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Recycled PLA Filament for Concrete Aggregate Literature Review
| By Michigan Tech's Open Sustainability Technology Lab.
Wanted: Students to make a distributed future with solar-powered open-source 3-D printing.
- 1 Background
- 2 Literature
- 2.1 Mechanical properties of polymer concrete made with recycled PET and recycled concrete aggregates
- 2.2 Polymer concrete; Recycled PET; Recycled aggregate; Mechanical properties; Stress–strain curve 
- 2.3 Influence of Recycled Aggregate on Interfacial Transition Zone, Strength, Chloride Penetration and Carbonation of Concrete 
- 3 References
This page is dedicated to the literature review of utilizing recycled polylactic-acid (PLA) FFF filament for application as a lightweight concrete aggregate.
Mechanical properties of polymer concrete made with recycled PET and recycled concrete aggregates
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to solve some of the solid waste problems posed by plastics and concrete demolition. To this end, we evaluated the mechanical properties of polymer concrete, in particular, polymer concrete made of unsaturated polyester resins from recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic waste and recycled concrete aggregates. The strength and the resistances to acid and alkali compounds of the polymer concrete were measured by varying the coarse and fine aggregate ratio and resin content. Three main observations followed the results. First, we found that the strength of polymer concrete made with a resin based on recycled PET and recycled aggregate increases with increasing resin content; however, beyond a certain resin content, the strength does not change appreciably. Second, the stress–strain curves of polymer concretes with 100% natural aggregate and 100% recycled aggregate exhibited different failure mechanisms of the compressed materials. Third, with respect to acid resistance, the polymer concrete at a resin content of 9% was nearly unaffected by HCl, whereas the polymer concrete with 100% recycled aggregate showed poor acid resistance. Unlike acid, alkali compounds did not seem to attack the polymer concrete with 100% recycled aggregate as observed from the weight change and the compressive strength.
Keywords: Polymer concrete; Recycled PET; Recycled aggregate; Mechanical properties; Stress–strain curve
Polymer concrete; Recycled PET; Recycled aggregate; Mechanical properties; Stress–strain curve 
Abstract: Industrial activities in Iraq are associated with significant amounts of non-biodegradable solid waste, waste plastic being among the most prominent. This study involved 86 experiments and 254 tests to determine the efficiency of reusing waste plastic in the production of concrete. Thirty kilograms of waste plastic of fabriform shapes was used as a partial replacement for sand by 0%, 10%, 15%, and 20% with 800 kg of concrete mixtures. All of the concrete mixtures were tested at room temperature. These tests include performing slump, fresh density, dry density, compressive strength, flexural strength, and toughness indices. Seventy cubes were molded for compressive strength and dry density tests, and 54 prisms were cast for flexural strength and toughness indices tests. Curing ages of 3, 7, 14, and 28 days for the concrete mixtures were applied in this work. The results proved the arrest of the propagation of micro cracks by introducing waste plastic of fabriform shapes to concrete mixtures. This study insures that reusing waste plastic as a sand-substitution aggregate in concrete gives a good approach to reduce the cost of materials and solve some of the solid waste problems posed by plastics.
Influence of Recycled Aggregate on Interfacial Transition Zone, Strength, Chloride Penetration and Carbonation of Concrete 
Abstract: This study is conducted (1) to examine the influence of recycled aggregate on interfacial transition zone (ITZ), strength, chloride penetration, and carbonation of concrete, and (2) to propose a method for improving strength, chloride penetration, and carbonation resistances of concrete using recycled aggregates. Five types of recycled aggregate, and four levels of water-binder ratio are used in this study. The recycled aggregate concrete is evaluated according to compressive strength, tensile strength, chloride penetration depth, and carbonation depth. The characteristics of ITZs in recycled aggregate concrete are also measured and used to explain the influence of recycled aggregate on the mentioned properties. Additionally, the double-mixing method for improving strength, chloride penetration, and carbonation resistances of recycled aggregate concrete is evaluated in this study.
Keywords: civil engineering, recycling, concrete, aggregation, chlorine compounds, carbon compounds, mechanical strength
- Jo, Byung-Wan, Seung-Kook Park, and Jong-Chil Park. "Mechanical properties of polymer concrete made with recycled PET and recycled concrete aggregates." Construction and Building Materials 22, no. 12 (2008): 2281-2291.
- Ismail, Zainab Z., and Enas A. Al-Hashmi. "Use of waste plastic in concrete mixture as aggregate replacement." Waste Management 28, no. 11 (2008): 2041-2047.
- Otsuki, N., Miyazato, S., and Yodsudjai, W. (2003). "Influence of Recycled Aggregate on Interfacial Transition Zone, Strength, Chloride Penetration and Carbonation of Concrete." J. Mater. Civ. Eng., 10.1061/(ASCE)0899-1561(2003)15:5(443), 443-451.