|Michigan Tech's Open Sustainability Technology Lab.
Wanted: Students to make a distributed future with solar-powered open-source 3-D printing and recycling.
Increasing strength and Bioactivity of collagen scaffolds using customizable arrays of 3D-printed polymer fibers[edit | edit source]
- Mozdzen, L.C., Rodgers, R., Banks, J.M., Bailey, R.C. and Harley, B.A., 2016. Increasing the strength and bioactivity of collagen scaffolds using customizable arrays of 3D-printed polymer fibers. Acta biomaterialia, 33, pp.25-33.
- Waste Electrical and electronic equipment are more with the advancements in technology. WEEE is more of ABS, undergoes aging by the exposure to heat or UV light as it undergoes chemical composition changes.
- Mechanical properties are poor with of recycled ABS, its ductility was increased with the addition of SEBS / PA; but decreases rigidity.
- Experiment material – rABS, virgin ABS, chain extender Joncryl-ADR – reaction was carried out between rABS and ADR-4370s at 190-210 Celsius
- Comparison between mechanical properties – impact strength of rABS, virgin ABS, rABS+CE
- Spectra from 4000-650cm^-1
- Study states aging process of ABS is to be studied properly based on the chemical structure changes then the rABS performance can be enhanced. Suggested is to use epoxy based chain extender to the connect the broken chain to react with carboxyl group. Addition of CE content in the rABS shows dramatic changes in the molecular weight and the polydispersity index. CE content rises the notch impact strength and tensile strength up to specific range only.
- Study states that the CE recovers the policies properties of the recycled ABS compared to virgin ABS.
- Paper discusses more of efforts put to achieve environmental sustainability by maintaining the societal and economic development into consideration, also a detailed chemical processes are mentioned of PLA production.
cradle to cradle design for 3D printing[edit | edit source]
- Chonga, S., Chiub, H.L., Liaob, Y.C., Hungc, S.T. and Pand, G.T., 2015. Cradle to Cradle® Design for 3D Printing. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, 45. 
- Techniques involved in 3D printing are fused filament fabrication and stereolithographic. Reclamation and regeneration of waste makes the process more effective.
- Discusses the properties of printing filaments of different polymers. Types of 3D printers based on applications are mentioned
- Community repositories; RepRap and Fab@Home introduced.
- Cradle to Cradle processes mentioned follows as recycled plastic washed and made into flakes and made available as raw material in form of filaments for the use in 3D printers.
- Study overall states the guidelines for material recycling and sustainable 3D printer industry
Plating on acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene(ABS) plastic: a review[edit | edit source]
- Olivera, S., Muralidhara, H.B., Venkatesh, K., Gopalakrishna, K. and Vivek, C.S., Plating on acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) plastic: a review. Journal of Materials Science, pp.1-18. 
- Discusses briefly the mechanisms of electroplating processes and its benefits. Also, the ABS properties are discussed such that it is supposed to be the best choice for the electroplating and the modern additive manufacturing processes, termed as cost effective.
- Difference between electroless plating and electroplating is stated.
- Historical background of ABS, detailed physical and chemical properties and manufacturing and plating processes on ABS are stated.
- reasons for overcoming chrome and metal baths in the plating process, market trends for electroplating; metallic bilayer coating of PPy/ABS, the copper coating on the PPy/ABS – activated surface of ABS, electrolytic chrome plating is discussed.
- Article focuses mostly on making plating eco-friendly method and its benefits like increasing mechanical adhesion, esthetical and corrosion resistance
Applications of life cycle assessment to nature works polylactide (PLA) production[edit | edit source]
- Vink, Erwin TH, et al. "Applications of life cycle assessment to NatureWorks™ polylactide (PLA) production." Polymer Degradation and stability 80.3 (2003): 403-419. 
- Dr. Gruber Developed a process of converting lactic acid into lactide and purification and polymerization of lactide
- To check the efficiency on social, economic and environmental scale LCA was used
- Cargill Dow’s PLA is 100% compostable polymer, article explains PLA production process; direct condensation and ring-opening polymerization through Lactide intermediate, the sustainable approach of polymerization. Usage of PLA- packaging, film and fiber application.
- Suggests the potential threats to the environment by polymer production from fossils. Also, applications of LCA are mentioned along with its stages and attributes for public and legal concern.
- Briefly stated Life Cycle Analysis and its advantages, LCA begins with the corn growing then transportation, dextrose production, Lactic acid production and lactide to PLA production. And its results state that the process is fossil-energy free and source of carbon credits.
Effect of Reprocessing and Accelerated Weathering on Impact-Modified Recycled Blend[edit | edit source]
- Chen, Y. M., et al. "Fast quantifying collision strength index of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer coverings on the fields based on near infrared hyperspectral imaging techniques." Scientific reports 6 (2016).
- e-waste plastic recycling contains polycarbonate, ABS and the melt blending of this are efficient because of its properties like high-level utilizable and relatively low cost.
- Properties of the recycled product changes with the significant change in the mechanical and thermal properties of the materials and also colors of the sample observed varied along with e molecular weight. So, exposure to UV radiation can induce intramolecular free radical initial reaction leading to polymer oxidative degradation.
- An example of Indian private sector is mentioned where the recycling processes are carried out. The material is shredded and then pre-dried and compounded as a recycled blend with virgin PC and further processed through impact modifier. Experiment projected weathering effects caused by the sunlight, rain, and condensed surface moisture after multiple reprocessing.
- results state that viscosity of the recycled blend decreases with the reprocessing again and again.
Environmental Assessment in Production of Electronic components - Possibilities and obstacles of LCA methodology[edit | edit source]
- Kiddee, Peeranart, Ravi Naidu, and Ming H. Wong. "Electronic waste management approaches An overview." Waste Management 33.5 (2013): 1237-1250.
- In the production of semiconductors, the obstacles observed are cited.
- Manufacturing processes of printed circuit boards and electronic integrated circuits are advancing with the need to calculate its environmental impact.
- However serious issues in assessments are the variability and uncertainty in data collection of the chemicals and disposal of products.
- To increase the efficiency of the process and deal with the missing data screening method ProTox is used which declares the hazardous substance on MSDS sheets.
- Study overall concludes that for the LCA of complex telecommunication applications other methods such with integrated knowledge are essential so as to study the variability and scenario with the consumer.
Distributed Recycling of Waste Polymer into RepRap Feedstock[edit | edit source]
- Baechler, Christian, Matthew DeVuono, and Joshua M. Pearce. "Distributed recycling of waste polymer into RepRap feedstock." Rapid Prototyping Journal 19.2 (2013): 118-125.
- RepRap is a low-cost rapid prototyper which allows the fabrication of products, these machines are used for small scale manufacturing. Waste plastic extrusion is a way to sustainable development as it cut downs the cost and carbon emissions required for the transport, transfer and collection of waste.
- Plastic waste was used as a feed-stock and a filament testing is carried out based on its density and diameter and life cycle analysis was attempted to evaluate the electricity used for the process.
- Compatibility between the extruder and the 3D printer is required for the low-cost high-quality prints and certain other factors were considered so as to make is environmentally feasible and economically viable.
- Test conducted with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and filament consistency, energy used and time was taken calculated.
- Results based on the quality of filament and the energy consumption required for LCA states that the energy requirement using recycled feedstock is much lower than the virgin material.
- Paper states the favorable conditions for the installation extruders and the costs involved. Few deficiencies at the first installations are mentioned so as to overcome it further.
Environmental Life Cycle Analysis of Distributed Three-Dimensional Printing and Conventional Manufacturing of Polymer Products[edit | edit source]
- Kreiger, Megan, and Joshua M. Pearce. "Environmental life cycle analysis of distributed three-dimensional printing and conventional manufacturing of polymer products." ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 1.12 (2013): 1511-1519.
- The Article is about the life cycle analysis performed for three products using potentially distributed network of 3D printers using PLA and ABS, and discusses briefly the emissions and cumulative energy required and the environmental impacts and the production and commercial value.
- Distributed polymers are quantified according to the electricity consumption and the material input by weight and conventional manufacturing method based on the mass of functionally tested object.
- Article states that the PV technology is the sustainable source of energy reduces the environmental impact of the electricity.
- When the objects ( Naef block, juicer, water spout) were manufactured using distributed and conventional methods both for ABS and PLA it was found in the distributed process had extra savings in emissions. This also reduces the print time and the related costings of energy and material of the product.
- Further it is explained how convenient it is to manufacture the designed product with the help out 3D printing and the energy efficiency of the process using distributed recycling and its multiple benefits.
life cycle Economic analysis of Distributed Manufacturing with Open-Source 3-D Printers[edit | edit source]
- Wittbrodt, Ben T., et al. "Life-cycle economic analysis of distributed manufacturing with open-source 3-D printers." Mechatronics 23.6 (2013): 713-726. 
- The article is describing the recent rapid advancements in digital manufacturing. It focuses more towards the 3D printing using polymers and the costs and the energy involved in the entire process. Certain objects were printed and the details of the life cycle economic analysis are stated briefly.
- Wide applications in different fields of RepRaps technology are mentioned and its uses for an average U.S. houses.
- Dimensional details of the Printing filament and the printed materials are given. Thingiverse is a database for the modeling of the 3D printed objects.
- With the help of the mathematical equations, an ‘Operational cost’ of the RepRap produced product can be calculated with the help of Energy used in kW-hr and cost of the filament in US$/kg.
- Also, payback time in years can be calculated for the different products produced. With the help of the open source depositories and Curas default setting it is found that the energy increases with time and no. of prints.
- It concludes that the average US population will save a lot per year if they initiate 3D printing by themselves. It is economically beneficial and has greater scope in market making an open source 3D printer a mass-market mechantronic device.
Recycling of ABS and ABS/PC blends[edit | edit source]
- Liu, Xiaodong, and Hans Bertilsson. "Recycling of ABS and ABS/PC blends." Journal of applied polymer science 74.3 (1999): 510-515.
- Oxidative degradation of butadiene rubber at the service time is the main problem of ABS recycling leading to lose in impact strength.
- The article deals with the dismantling the car and sorting, differentiating and recycling the waste accordingly. Four different plastics investigated are ABS, ABS/PC , PMMA , P. Of which ABS is found in large proportion.
- However, the study also says that the impact strength of the ABS can be improvised by certain quantitative mixing of materials.
- Detailed experimental procedure of plastic recycling and analysing the composition of the recycled material using spectrophotometer for chemical analysid and calorimeter for getting the melting point peaks.
- Materials are blended in the varying proportion and also neat ABS is considered for testing of different mechanical properties and the results obtained to show toughness are in the form of energy required, Charpy impact strength, J- integral and elongation at break. Certain reactions take place in the process causing morphological changes too.
- Article concludes blend of recycled ABS and PC/ABS (70/30) gives a better impact strength and overall property profile is improved.
Co-recycling of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene waste plastic and nonmetal particles from waste printed circuit boards to manufacture reproduction composites[edit | edit source]
- Sun, Zhixing, et al. "Co-recycling of acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene waste plastic and nonmetal particles from waste printed circuit boards to manufacture reproduction composites." Environmental technology 36.2 (2015): 160-168.
- The article is about development in the co-recycling method of waste material to manufacture recyclate. Method to use waste ABS from the waste printed circuit boards as it has better technical properties and it can be a promising method to resolve the problem of Environmental of electronic waste.
- Reproduction composite were made out of the recycled ABS and non-metals from the waste printed circuit boards and some additives. Specimens were divide into batches with difference in the content of non-metal products.
- Additives were added in form of maleic anhydride-grafted compatilizer, Stearic acid as lubricants and Irganox as antioxidant and iron oxide as a pigment. The mixture is melt blended and tested.
- Properties measured are Flexural strength and impact, functional groups of the recycled plastics, dimensional stability.
- Results state that strong absorption peak represents nitrile group in the component and glass fibres are good adhesion between the fillers and the plastic matrix.
- Based on the experiments carried out compatilizer improves mechanical strength, adding non-metal fillers in the composites increases flexural strength and also degrade temperature by improving dimensional stability.
Environmental Impacts of Distributed Manufacturing from 3-D Printing of Polymer Components and Products[edit | edit source]
- Kreiger, Megan, and Joshua M. Pearce. "Environmental impacts of distributed manufacturing from 3-D printing of polymer components and products." MRS Proceedings. Vol. 1492. Cambridge University Press, 2013.
- The study is all about calculating Life Cycle Analysis of distributed manufacturing using 3-D printers. The comparsion of the distributed method is done to that of the conventional method in order to calculate the Energy required and the emissions taking place.
- The article states that ABS is rigid and durable. The advantage of the 3D printing is that it allows complicated shapes to be created with less material and no mechanical complications.
- The benefits explained or the efficiency of the distributed manufacturing of products is that it uses less embodied energy and less emissions are caused.
- For the evaluation of the results quantity measured were the energy consumption and the material input in weight for PLA and ABS. Using SimaPro for the conventional method with the 100%fill and results obtained for RepRap printing for distributed process are used.
- According to the results obtained, values for the distributed method for CED and GHG emissions for both PLA and ABS are less than the conventional method. Also PV system lets to reduce the values more as well it it reduces material used and environmental impact.
Life cycle analysis of distributed recycling of post -consumer high density polyethylene for 3-D printing filament[edit | edit source]
- Kreiger, M. A., et al. "Life cycle analysis of distributed recycling of post-consumer high density polyethylene for 3-D printing filament." Journal of Cleaner Production 70 (2014): 90-96.
- There are in total seven types of plastics which are recycled. Plastic production requires considerable amount of energy and cost. Details regarding the material are mentioned in the article
- Benefits and the application of 3-D printing is mentioned in the paper, it says that the increasing number and the feasibility is observed in the market as the cost involved is only of the 3D ink.
- Processes involves commercial extrusion followed by material passing through heated barrel then through a compresses melted mix and; later forced through a die.
- LCA is calculated considering conventional recycling process first and the best case and the worst case transport scenarios as Detroit and copper harbour in Michigan state respectively as the examples
- Overall results are showcased in the CO2 emission and amount of the cumulative energy demand in the collection, transport and recycling process. Overall energy required is compared to the virgin feed.
- Study conclude that more the material recycled beneficial it is in regards to run the entire process and using 3D printers is a convenient option in every aspect.