made in two steps:

1-making a film of PDMS-magnetic particles and then cutting semi-cured particles into strips
2-molding the strips on the surface of a cylinder and making helical coils, waiting for final curing

• Characterizations:

1- Particle size analyzer
2-SEM
3-Optical imaging
4-local connected fractal dimensional analysis 

• Interesting and relatively simple formula for deriving sedimentation

• Rolling resistance force formula : F_R= (f_r * N)/R

• X-axis of the magnetic flux density is the deriving force to induce momentum which should exceed the rolling resistance and inertia

• When X- position of the magnets and soft robot are aligned, the magnetic field is vertically aligned and the y-component of the magnetic flux density is equal to the total flux density

• Spatial and temporal optimization to achieve the linear locomotion of the helix under the magnetic field so that they don't undergo displacement of Y-axis

• No mechanical characterizations

• No actuation characterizations

3D‐Printed Silicone Soft Architectures with Programmed Magneto‐Capillary Reconfiguration[edit | edit source]

Source: Roh, Sangchul, Lilian B. Okello, Nuran Golbasi, Jameson P. Hankwitz, Jessica A‐C. Liu, Joseph B. Tracy, and Orlin D. Velev. 3D‐Printed Silicone Soft Architectures with Programmed Magneto‐Capillary Reconfiguration Advanced Materials Technologies 4, no. 4 (2019): 1800528.

• Printing on the air-water interface in the serpentine like-shape

• very accurate designe architecture enables magnetic actuation to achieve new shapes

• Material formulation for making beads of PDMS-encapsulated iron particles:

  Emulsifying a mixture of 20% carbonyl Iron microparticles ( average diameter of 4 um) in PDMS prepolymer in 10% aqueous PVA. Base to curing agent ration of 1 to 20. With emulsification happening with a benchtop servo mixer at 1000 rpm. Then drying in the oven to cure the PDMS beads and finally washing with the tween 20 to remove PVA residual. 

• Characterization of fabricated serpentine soft architecture in terms of the maximum achieved actuation and mechanical properties.

• Interesting videos showing various actuation behavior

A highly tunable silicone-based magnetic elastomer with nanoscale homogeneity[edit | edit source]

Source: Evans, Benjamin A., Briana L. Fiser, Willem J. Prins, Daniel J. Rapp, Adam R. Shields, Daniel R. Glass, and R. Superfine. A highly tunable silicone-based magnetic elastomer with nanoscale homogeneity Journal of magnetism and magnetic materials 324, no. 4 (2012): 501-507.

• From the manuscript: " The responsiveness of any magnetic actuator is the result of competition between magnetic and elastic properties; higher magnetic permeability enables higher magnetic torque, while nanoparticles increase the modulus of the material, making it less flexible."

• Intensive material preparation formula: Resulting in achieving noticeable nanoparticles dispersion.

• Mechanical properties with different ratio of magnetic loading


Rapid prototyping of magnetic valve based on nanocomposite Co/PDMS membrane[edit | edit source]

Source: Singh, Akanksha, Laurent Hirsinger, Patrick Delobelle, and Chantal Khan-Malek.Rapid prototyping of magnetic valve based on nanocomposite Co/PDMS membrane Microsystem technologies 20, no. 3 (2014): 427-436..

• Loaded the cobalt nanoparticles up-to 75% to make films of magnetic composites

• Application as the actuator for valve in microflusid devices

• Contact angle measurement characterization with various nanoparticle loading

• A review table of other works and their achieved actuation in the microfluidic devices

• No deflection of the valve membrane occurred in the area where he magnetic field inside the electromagnet is uniform

• Characterization of the magnetic field according to the water level

• Characterization of the deformation according to the applied magnetic field