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Photodetector packaging literature review

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Search terms[edit]

  • 3d printing electronics package
  • photodiode package / photodetector package
  • photodiode plastic package
  • photodiode ceramic package
  • ceramic chip carrier photodiode durability
  • electronics packaging enviromental test
  • photodiode package moisture test

Articles[edit]

N. Sinnadurai, Plastic Packaging is Highly Reliable, IEEE Transactions on Reliability, Vol 45, No 2, 184, 1996[edit]

  • Moisture sensors packaged in plastic
  • Dry heat with bias and damp heat with bias (need to pass both tests)
  • Heremtic packages had no lifetime advantage over plastic
  • Gel-coated stable after 6000h damp-heat

L. Henry. SSB-1: Guidelines for Using Plastic Encapsulated Microcircuits and Semiconductors in Military, Aerospace and Other Rugged Applications Proceedings of DMSMS conference 2000[edit]

  • Temperature cycling test: extreme temperatrue variations cycled
    • Failure mechanisms: die cracking, voids in die attach, package fracture/crack, wirebond pad cratering, poor solder joints
  • Autoclaive (HAST)
    • Measures resistance to moisture penetration and galvanic corrosion
  • Temperature humidity bias
    • Constant temperature, elevated humidity and electrical bias
    • Electrolytic/galvanic corrosion, delamination, and crack propagation
    • Modern packages too good, takes 1000s of hours
  • Highly accelerated stress test
    • High temperature (130C), high humidity (85%) and high atmosperic pressure (up to 3 atm)
    • Precipitates falire mechanisms related to metallization corrosion, delamination, wirebond failure and reduced insulation resistance
    • Precipitates mechansims not seen during normal operation

K. Gilleo et. al. Thermoplastic Injection Molding: New Packages and 3D Circuits Proceedings of the 10th Electronic Circuit World Convention, Anaheim, USA. 2005[edit]

  • Epoxies don't melt after curing
  • Injection molding can do tens of thousands of packages/hour
  • Molds expensive
  • Laser welding for sealing
  • Metal coating on plastic hermetic?

Y. Li and C.P. Wong, Recent advances of conductive adhesives as a lead-free alternative in electronic packaging: Materials, processing, reliability and applications, Materials Science and Engineering R 51 1–35, 2006[edit]

  • Adhesive should impart thermal stress and conduct heat from die to substrate
  • Stress from non-uniform attachment can crack die due to stress
  • Outgasing maybe problem
  • Popcorn cracking in large chips
  • Silver migration due to humidity
  • Rough surface increases adhesion


M. Gosavi Reliability testing and modeling of linear image sensor devices, PhD. thesis, State University of New York at Binghamton, 2007.[edit]

  • Plastic package failure rate 0.05 per million device hours in 1990
  • PEM = plastic encapsulated microcircuit
  • Wirebond failure occurs usually in temeprature cycling
  • Soldering can vaporize moisture in package and expand cracks
  • Qualitative tests used to determine failure modes, do not quantify reliability
  • Quantitative tests give lifetime data
  • Accelerated thermal cycling test
    • Induces thermo-mechanical stresses into package
    • -40C to 125C, 800 cycles, >1h/cycle
  • Temperature-humidity-bias stress test
    • Combines temperature, humidity and bias
    • Duration 1000 h, at 85C, 85% RH, 5.5V bias
    • Induce corrosion
  • High temperature operating test (HTOL)
    • Operation at maximum power level at elevated temperature
  • Test duration 2000h at +125C adn 5.5V bias
  • Weibull distribution useful in reliability studies
  • Failure rate expresswed as FITs => 1FIT = 1 ppm failure in 1000h
  • MTTF and MTBF also used, MTTF = mean time to failure, MTBF = mean time between failures
  • JEDEC = joint electronic device engineering council
  • Analysis of failed samples: retest, optical inspection, X-ray microscopy, SAM, leak test, cross-section
  • Package put into heated liquid -> bubbles generated at leak location
  • Dye penetration test = package covered in fluorescent dye and then observed under low illumination -> dye glows
  • SAM (scanning acoustic microscopy) detect defects, cracks etc.


T. Tekin, Review of Packaging of Optoelectronic, Photonic, and MEMS Components, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, VOL. 17, NO. 3, MAY/JUNE 2011[edit]

  • Wire bonding most flexible and cost-effective
  • Hermetic TO-cans for photodetectors
  • Mechanical interface described by tensile strength, shear strength, and fatique endurance
  • Thermomechanical load due to different CTEs