|Michigan Tech's Open Sustainability Technology Lab.
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Background[edit | edit source]
This page is dedicated to the literature review of 3D printable conductive filaments.
Literature[edit | edit source]
Abstract: As a result of the layer-by-layer deposition characteristics of Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes, fabricated parts exhibit limiting qualities and have yet to achieve the requirements for end-use applications. Specifically, the use of AM-fabricated parts in fluid pressure applications is limited due to part porosity as well as non-optimized building variables (e.g., build orientation and material properties). In an effort to extend the use of AM in more applications involving fluid pressure, parts manufactured with Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) were sealed with a variety of sealants and tested under applied pressure. Eleven sealants with diverse chemical properties were applied to multiple geometries of FDM-fabricated pressure caps through brushing or vacuum infiltration. The caps were installed on pressure vessels and subsequently tested while safety precautions were taken to avoid catastrophic failure (i.e., exploding) caused by pressure differentials. Results of the testing provides a sealing method using BJB TC-1614 that enables FDM-fabricated parts to withstand pressures up to ~276 kPa (40psi) through brushing and ~138 kPa (20 psi) through vacuum infiltration. Other noteworthy sealants (Minwax Sanding Sealer, Minwax Polyurethane Oil Based, PRO Finisher Water-Base Polyurethane) that are readily available to consumers and easy to apply (i.e. no mixing ratios to follow, long working times) also had notable results by withstanding pressures up to ~207 kPa (30 psi). In addition, an analysis on dimensional changes was performed to determine the absolute difference between as-built and surface-treated parts. Parts that were infiltrated with BJB TC-1614 showed less dimensional changes (average absolute change of 0.104 mm) than parts that were brushed (average absolute change of 0.231 mm) however onepart sealants had smaller dimensional changes (maximum absolute change for one-part sealants of 0.065 mm for infiltration and 0.171 for brushing) with noteworthy results in pressure testing. Benefits of filling voids within FDM-manufactured parts enables end-use applications such as hermetic housings for biomedical devices and pipes/covers for thermodynamic systems such as heat exchangers.
Abstract: The electrical and thermal conductivity of systems based on epoxy resin (ER) and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) filled with metal powders have been studied. Copper and nickel powders having different particle shapes were used as fillers. The composite preparation conditions allow the formation of a random distribution of metallic particles in the polymer matrix volume for the systems ER–Cu, ER–Ni, PVC–Cu and to create ordered shell structure in the PVC–Ni system. A model is proposed to describe the shell structure electric conductivity. The percolation theory equation σ∼(ϕ−ϕc)t with t=2.4–3.2 (exceeding the universal t=1.7 value) holds true for the systems with dispersed filler random distribution, but not for the PVC–Ni system. The percolation threshold ϕc depends on both particle shape and type of spatial distribution (random or ordered). In contrast to the electrical conductivity, the concentration dependence of thermal conductivity shows no jump in the percolation threshold region. For the description of the concentration dependence of the electrical and thermal conductivity, the key parameter is the packing factor F. F takes into account the influence of conductive phase topology and particle shape on the electrical and thermal conductivity.
Keywords: Copper powders, Nickel powders, Metal powders
- Packing factor is a key parameter is resultant performance
- Shape and spacial distribution are key parameters to control thermal conductivity
- Difficult to reach maximum packing factor with inherently porous metal matrix composites
Effect of Particle Shape on Thermal Conductivity of Copper Reinforced Polymer Composites[edit | edit source]
Abstract: Thermal conductivity of copper powder filled polyamide composites are investigated experimentally in the range of filler content 0-30% by volume for particle shape of short fibers and 0-60% by volume for particle shapes of plates and spheres. The thermal conductivity of polymer composites is measured by the Hot-Disk method. It is seen that the experimental values for all the copper particle shapes are close to each other at low particle content, φ<10, as the particles are dispersed in the polyamide matrix and they are not interacting with each other. For particle content greater than 10% by volume, a rapid increase occurs in the thermal conductivity for the copper fibers filled polymer composite. As a result of this study, thermal conductivity of copper filled polyamide composites depends on the thermal conductivity of the filler particles, filler particle shape and size, and the volume fraction and spatial arrangement of the filler particles in the polymer matrix.
- A metal/polymer composites thermal conductivity is increased by the addition of fillers
- Fillers = Spheres, fibers and plates of metallic filler
- Metallic fiber filers provided the greatest increase in thermal conductivity
Thermal characteristics of a new metal/polymer material for FDM rapid prototyping process[edit | edit source]
Abstract: This paper presents the development and characterization of a new metal/polymer composite material for use in fused deposition modeling (FDM) rapid prototyping process with the aim of application to direct rapid tooling. The work represents a major development in reducing the cost and time in rapid tooling. The material consists of iron particles in a nylon type matrix. the detailed formulation and characterization of the thermal properties of the various combinations of the new composites are investigated experimentally. Results are compared with other metal/polymer composites used in rapid tooling. The feedstock filaments of this composition have been produced and used successfully in the unmodified FDM system for direct rapid tooling of injection molding inserts. Thermal properties are found to be acceptable for rapid tooling applications for injection molding.
Keywords: Rapid prototypes, Composite materials, Metals, Polymers
- Thermal conductivity of a composite was found to increase proportionally to the amount of fillers.
- A significant increase was noted as the volume % of metallic fiber rose in the matrix.
- A larger particle size typically indicates a larger thermal conductivity
Abstract: In recent years, FDM technology (Fused Deposition Modelling) has become one of the most widely-used rapid prototyping methods for various applications. This method is based on fused fibre material deposition on a drop-down platform, which offers the opportunity to design and introduce new materials, including composites. The material most commonly used in FDM is ABS, followed by PC, PLA, PPSF, ULTEM9085 and mixtures thereof. Recently, work has been done on the possibility of applying ABS blends: steel powders, aluminium, or even wood ash. Unfortunately, most modern commercial systems are closed, preventing the use of any materials other than those of the manufacturer. For this reason, the Department of Manufacturing Systems (KSW) of AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering And Robotics purchased a 3D printer with feeding material from trays reel, which allows for the use of other materials. In addition, a feedstock production system for the 3D printer has been developed and work has started on the creation of new composite materials utilising ceramics.
Keywords: 3D printing, rapid prototyping, FDM, rapid tooling
- HAP filled nylon polymers have been developed in FDM technology
- Developed customer filament manufacture station (extruder).
- Microstructural and SEM/EDX types analysis are included for reference.
- Coupled with optical microscopy, the determination / confirmation of particle size/type and uniform dispersion can be concluded.
Abstract: Thermal properties—such as thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and specific heat—of metal (copper, zinc, iron, and bronze) powder-filled high-density polyethylene composites are investigated experimentally in the range of filler content 0-24% by volume. Experimental results show a region of low particle content, 0-16% by volume, where the particles are distributed homogeneously in the polymer matrix and do not interact with each other. In this region most of the thermal conductivity models for two-phase systems are applicable. At higher particle content, the filler tends to form agglomerates and conductive chains resulting in a rapid increase in thermal conductivity.
Keywords: Metal-filled polymers, metal fillers, thermal conductivity, high-density polyethylene,
Abstract: This paper explains the fused deposition process and examines the rationale behind the cooling process model. The complexity of the problems and characteristics of fused deposition are outlined. A general formulation for road cooling is presented, followed by results and their implications. The paper concludes with proposed directions for future work. A summary of a discussion of the paper that took place during the first Internet Conference on Rapid Product Development is included.
Keywords: Prototyping, modelling, Process design
- A mathematical model has been developed to investigate the relationship between bonding and cooling of the FDM operation.
- Various build parameters will produce property variation.
- Current models can produce / replicate multilayered scenarios.
Enhanced thermal conductivity of polymer composites filled with hybrid filler[edit | edit source]
Abstract: This study aims at investigating package materials based on polymer matrix for microelectronics. The next generation package materials are expected to possess high heat dissipation capability in addition to low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) as the accumulated heat from high performance electronic devices should be removed for proper operation. In this study, various inorganic fillers including aluminum nitride (AlN), wollastonite, silicon carbide whisker (SiC) and boron nitride (BN) with different shape and size were used alone or in combination to prepare thermally conductive polymer composites. In case of AlN, titanate coupling agent was used for the surface treatment of fillers. The use of hybrid filler was found to be effective in increasing thermal conductivity of the composite probably due to the enhanced connectivity offered by structuring filler with high aspect ratio in hybrid filler. For given filler loading, the use of larger particle and surface treated filler resulted in composite materials with enhanced thermal conductivity. The surface treatment of filler also allowed producing the composites with lower CTE.
Keywords: Hybrid, Thermal process, Powder processing, Thermal properties, Thermal analysis
Abstract: Additive processing technologies are rapidly growing in all fields of application. A large number of scientific publications were investigated in order to provide a comprehensive overview of rapid prototyping methods for polymers and their applications, of currently available materials and research concerning additive processes. The current problems of additive processes are described, together with their potential solutions. Furthermore, this article delivers an insight into possible future trends of additive technologies.
Keywords: 3D-printing, SLS, FDM, extrusion
Abstract: This paper presents an investigation of dynamic mechanical properties of a copper-ABS composite material for possible fused deposition modeling (FDM) feedstock. The material consists of copper powder filled in an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). The detailed formulations of compounding ratio by volume percentage (vol. %) with various combinations of the new polymer matrix composite (PMC) are investigated experimentally. Based on the result obtained, it was found that, increment by vol. % of copper filler ABS affected the storage modules (E’) and tan δ results. The storage modulus and tangent delta increased proportionally with increment of copper filled ABS. It can be observed that, the storage modulus and tangent delta are dependent on the copper filled ABS in the PMC material.
Keywords: Polymer matrix composites, Fused deposition modeling, Dynamic mechanical properties
Predicting, Measuring, and Tailoring the Transverse Thermal Conductivity of Composites from Polymer Matrix and Metal Filler[edit | edit source]
Abstract: The addition of conductive filler in a polymer matrix is an effective way to increase the thermal conductivity of the plastic materials, as required by several industrial applications. All quantitative models for the thermal conductivity of heterogeneous media fail for heavily filled composites. The percolation theory allows good qualitative predictions, thus selecting a range for some qualitative effects on the thermal conductivity, and providing a way to choose a range for some experimental parameters. The design of such composite materials requires a study of its thermal features combined with different mechanical, ecological, safety, technical, and economical restrictions. A specific small guarded hot plate device with an active guard, conductive grease layer, and controlled variable pressure was used for measurement of the transverse thermal conductivity on 15 mm sided samples of composite parts. Extensive thermal and composition measurements on filled thermoplastics show that the conductivity of the filler, its size and shape, and its local amount are, with the degree of previous mixing, the main factors determining the effective conductivity of composites. For injection-molded polybutylene terephtalate plates, the best filler is the short aluminum fiber. With fibers of 0.10 mm diameter, it is possible to obtain conductivities larger by factors of 2, 6, and 10 than those of polymer for aluminum contents of 20, 42, and 43.5 vol%, respectively.
Keywords: Aluminum wire, Filled polymer, Thermal Conductivity, Thermoplastic compound
Development of new metal/polymer materials for rapid tooling using Fused deposition modelling[edit | edit source]
Abstract: This paper presents the development of a new metal/polymer composite material for use in fused deposition modelling (FDM) process with the aim of application to direct rapid tooling. The material consists of iron particles in a nylon type matrix. The detailed formulation and characterisation of the tensile properties of the various combinations of the new composites are investigated experimentally. The feedstock filaments of this composite have been produced and used successfully in the unmodified FDM system for direct rapid tooling of injection moulding inserts. High quality plastic parts have been injection moulded using the inserts. The work represents a major development in reducing the cost and time in rapid tooling.
Keywords: Fused deposition modeling, Rapid prototyping, Composite Strength, Tensile strength, Direct rapid tooling, injection molding
Thermo-Mechanical Properties of a Metal-filled Polymer Composite for Fused Deposition Modelling Applications [edit | edit source]
Abstract: Thermo-mechanical properties of a new metal-polymer composite consisting of an FDMgrade acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) containing 10% fine iron particles by volume have been investigated experimentally. Thermal properties tested include glass transition temperature using Dynamic Thermal Analysis (DTA) and Heat Capacity using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The tensile strength and dynamic mechanical properties have also been tested. It has been shown that the addition of 10% iron powder improves thermal properties and storage modulus of the FDMgrade ABS resulting in more thermally stable prototypes producible on Stratasys FDM300 machine, while tensile strength drops significantly. The feedstock filaments of this composite have been successfully produced and used in the Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) rapid prototyping machine.
Keywords: Fused depositions modeling (FDM), Rapid prototypes, Composite materials, Thermal properties, Tensile Strength
Thermal, mechanical and electrical properties of copper powder filled low-density and linear low-density polyethylene composites[edit | edit source]
Abstract: Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) with different copper contents were prepared by melt mixing. The copper powder particle distributions were found to be relatively uniform at both low and high copper contents. There was cluster formation of copper particles at higher Cu contents, as well as the formation of percolation paths of copper in the PE matrices. The DSC results show that Cu content has little influence on the melting temperatures of LDPE and LLDPE in these composites. From melting enthalpy results it seems as if copper particles act as nucleating agents, giving rise to increased crystallinities of the polyethylene. The thermal stability of the LDPE filled with Cu powder is better than that for the unfilled polymer. The LLDPE composites show better stability only at lower Cu contents. Generally, the composites show poorer mechanical properties (except Young's modulus) compared to the unfilled polymers. The thermal and electrical conductivities of the composites were higher than that of the pure polyethylene matrix for both the LDPE and LLDPE. From these results the percolation concentration was determined as 18.7 vol.% copper for both polymers.
Keywords: PE-Cu composites, Tensile properties, Thermal conductivity, Differential scanning calorimetry, Thermogravmetric analysis
Understanding and Improving the Quality of Inter-Layer Interfaces in FDM 3-D Printing[edit | edit source]
Abstract: We have studied the effect of thermal history and material diffusion on inter-filament bonding in FDM 3D printed parts and developed methods to improve interlayer adhesion in 3D printed samples. The available thermal energy during the FDM print environment was determined quantitatively by tracking the temperature of the bottom most printed layer using a thermocouple attached to the print bed. The role of the thermal history of the filaments during the deposition process on the quality of inter-layer bonding in an FDM ABS part was monitored using a T-peel test and an innovative sample design. Additionally, the interfacial adhesion between 3D printed layers was improved by the addition of a chemical cross-linking agent 4,4′-diaminodiphenylmethane (DADPM). These studies have increased our understanding of the importance of the complex thermal history of a filament in the 3D printing process and its impact on the interfaces that form during the fused deposition modeling print process. Furthermore, the chemical crosslinking process demonstrates a potential method to covalently link layers in FDM printed parts, improving the bulk strength of the part. The insight provided in this work may aid in the development of techniques that can produce FDM parts that could be used as replacement parts in structural applications, or as completely standalone products.
Keywords: FDM, ABS, Interlayer adhesion
Solid freeform fabrication of metal components using fused deposition of metals[edit | edit source]
Abstract: A new hard tooling fabrication technique, named fused deposition of metals (FDMet), to fabricate prototype metal components was investigated. This fabrication is performed directly from a computer-aided design (CAD) file without using molds, dies, or similar tooling. The FDMet process is based on a patented fused deposition modeling (FDM) and fused deposition of ceramics process where a three-dimensional (3D) object is built from a 1.75-mm diameter metal filament fed into a heated extruder head capable of moving in the X–Y direction. The head extrudes controlled and continuous flow of material onto a fixtureless platform capable of moving in the Z-direction. The process from raw material to the final prototype is described. The post processing steps include binder removal of the polymer in the green part and sintering to densify the part. To demonstrate the capability of this technique, several standard samples and hard tooling components such as a wrench and lug fit were fabricated. The accuracy and reproducibility issues are discussed.
Keywords:FDMet; Accuracy; SFF; Reproducibility
Analysis of rapid manufacturing—using layer manufacturing processes for production[edit | edit source]
Abstract:Rapid prototyping (RP) technologies that have emerged over the last 15 years are all based on the principle of creating three-dimensional geometries directly from computer aided design (CAD) by stacking two-dimensional profiles on top of each other. To date most RP parts are used for prototyping or tooling purposes; however, in future the majority may be produced as end-use products. The term ‘rapid manufacturing’ in this context uses RP technologies as processes for the production of end-use products. This paper reports findings from a cost analysis that was performed to compare a traditional manufacturing route (injection moulding) with layer manufacturing processes (stereolithography, fused deposition modelling and laser sintering) in terms of the unit cost for parts made in various quantities. The results show that, for some geometries, it is more economical to use layer manufacturing methods than it is to use traditional approaches for production in the thousands.
Translator disclaimer Intelligent rapid prototyping with fused deposition modelling [edit | edit source]
Abstract:Explains that fused deposition modelling is a rapid prototyping technology by which physical objects are created directly from a CAD model using layer by layer deposition of extruded material. The technology offers the potential of producing parts accurately in a wide range of materials safely and quickly. In using this technology, the designer is often confronted with a host of conflicting options including achieving desired accuracy, optimizing building time and cost and fulfilling functionality requirements. Presents a methodology for resolving these problems through the development of an intelligent rapid prototyping syste integrating distributed blackboard technologies with different knowledge based systems and feature based design technologies.
Abstract:AM offers a new paradigm for engineering design and manufacturing which will have profound geopolitical, economic, demographic, environmental and security implications. AM is perhaps at the point of the earliest development of personal computers or at the beginnings of the Internet and World Wide Web. In those previous cases, there was little if any sense of the game-changing impact and ubiquity of these emerging technologies fifteen to twenty years in the future. But the Internet and PC examples enable us to foresee a significant potential for this new technology, even if only rough outlines of that disruptive future can be sketched at this point. AM could prove to have as profound an impact on the manufacturing world as the PC and the Internet on the information world. It could also provide a step forward in environmental protection and resource productivity. Here we discuss the state of the art, promises, limitations, and policy implications to AM, including how the ability to locally print almost any object could profoundly affect the course of the global economy.
Adding value in additive manufacturing: researchers in the United Kingdom and Europe look to 3D printing for customization.[edit | edit source]
Abstract:Having already made a big impact in the medical sector, three-dimensional (3-D) printing technology continues to push the boundaries of cost efficiency, convenience, and customization. It has transformed some aspects of medical device production. However, expectations of the technology are often exaggerated in the media, so we spoke to leading researchers in the field about its practical applications and what can be expected in the near future.
Abstract:This article examines the characteristics and applications of 3-D printing and compares it with mass customization and other manufacturing processes. 3-D printing enables small quantities of customized goods to be produced at relatively low costs. While currently used primarily to manufacture prototypes and mockups, a number of promising applications exist in the production of replacement parts, dental crowns, and artificial limbs, as well as in bridge manufacturing. 3-D printing has been compared to such disruptive technologies as digital books and music downloads that enable consumers to order their selections online, allow firms to profitably serve small market segments, and enable companies to operate with little or no unsold finished goods inventory. Some experts have also argued that 3-D printing will significantly reduce the advantages of producing small lot sizes in low-wage countries via reduced need for factory workers.
Keywords:3-D printing; Rapid prototyping; Additive manufacturing; Rapid tooling; Digital manufacturing; Bridge manufacturing
Abstract:3D printers are a new technology that creates physical objects from digital files. Uses for these printers include printing models, parts, and toys. 3D printers are also being developed for medical applications, including printed bone, skin, and even complete organs. Although medical printing lags behind other uses for 3D printing, it has the potential to radically change the practice of medicine over the next decade. Falling costs for hardware have made 3D printers an inexpensive technology that libraries can offer their patrons. Medical librarians will want to be familiar with this technology, as it is sure to have wide-reaching effects on the practice of medicine.
Keywords:Additive manufacturing, bio-printing, 3D printers
Abstract:Three-dimensional printing (3DP) represents a relative novel technology in manufacturing which is associated with potentially strong stimuli for sustainable development. Until now, research has merely assessed case study-related potentials of 3DP and described specific aspects of 3DP. This study represents the first comprehensive assessment of 3DP from a global sustainability perspective. It contains a qualitative assessment of 3DP-induced sustainability implications and quantifies changes in life cycle costs, energy and CO2 emissions globally by 2025.
3DP is identified to cost-effectively lower manufacturing inputs and outputs in markets with low volume, customized and high-value production chains as aerospace and medical component manufacturing. This lowers energy use, resource demands and related CO2 emissions over the entire product life cycle, induces changes in labour structures and generates shifts towards more digital and localized supply chains.
The model calculations show that 3DP contains the potential to reduce costs by 170–593 billion US $, the total primary energy supply by 2.54–9.30 EJ and CO2 emissions by 130.5–525.5 Mt by 2025. The great range within the saving potentials can be explained with the immature state of the technology and the associated uncertainties of predicting market and technology developments. The energy and CO2 emission intensities of industrial manufacturing are reducible by maximally 5% through 3DP by 2025, as 3DP remains a niche technology. If 3DP was applicable to larger production volumes in consumer products or automotive manufacturing, it contains the (theoretical) potential to absolutely decouple energy and CO2 emission from economic activity.
Keywords:3D printing; Costs; TPES; CO2 emissions; Life cycle; Industrial manufacturing
Mechanical properties of components fabricated with open-source 3-D printers under realistic environmental conditions[edit | edit source]
Abstract:The recent development of the RepRap, an open-source self-replicating rapid prototyper, has made 3-D polymer-based printers readily available to the public at low costs ( < $500). The resultant uptake of 3-D printing technology enables for the first time mass-scale distributed digital manufacturing. RepRap variants currently fabricate objects primarily from acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polylactic acid (PLA), which have melting temperatures low enough to use in melt extrusion outside of a dedicated facility, while high enough for prints to retain their shape at average use temperatures. In order for RepRap printed parts to be useful for engineering applications the mechanical properties of printed parts must be known. This study quantifies the basic tensile strength and elastic modulus of printed components using realistic environmental conditions for standard users of a selection of open-source 3-D printers. The results find average tensile strengths of 28.5 MPa for ABS and 56.6 MPa for PLA with average elastic moduli of 1807 MPa for ABS and 3368 MPa for PLA. It is clear from these results that parts printed from tuned, low-cost, open-source RepRap 3-D printers can be considered as mechanically functional in tensile applications as those from commercial vendors. Keywords:
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