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01:11Reassessment and Transport
|Practice and get comfortable with the Naloxone Administration Skills Lab|
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EMS Jump Bag|
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In the prehospital setting, Naloxone (sold under the brand name Narcan among others) is administered by the EMT via intranasal spray to reverse the life threatening physiologic effects of opioid overdose. It is commonly used to counter decreased breathing and Altered Level of Consciousness (ALOC). During the primary assessment for altered mental status, if respiratory depression is a risk to life, it must be addressed before moving on.
Signs and symptoms of life threatening opioid overdose:
- Decreased level of consciousness
- Pinpoint pupils (presence should increase your index of suspicion for opioids)
- Respiratory depression (slowed or completely halted)
Administration[edit | edit source]
In most US counties, EMTs may administer Naloxone under standing medical direction, in others it may require express direction. Always follow your own county protocols. If possible, gather a targeted history from bystanders/family, observe for local evidence or physical evidence such as pinpoint pupils which should increase your suspicion of opioid overdose.
There are two devices that the EMT can administer Naloxone. The method discussed here is widely used in most EMS systems, including Santa Clara County. The other device is a preloaded syringe that needs to be assembled and have a MAD Nasal™ Intranasal Mucosal Atomization Device connected to the syringe. The steps below are done with either device, with the exception of the amount of medicine administered into each nostril. Be sure to follow your EMS Protocols with either device used in your system.
- Check the "Five Rights" of delivering medications
- Right Patient: Naloxone is indicated if there is reasonable suspicion that the respiratory depression is a result of opioids. Naloxone has little to no effect if opioids are not present. Naloxone is only contraindicated in patients known to be hypersensitive to naloxone. The presence of pinpoint pupils is not an indication for Naloxone without life threatening respiratory depression or ALOC.
- Right Drug: Naloxone works by replacing opioids at the nervous system's receptors without activating them, reversing the depression of the central nervous system and respiratory system caused by opioids.
- Right Dosage: 4mg (note: Paramedics using IM injection and other routes of administration start with a dose of 0.4 to 0.5 mg)
- Right Route: Intranasal (IN) spray
- Right Date: Ensure the medication is not expired.
- Right Documentation: Although not always included when discussing the "Rights" is still considered important to remember.
- Lay patient on their back, tilt the head back, and provide support under the neck with your hand.
- Inspect nostrils for significant blood or mucous or other blockage and clear if necessary.
- Hold the NARCAN delivery device with your thumb on the bottom of the plunger and first and middle fingers on either side of the nozzle and gently insert tip of nozzle into one nostril until fingers on either side of the nozzle are against the bottom of the person's nose.
- Press the plunger firmly to give the dose of NARCAN Nasal Spray, remove the device and dispose of properly
- Following administration, continue to provide supportive care and treat for shock or initiate BLS procedures if indicated, and request an ALS Unit if not done previously
- Transport immediately and document 4.0 ml of naloxone delivered (IN) at (time) on the PCR.
Patient Monitoring[edit | edit source]
The onset of naloxone can take up to 2 minutes and the effects of naloxone may last from about 30 seconds to 24 hours. Effects can include:
- Agitation and/or belligerence
- Tremor, seizures, sweating
- Hypertension, hypotension
- Tachycardia, pulmonary edema, and cardiac fibrillation.
Evaluate your patient's response to naloxone administration including:
Take another set of vital signs and reassess every 15 minutes if the patient is stable, every 5 if they are not. Monitor:
- Respiratory status - rate, tidal volume, lung sounds. Perform rescue breathing if indicated.
- Cardiovascular status - pulse, blood pressure. Start CPR if indicated.
- Mental state. If the person does not respond by waking up, to voice or touch, or breathing normally another dose may be given.
NARCAN Nasal Spray may be dosed every 2 to 3 minutes, if available, until the person responds or emergency medical help is received. Multiple doses may be required, or transport to more definitive management as the duration of action of most opioids is greater than that of naloxone.