Mushroom technology

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Fungal functional ecology: bringing a trait-based approach to plant-associated fungi[edit | edit source]

Amy E. Zanne1,∗ , Kessy Abarenkov2, Michelle E. Afkhami3, Carlos A. Aguilar-Trigueros4, Scott Bates5, Jennifer M. Bhatnagar6, Posy E. Busby7, Natalie Christian8,9, William K. Cornwell10, Thomas W. Crowther11, Habacuc Flores-Moreno12, Dimitrios Floudas13, Romina Gazis14, David Hibbett15, Peter Kennedy16, Daniel L. Lindner17, Daniel S. Maynard11, Amy M. Milo1, Rolf Henrik Nilsson18, Jeff Powell19, Mark Schildhauer20, Jonathan Schilling16 and Kathleen K. Treseder21 "[1]"

ABSTRACT Fungi play many essential roles in ecosystems. They facilitate plant access to nutrients and water, serve as decay agents that cycle carbon and nutrients through the soil, water and atmosphere, and are major regulators of macro-organismal populations. Although technological advances are improving the detection and identification of fungi, there still exist key gaps in our ecological knowledge of this kingdom, especially related to function. Trait-based approaches have been instrumental in strengthening our understanding of plant functional ecology and, as such, provide excellent models for deepening our understanding of fungal functional ecology in ways that complement insights gained from traditional and -omics-based techniques. In this review, we synthesize current knowledge of fungal functional ecology, taxonomy and systematics and introduce a novel database of fungal functional traits (FunFun). FunFun is built to interface with other

Bioremediation[edit | edit source]

Leila Darwish "[2]"

  • microbrial remediation
  • phytoremediation
  • mycoremediation
  • disaster response

Mycoremediation[edit | edit source]

Earth Repair - Leila Darwish "[3]"

  • Many different applications
  • Mycobales for filtration
  • inoculated burlap sacs for remediation

Mycofiltration for Urban Storm Water Treatment Receives EPA Research and Development Funding[edit | edit source]

Paul Stamets "[4]"

  • mushroom technology to filter contaminants out of water
  • mycofiltration, coined by Paul Stamets
  • low cost solution

Permaculture with a Mycological Twist[edit | edit source]

Paul Stamets "[5]"

  • biodynamics of permaculture
  • mushrooms to integrate on the farm
  • benefits of mushrooms in the garden

Biodynamic Principles and Practices[edit | edit source]


  • living organism
  • regenerative solutions
  • in-tune with rhythm of earth

Delivery systems for mycotechnologies, mycofiltration and mycoremediation[edit | edit source]

Author: Paul Stamets "[7]"
Abstract The present invention utilizes fungal spore mass or hyphal fragments in burlap bags or sacks filled with biodegradable materials. The fungi may include saprophytic fungi, including gourmet and medicinal mushrooms, mycorrhizal fungi, entomopathogenic fungi, parasitic fungi and fungi imperfecti. The fungi function as keystone species, delivering benefits to both the microsphere and biosphere. Such fungal delivery systems are useful for purposes including ecological rehabilitation and restoration, preservation and improvement of habitats, bioremediation of toxic wastes and polluted sites, filtration of agricultural, mine and urban runoff, improvement of agricultural yields and control of biological organisms.

Mycoremediation (bioremediation with fungi) – growing mushrooms to clean the earth[edit | edit source]

Christopher J. Rhodes "[8]"
Abstract Some of the prospects of using fungi, principally white-rot fungi, for cleaning contaminated land are surveyed. That white-rot fungi are so effective in degrading a wide range of organic molecules is due to their release of extra-cellular lignin-modifying enzymes, with a low substrate-specificity, so they can act upon various molecules that are broadly similar to lignin. The enzymes present in the system employed for degrading lignin include lignin-peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP), various H2O2 producing enzymes and laccase. The degradation can be augmented by adding carbon sources such as sawdust, straw and corn cob at polluted sites.

Mushroom cultivation in the circular economy[edit | edit source]

Daniel Grimm1 & Han A. B. Wösten1 "[9]"
Abstract Commercial mushrooms are produced on lignocellulose such as straw, saw dust, and wood chips. As such, mushroom-forming fungi convert low-quality waste streams into high-quality food. Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) is usually considered a waste product. This review discusses the applications of SMS to promote the transition to a circular economy. SMS can be used as compost, as a substrate for other mushroom-forming fungi, as animal feed, to promote health of animals, and to produce packaging and construction materials, biofuels, and enzymes. This range of applications can make agricultural production more sustainable and efficient, especially if the CO2 emission and heat from mushroom cultivation can be used to promote plant growth in greenhouses.

Earthworms, mushrooms and zero waste in China[edit | edit source]

Author(s) : Pauli, G. "[10]"
Abstract : The reuse of agro-industrial residues in the mushroom farming region of Qingyuan, China, is described. Mushrooms are grown on agro-industrial wastes including rice straw, coffee hulls, tea residues, cotton seeds, wheat husks, spent grain from breweries and residual fibres from paper processing. The spent substrate from mushroom growing is currently used as a fuel by farmers. However, there is increasing interest in the use of the substrate for growing earthworms, which convert the mushroom protein into humus, with recovery of animal protein.

Fungi and Sustainability[edit | edit source]

Ron Spinosa* "[11]"
Abstract The concept of “sustainability” is becoming ever more prominent in almost every area of human affairs, from individual households to the planet Earth itself. A brief history of the development of the concept of sustainability and its implementation is presented. The United Nation’s Earth Summits have been especially important in creating programs to promote sustainable development in response to the global crisis that has resulted from a century of exploitation of the Earth’s resources and exponential human population growth. Fungi can play a significant role in the pursuit of sustainability. For example, mushroom cultivation may be integrated into schemes for recycling agricultural waste as well as providing nutrition and income for peoples living in developing nations. Fungi are essential for the health and sustainability of terrestrial ecosystems. In the case of catastrophic destabilization of the earth’s ecosystems by human folly, fungi will prepare the way for the future.

EarthRx: How Community Mycoremediation Projects Can Clean Up Oil Spills Around the Planet[edit | edit source]

Ocean Malandra


  • nature based solution coupled with communal effort
  • grassroots level
  • partner with indigenous tribes

Roots of Earth Repair: Decolonization and Environmental Justice[edit | edit source]


  • radical remedies
  • environmental racism
  • decolonization
  • enliven people and planet