Cloud Computing[edit | edit source]

How was the idea cloud created[edit | edit source]

If you talk about the the internet, the internet is often metaphorically depicted as a cloud. Programmer which design software always draw a cloud to present the internet in their handout. In many programs for network-simulation, the internet is simulated with a cloud as well. That's the way how the term „cloud" was developed.

History of the idea Cloud[edit | edit source]

The Cloud came into being by big companies such as Google, Amazon or Yahoo. These companies have built huge and expensive server farms, in order to serve the high number of customers at peak load times (eg the Christmas season for Amazon),

The effort and storage capacity was unnecessary and not usual for a normal day, so they started the company to be brought to the outside for rent.

What is the meaning of cloud computing[edit | edit source]

As Cloud Computing is in use, data or applications are loaded from a computer into the internet. The data will be stored on one or more servers of the current provider. From there, the customers are able to access the files and applications any time from any internet enabled device ((eg, laptop or smartphone). Also there are other authorized users who can access it.

The three product models of the Cloud[edit | edit source]

There are three different product models of the Cloud which exist:

Infrastructure (IaaS)[edit | edit source]

The infrastructure of the Cloud is rent by the provider for the whole infrastructure which referrers to all virtual servers( eg "Amazon Elastic Copute Clous (EC2)).

Platform as a Service (PaaS)[edit | edit source]

The "Platform as a Service" is basically conceived for developers. The provider does not produce a program for the end user, but a whole working environment (eg Windows Azure or the App Engine from Google). The infrastructure here is arranged by the provider himself, so the developers can concentrate on programming.

Software as a service (IaaS)[edit | edit source]

The "Software as a service" is a program, which is not purchased or has to be installed by the customers. It is only available for hire.

Examples for clouds[edit | edit source]

E-Mail[edit | edit source]

Everybody who does not write or obtain their e-mails via a program as Outlook or Thunderbird, but in online-services, uses cloud-computing.

Social Networking[edit | edit source]

Social networks like Facebook, LinkedIn or Twitter are all cloud computing services.

Online-Store[edit | edit source]

In services like Dropbox, you can upload your data into the cloud and access to it from any internet enabled device.

Pictures[edit | edit source]

There are a lot of clouds for photos. Most common are the services Flickr and Picasa Web Albums. With this program everybody can show his selected images to friends. In addition there is the opportunity to edit photos with the integrated software Picnik online.

Online-banking[edit | edit source]

Online banking has long been a cloud computing service.

Music[edit | edit source]

There do also exist many other cloud-computing services. Napster offers is music portal to listen to music and create playlists.



Advantages and disadvantages of cloud-computing[edit | edit source]

Advantages[edit | edit source]

  • data and applications which are stored in the Cloud are able to access anytime from any internet enabled device
  • even with an old computer or with a phone you can store huge data or run applications with high demands
  • the founder of any companies do not need to purchase expensive infrastructure
  • companies have cost advantages:
-> there are no maintenance costs
-> there are no electricity costs which they have to pay for current servers
-> the software does not need to be bought, it can be rent according to
-> establishment costs are eliminated
  • the software is always up to date
  • the software only has to be set up once
  • working together is more simply because every data can be opened from every colleague
  • Cloud-computing is future-proof

Disadvantages[edit | edit source]

  • only works with an internet connection
  • fast internet is an requirement
  • the companies are depending on the Cloud providers
  • the application can be slower than the local computer, because the connection between the Cloud and the workstation needs more time

Gaming Technology[edit | edit source]

The Gaming Technology has been constantly improved. The first "Gaming-System" was so big, it needed a whole room to fit, just to play PONG. Compared to the Technology we have today it is nothing, but then again in a couple of decades we will most probably be able to enter the games themselfs in a virtual reality.

3D Printing[edit | edit source]

The 3D printing is a process of making three dimensional solid objects from a digital file. Such objects can be shapes or geometric figures made of plastic or metal. A 3D print based on complex procedures. Frequently additive processes are used, in which successive layers of material are laid down under computer control.

Process[edit | edit source]

In order to create an three dimensional object with a 3D printer a 3D model of the object is needed. This 3D model can be created with a 3D modeling programm or by using a 3D scanner. To prepare the file of the object for printing software is needed, which diviedes the model in a lot horizontal layers. after this the printer is able to create the object by blending the different layers together.

Methods[edit | edit source]

Fused deposition modeling (FDM)[edit | edit source]

This technology uses a movable nozzel, which dispenses melted plastic or metal to form layers. The used material comes in the form of string or wire. The dispensed material solidifies immediately. The used software is able to generate supporting structures if needed. These supporting structures are made of a different material and can be removed after completing the printinge process.

Stereolithography (SLA)[edit | edit source]

This Method uses a liquid resin which can be solidified with a ultraviolet laser. Each layer is made by curing the surface of the resin with a laser beam connecting it to the previously made layer. After each layer the platform onto which the layers are made is submerged deeper into the resin to cover it with new liquid resin.

Holography[edit | edit source]

Holograms are three-dimensional images. The creation of such an images involes the use of laser, interference, diffraction, light intensity recording as well as the suitable illumination of the recording. The field of holography started in 1971 when the physicist Dennis Gabor got the Nobel Prize in Physics as he invented and developed the holographic method. As the laser developed the projection of 3D objects became possible. In the former Soviet Union by Yuri Denisyuk and in the USA by Emmett Leith and Juris Upatnieks. Over the time, different forms of holograms were created. One of those is the transmission hologram which can be viewed through shining lasers. Those lasers reconsturct the source. Another form of the holograms is the specular hologaphy. This form of holography allows three-dimensonal images which can be produced due to reflectively or refractively manipulating light ray bundles. Currently holograph only allows the static replication of objects but the work on moving holograms is already in progress.

The holographic display - 3D images[edit | edit source]

Holograms can touch promise researchers at the University of Tokyo with her "Airborne Ultrasound Tactile Display", which they presented at the conference Siggraph. It is three-dimensional images in free space, which give to the touch tactile feedback.

The researchers led by Takayuki Hoshi use the holographic display of Holo commission, the images projected on an LCD using a concave mirror, so that they act as if they were hovering around 30 cm in front of the display.

They combine the display with the Airborne Ultrasound Tactile Display, which they presented last year at the Siggraph already. It can project tactile feedback in space by exploiting an ultrasound phenomenon: Acoustic Radiation Pressure. In this way one can exert specific pressure on objects by means of wavelength synthesis.

The prototype used has to over 324 ultrasound transducers operating at a resonant frequency of 40 KHz. Delay and amplitude of each converter can be controlled individually and then set focus points and move in three-dimensional space. Thus, a pressure of 1.6 gf (gram-force) to be generated in a focus region of 20 mm diameter.

To determine where the user's hand is, the researchers use two Wii Remotes or rather the built-in infrared camera combined with a reflective marker on the middle finger of the hand of the user. Since the scene is illuminated by infra-red light, the position of the hand in three-dimensional space can be determined in that way and the mapping of image and tactile feedback can be adjusted accordingly.

The scientists see a range of applications for the technique in video gaming and in the area of computer-aided design (CAD). As a demonstration, they show holographic raindrops that drop down noticeably on a hand, as well as the animation of a small animal that is running across the hand.

Virtual Reality[edit | edit source]

Virtual Reality (VR) is an experience in which a person is "surrounded by a three-dimensional computer-generated representation, and is able to move around in the virtual world and see it from different angles, to reach into it, grab it, and reshape it."[1]

Virtaul Reality Group from RWTH-Aachen

Multi-sensory experience[edit | edit source]

While most current VR systems are mainly a visual experience, research has been done in the last years to expand the current systems into fields like sound (mostly surround sound), haptic (also know n as ForceFeedback) or more exotic fields like smell, taste etc.

The simulated environment can be very similar to the real world, like in military flight simulators, but every environment is currently limited by processing power, image resolution or communication bandwidth bottlenecks.

A very well known project, called the CAVE (CAVE Automatic Virtual Environment) - which is also present in the labs at the RWTH Aachen - has been around since 1992, using stereoscopic displays, head tracking, projection paradigms and real-time image manipulation to achieve a VR system which provides real-time viewer-centered head-tracking perspective with a large angle of view, interactive control and a binocular display.

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