Mobile telecommunication[edit | edit source]
The newest of mobile telecommunication technology is the fourth generation (4G). Apart from the usual voice and other services 3G, it provides mobile broadband internet access, for example to laptops with wireless modems, to smartphones, and to other mobile devices. Potential and current applications include amended mobile web access, IP telephony, gaming services, high-definition mobile TV, video conferencing, 3D television, and cloud computing.
With the developments that have taken place in the field of mobile technology, the scope of conference calling in businesses has also gained unprecedented momentum. Some of these applications facilitating mobile communication exclusive of any spatial or temporal boundaries include GotoMeeting, Mobileday, Agenday and MeetingMogul
Smart Devices and Environments[edit | edit source]
Smartphones[edit | edit source]
Technology is always in development and so is the phone industry. With the mass adoption of feature phones the market has been saturated and people's needs evolved in time. The American company Apple Inc. noticed that and introduced the original iPhone in 2007. Though it was not the first of it's kind it became a milestone in the development of mobile communication devices. Features such as a capacitive touchscreen changed the way of interacting with the device because it is more responsive and enables much faster and precise user input compared to resistive touchscreen technologies. With the original iPhone having a much larger display than feature phones at the time the users were able to see more content on the screen such as websites and other multimedia contents.
For a few months the iPhone had no real competitor but the company Google Inc. saw their opportunity in entering the market of mobile phones. With the introduction of the Android OS the Apple iPhone had its first serious competitor on the market. One substantial difference between the iPhone and its operating system iOS and the Android OS is the fact that Android OS is partially open source and generally free to use for phone manufactures. The iOS operating system on the other hand is a closed source product which is only installed on products sold by Apple Inc. such as the iPhone, iPod touch and iPad.
Today, smartphones are widely used in every part of the world. By the end of 2014 1.75b people are expected to use smartphones. The market is dominated by iOS and Android OS but Google's OS has a bigger share (about 75%) because there are also cheap phones running Android OS while Apple's products are very expensive.
Tablets[edit | edit source]
It seems to me that tablets have become a new category itself, just as how we distinguish smartphones from laptops and desktops. If you want to position tablets into this group, it probably falls between smartphones and laptops. With the portability of a smartphone but the functionality of a laptop, tablets seem to serve users with top-notch on-the-go entertainment. The tablet screen is large enough to enjoy a movie on, yet the tablets are light enough for you to carry around.
Entertainment aside, one benefit of the tablet is the option for a good sketching, either with a good stylus pen or just with your fingers. In other words, it can afford the user more artistic freedom than the standard laptops can. Smartphones are pretty limiting due to its screen size, which fundamentally rules out the possibility of drafting and other similar activities. Tablets are also great tools to jot down any ad hoc detail or idea, and they allow the user to share almost anything instantly without reproducing the text, photo or picture, making it a very convenient tool for designers.
In terms of organizational capabilities, tablets make it easier for you to manage your life: your finances, schedules, reviews, etc. Again, smartphones are absolutely restricting in that sense due to its screen size, although they are great in providing useful reminders for your daily chores.
Smartwatches[edit | edit source]
Like the feature phone developed into a smartphone, smart watches are an evolution in the functions and capabilities of traditional watches. A substantial difference between smartphones and smartwatches is that you wear watches usually on your wrist so you see it the whole time. For many people it is also an accessories. Most smartwatches are a companion to the smartphone or tablet which send the information that should be displayed over Bluetooth 4.0 Low Energy or wireless LAN. Google Inc. introduced their operating system for watches in 2014 called Android Wear. It is compatible with smartphones running Android OS 4.3 Jelly Bean and above. Are variety of models is available from companies like LG, Motorola, Asus and Sony etc. Features include seeing notifications from your phone and interacting with them and the voice search with Google Now. Smartwatches are also used as a companion for activities like running and cycling among others and many of Google's Android Wear watches offer a pedometer and GPS to track your activities. Some of them even offer a heart rate monitor. In September 2014, Apple Inc. introduced the Watch which will be available for purchase in early 2015. Compared to other smartwatches on the market it is more of a fashion accessories while offering the same functionality as the ones.
Smart Homes & Connected Living[edit | edit source]
Smart Home includes all technical procedures and systems in the home. The goal is an increase of living and quality of life, safety and efficient use of energy. This is achieved through the intelligent integration of home automation, home appliances and entertainment media.
Some scientist warn for problems and high security holes in Smart homes because there a many projection where hacker can access unauthorized and take over control of the home system. Then they are able to collect more personal information than anybody else know about the owner. Another point is if attacker have a connection to the network of the victim he can be used as a base for attacks on other devices such as laptops, mobile phones.
Wearable Technologies[edit | edit source]
Is a device that brings rich text and notifications as well as other information straight to your eyes. Its various functions are activated via voice command.
At CES 2014, wearable technology was a popular topic, and the event was coined the "The Wearables, Appliances, Cars, and Bendable TVs Show" by many industry influencers.  Several wearable products that were showcased include Smart watches, SmartBands, Smart Jewelry, glasses, and earbuds. Valencell PerformTek technology powered many of the new products unveiled at the show, including the iriverON earbuds, which provide users with the most accurate and comprehensive health and fitness metrics through the ear. The iriverON requires no bracelet to wear or dongle to clip on; users just monitor their heart rate, distance, cadence, speed, and calories burned while listening to music.
Networks[edit | edit source]
History[edit | edit source]
- 1960: AT&T designed its Dataphone, the first commercial modem
- 1964: The commercial airline reservation system (SABRE) went online. Using telephone lines, SABRE linked 2,000 terminals in 65 cities to a pair of IBM 7090 computers
- 1965: Thomas Marill and Lawrence G. Roberts created the first wide area network (WAN).
- 1966: John van Geen of the Stanford Research Institute vastly improved the acoustically coupled modem. His receiver reliably detected bits of data despite background noise heard over long-distance phone lines.
- 1969: The University of California at Los Angeles, the Stanford Research Institute, the University of California at Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah were connected as the beginning of the ARPANET network using 50 kbit/s circuits.
- 1971: Ray Tomlinson of the research firm Bolt, Beranek and Newman sent the first e-mail when he was supposed to be working on a different project.
- 1972: Commercial services using X.25 were deployed, and later used as an underlying infrastructure for expanding TCP/IP networks.
- 1973: Robert Metcalfe wrote a formal memo at Xerox PARC describing Ethernet. In July 1976, Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs published their paper "Ethernet: Distributed Packet Switching for Local Computer Networks" and collaborated on several patents received in 1977 and 1978. In 1979, Robert Metcalfe pursued making Ethernet an open standard.
- 1974: Telenet, the first commercial packet-switching network and civilian equivalent of ARPANET, was born.
- 1976: John Murphy of Datapoint Corporation created ARCNET, a token-passing network first used to share storage devices.
- 1983: The ARPANET splits into the ARPANET and MILNET.
- 1988: Robert Morris´ worm flooded the ARPANET. Then-23-year-old Morris, the son of a computer security expert for the National Security Agency, sent a nondestructive worm through the Internet, causing problems for about 6,000 of the 60,000 hosts linked to the network.
- 1990: The World Wide Web was born when Tim Berners-Lee developed HyperText Markup Language.
- 1995: The transmission speed capacity for Ethernet was increased from 10 Mbit/s to 100 Mbit/s. By 1998, Ethernet supported transmission speeds of a Gigabit. The ability of Ethernet to scale easily (such as quickly adapting to support new fiber optic cable speeds) is a contributing factor to its continued use today.
Properties[edit | edit source]
Network packet[edit | edit source]
Network topology[edit | edit source]
Network links[edit | edit source]
- Twisted pair wire is the most widely used medium for all telecommunication. Twisted-pair cabling consist of copper wires that are twisted into pairs.Computer network cabling (wired Ethernet as defined by IEEE 802.3) consists of 4 pairs of copper cabling that can be utilized for both voice and data transmission. The use of two wires twisted together helps to reduce crosstalk and electromagnetic induction. The transmission speed ranges from 2 million bits per second to 10 billion bits per second.
- Coaxial cable is widely used for cable television systems, office buildings, and other work-sites for local area networks. The cables consist of copper or aluminum wire surrounded by an insulating layer, which itself is surrounded by a conductive layer. The insulation helps minimize interference and distortion. Transmission speed ranges from 200 million bits per second to more than 500 million bits per second.
- Optical fiber is a glass fiber. It carries pulses of light that represent data. Some advantages of optical fibers over metal wires are very low transmission loss and immunity from electrical interference. Optical fibers can simultaneously carry multiple wavelengths of light, which greatly increases the rate that data can be sent, and helps enable data rates of up to trillions of bits per second. Optic fibers can be used for long runs of cable carrying very high data rates, and are used for undersea cables to interconnect continents.
- Terrestrial microwave communication uses Earth-based transmitters and receivers resembling satellite dishes. Terrestrial microwaves are in the low-gigahertz range, which limits all communications to line-of-sight. Relay stations are spaced approximately 48 km apart.
- Satellites communicate via microwave radio waves, which are not deflected by the Earth's atmosphere. The satellites are stationed in space, typically in geosynchronous orbit 35,400 km above the equator. These Earth-orbiting systems are capable of receiving and relaying voice, data, and TV signals.
- Cellular and PCS systems use several radio communications technologies. The systems divide the region covered into multiple geographic areas. Each area has a low-power transmitter or radio relay antenna device to relay calls from one area to the next area.
- Radio and spread spectrum technologies – Wireless local area networks use a high-frequency radio technology similar to digital cellular and a low-frequency radio technology. Wireless LANs use spread spectrum technology to enable communication between multiple devices in a limited area. IEEE 802.11 defines a common flavor of open-standards wireless radio-wave technology known as Wifi.
- Free-space optical communication uses visible or invisible light for communications. In most cases, line-of-sight propagation is used, which limits the physical positioning of communicating devices.
Network nodes[edit | edit source]
Network structure[edit | edit source]
Communication protocols[edit | edit source]
Ethernet[edit | edit source]
Internet Protocol Suite[edit | edit source]
SONET/SDH[edit | edit source]
Asynchronous Transfer Mode[edit | edit source]
Geographic scale[edit | edit source]
A network can be characterized by its physical capacity or its organizational purpose. Use of the network, including user authorization and access rights, differ accordingly.
- Personal area network
- Local area network
- Home area network
- Storage area network
- Campus area network
- Backbone network
- Metropolitan area network
- Wide area network
- Enterprise private network
- Virtual private network
- Global area network