आरके बीच पर घरेलू कचरे से जल प्रदूषण 02.jpg

जल प्रदूषण तब होता है जब पानी का शरीर किसी भी ऐसी सामग्री से प्रभावित होता है जो उसमें रहने वाले किसी भी जीव के लिए हानिकारक है, इसे पीता है या इसका उपयोग करता है। जल प्रदूषण के स्रोतों को इस प्रकार वर्गीकृत किया जा सकता है:

  • प्रत्यक्ष प्रदूषण : जब प्रदूषणकारी सामग्री सीधे पानी के शरीर में छोड़ी जाती है।
  • अप्रत्यक्ष प्रदूषण : जब कोई प्रदूषणकारी पदार्थ पानी के शरीर में परोक्ष रूप से अपना रास्ता खोज लेता है (उदाहरण के लिए निषेचित कृषि भूमि से अपवाह द्वारा खाइयों का नाइट्रोजन प्रदूषण)।

संभव समाधान


समुद्री तेल प्रदूषण

जल प्रदूषण कार्बनिक और अकार्बनिक दोनों प्रकार के पदार्थों के कारण हो सकता है।

Approximately 1.4 billion pounds of trash enters the ocean every year.[1]

Chemical pollution

These are mainly chemicals that do not naturally occur in aquatic ecosystems. The greatest chemical pollutants are herbicides, pesticides and industrial compounds.

Organic pollutants

Organic pollutants include manure or sewage, which, when large volumes enter the water, cause a deterioration in the water quality. Organic material is decomposed in water course by aerobic bacteria. These require a great deal of oxygen and as they increase, the dissolved oxygen level in the water decreases, increasing the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)W of the water. This lack of oxygen can kill aquatic organisms. As the aquatic organisms die, they are broken down by more aerobic organisms, which leads to even more oxygen depletion.

This type of pollution can also occur when inorganic chemicals such as nitrogen and phosphates are added to aquatic ecosystems. These chemicals are plant fertilisers and cause an overgrowth of algae. As the algae dies, they add to the organic material in the water, which as it decomposes, lowers the oxygen level. This process is called eutrophication.

Heat pollution

Thermal pollution can occur when water is used as a coolant for industrial purposes. When it is returned to the river it is at a higher temperature. The level of oxygen that can be dissolved in water decreases as water temperature increases, so this als0 leads to oxygen depletion of the watercourse.

Natural pollution

Pollution can be caused by a natural event such as an earthquake, volcanic eruption or landslide. All these events can result in excess undesirable materials entering watercourses, lakes, etc.

यह सभी देखें


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AuthorsMaureen Webb
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