New book - 'Building a Better World in Your Backyard' - on Kickstarter (sponsored friend)

Figures of merit for GaN substrates

From Appropedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Sunhusky.png By Michigan Tech's Open Sustainability Technology Lab.

Wanted: Students to make a distributed future with solar-powered open-source 3-D printing.
Contact Dr. Joshua Pearce - Apply here

MOST: Projects & Publications, Methods, Lit. reviews, People, Sponsors, News
Updates: Twitter, Instagram, YouTube

OSL.jpg


Figures of Merit for GaN substrates[edit]

Bulk Type Property Units Characterization Method Industry range Goal Reference/hyperlink
GaN freestanding substrate Bandgap(300K)
eV
PL
3.44[1,2]

(1)http://www.springer.com/materials/book/978-3-642-04828-9
(2)Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co. Ltd.
Electron mobility(300K)
cm2/V s
Hall effect sensor
~150[1,5],~250[2]
1350[4]
150(for n=1019)[3]
240(for n=1018)[3]
500(for n=1017)[3]

(1)Ammono S. A.
(2)Ammono S. A.
(3)Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co. Ltd.
(4)http://www.springer.com/materials/book/978-3-642-04828-9
(5)The Roditi International Corp. Ltd.
Hole mobility(300K)
cm2/V s
Hall effect sensor
13[1]

(1)http://www.springer.com/materials/book/978-3-642-04828-9
Melting point
K
Thermal couple
2573[1]

(1)http://www.springer.com/materials/book/978-3-642-04828-9
Lattice constants
nm
X-ray diffraction
a=0.319;c=0.518[1]
a=0.3189;c=0.5185[2]

(1)http://www.springer.com/materials/book/978-3-642-04828-9
(2)Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co. Ltd.
Thermal conductivity(300K)
W/cm K
Time-domain thermoreflectance
2.0-2.4[1]
2.5[2]

(1)Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co. Ltd.
(2)Kyma Technology
Heat capacity
J/mol K
Constant presure heating
35.3[1]

(1)http://www.springer.com/materials/book/978-3-642-04828-9
Elastic modulus
GPa
Mechanical measurement
210[1]

(1)http://www.springer.com/materials/book/978-3-642-04828-9

Dislocation density
/cm2
TEM and XRD
~5x104[1]
≤5 x 106[2,4,5,6,7,9,10]
1x107-4x107[3]
<105[8]
104-5x106[11]

(1)Ammono S. A.
(2)Lux Material Co., Ltd.
(3)Saint-Gobain Crystals - Photonic Materials
(4)Precision Micro-Optics LLC
(5)Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co. Ltd.
(6)MTI Corp.
(7)MTI Corp.
(8)The Roditi International Corp. Ltd.
(9)RF-Lambda USA LLC
(10)Atecom Technology Co., Ltd
(11)Kyma Technology
Sheet carrier density
/cm2
SIMS
N/A


Sheet resistance/Resistivity
ohm-cm

0.1-1(Undoped)[3]
<5(undoped)[14]

(1)Ammono S. A.
(2)Ammono S. A.
(3)Lux Material Co., Ltd.
(4)Saint-Gobain Crystals - Photonic Materials(5)Precision Micro-Optics LLC
(6)Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co. Ltd.
(7)MTI Corp.
(8)MTI Corp.
(9)The Roditi International Corp. Ltd.
(10)RF-Lambda USA LLC
(11)RF-Lambda USA LLC(12)Atecom Technology Co., Ltd
(13)Kyma Technology
(14)Kyma Tech.
[15]Kyma Tech.
10-3-10-2(N type)[1,9]
<0.01(N type)[3]
<0.03(N type)[4]
<0.05(N type)[5]
<0.5(N type)[6,7,10,12]
<0.02(N type)[13]

109-1012[2,9,11]
>106(Semi insulating)[3,5,6,8,12,15]

102-103(P type)[9]

Carrier concentration
/cm3
SIMS
~1019(N type)[1,4]
3x1017(N type)[2]
1x1018-3x1018(N type)[3]
1018(N type)[5]
<2x1017(N type)[6]

(1)Ammono S. A.
(2)Ammono S. A.
(3)Saint-Gobain Crystals - Photonic Materials
(4)The Roditi International Corp. Ltd.
(5)RF-Lambda USA LLC
(6)RF-Lambda USA LLC
1018(P type)

Thickness
um
Ellipsometry
300-400(N type)[1,4]
475[3]
200-475(N type)
230-280(N type)[4]
260(N type)[5]
475(N type)[6,11]
>300(N type)[9]
430(N type)[9]
260(N type)[10]

(1)Ammono S. A.
(2)Ammono S. A.
(3)Lux Material Co., Ltd.
(4)Saint-Gobain Crystals - Photonic Materials
(5)Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co. Ltd.
(6)MTI Corp.
(7)MTI Corp.
(8)The Roditi International Corp. Ltd.
(9)RF-Lambda USA LLC
(10)Atecom Technology Co., Ltd
(11)Kyma Technology
>300[2,9]
475(Semi insulating)[3,7]
230-280(Semi insulating)[4]
260(Semi insulating)[5]
~260(Semi insulating)[10]

Misorientation
deg
SEM and TEM
On demand


Macro defect density
/cm2
TEM and XRD
<5[1,3,6]
A grade<=2; B grade>2[2]
<10[4]
A grade<=3;B grade>3[5]

(1)Precision Micro-Optics LLC
(2)Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co. Ltd.
(3)MTI Corp.
(4)RF-Lambda USA LLC
(5)Atecom Technology Co., Ltd
(6)Kyma Technology
Bow
um
SEM or AFM
<10[1,5]
<20[2,3]
<5[4]
5-50[6,8]
<30[7]

(1)Ammono S. A.
(2)Lux Material Co., Ltd.
(3)Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co. Ltd.
(4)MTI Corp.
(5)The Roditi International Corp. Ltd.
(6)RF-Lambda USA LLC
(7)Atecom Technology Co., Ltd
(8)Kyma Technology
Total thickness variation (TTV)
um
AFM(preferred) and SEM
<40[1,6],~20[2]
<15[3,4]
<10[5]
5-25[7]
<20[8]
10-50[9]

(1)Ammono S. A.
(2)Ammono S. A.
(3)Lux Material Co., Ltd.
(4)Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co. Ltd.
(5)MTI Corp.
(6)The Roditi International Corp. Ltd.
(7)RF-Lambda USA LLC
(8)Atecom Technology Co., Ltd
(9)Kyma Technology
Surface roughness
nm
Profilometer and AFM
Ra<0.2[1,2]
RMS<0.5(epi ready)[3,4,5,7]

Ra<0.3[6]

(1)Lux Material Co., Ltd.
(2)Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co. Ltd.
(3)MTI Corp.
(4)The Roditi International Corp. Ltd.
(5)RF-Lambda USA LLC
(6)Atecom Technology Co., Ltd
(7)Kyma Technology
Thermal expansion coeff(300K)
/K
Thermal elastic measurement
along a0:5.59x10-6; along c0:7.75x10-6[1]

(1)Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co. Ltd.
Dielectric constant(300K)

Ellipsometry
along a0:10.4; along c0:9.5[1]

(1)Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co. Ltd.
Refractive index

Ellipsometry
2.67 at 3.38eV[1]

(1)Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co. Ltd.
Electron Effective mass


0.22[1]

(1)Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co. Ltd.
FWHM of X-ray rocking curve,epi-ready surface at 100 µm x 100 µm slit)
arcsec
X-ray diffraction
~20[1,2]

(1)Ammono S. A.
(2)The Roditi International Corp. Ltd.
FWHM of (102) XRD arcsec

X-ray diffraction
<300

(1)RF-Lambda USA LLC
GaN template on sapphire Bandgap(300K)
eV
PL
3.44[1,2]

(1)http://www.springer.com/materials/book/978-3-642-04828-9
(2)Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co. Ltd.
Electron mobility(300K)
cm2/V s
Hall effect sensor
1350[1]
150(for n=1019)[2]
240(for n=1018)[2]
500(for n=1017)[2]

(1)http://www.springer.com/materials/book/978-3-642-04828-9
(2)Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co. Ltd.
Hole mobility(300K)
cm2/V s
Hall effect sensor
13[2],20[1]

(1)MTI Corp.
(2)http://www.springer.com/materials/book/978-3-642-04828-9
Melting point
K
Thermal couple
2573[1]

(1)http://www.springer.com/materials/book/978-3-642-04828-9
Lattice constants
nm
X-ray diffraction
a=0.319;c=0.518[1]
a=0.3189;c=0.5185[2]

(1)http://www.springer.com/materials/book/978-3-642-04828-9
(2)Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co. Ltd.
Thermal conductivity(300K)
W/cm K
Time-domain thermoreflectance
2.3(semi insulating)[1]; 1.7(HVPE material,n=1x1017)[1]
1.2[2]

(1)Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co. Ltd.
(2)Kyma Technology
Heat capacity
J/mol K
Constant presure heating
35.3[1]

(1)http://www.springer.com/materials/book/978-3-642-04828-9
Elastic modulus
GPa
Mechanical measurement
210[1]

(1)http://www.springer.com/materials/book/978-3-642-04828-9
Dislocation density
/cm2
TEM and XRD
≤1 x 108[1,2,5,7]
5 x 108-6 x 108(for N type and undoped)[3]
8 x 108(for semi insulating)[3]
8 x 107-9 x 107(for N type and undoped)[4]
5 x 108-3 x 107(for N type,Semi insulating and undoped)[6]
5 x 109[8]

(1)Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co., Ltd.
(2)Anhui Haibei Import & Export Co., Ltd.
(3)Saint-Gobain Crystals-Photonic Materials
(4)Saint-Gobain Crystals-Photonic Materials
(5)Precision Micro-Optics LLC
(6)RF-Lambda USA LLC
(7)Atecom Technology Co., Ltd.
(8)Kyma Technology
Sheet carrier density
/cm2
SIMS
N/A


Sheet resistance/Resistivity
ohm-cm

<0.05(Undoped)[1,7,11]

(1)Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co., Ltd.
(2)Anhui Haibei Import & Export Co., Ltd.
(3)Precision Micro-Optics LLC
(4)MTI Corp.
(5)MTI Corp.
(6)MTI Corp.
(7)RF-Lambda USA LLC
(8)RF-Lambda USA LLC
(9)RF-Lambda USA LLC
(10)Atecom Technology Co., Ltd.
(11)Kyma Technologies
<0.05(N type)[1,2,3,5,10],.001-.01[8]

<1(P type)[1]
3-5(P type)[4]

>106(Semi insulating)[1,2,3,6,10],109-1012(Semi insulating)[9]

Carrier concentration
/cm3
SIMS
~1019(N type)[4]
1x1018-3x1018(N type)[2]
~1018(N type)[6]
1018(N type)[7]

(1)Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co., Ltd.
(2)Saint-Gobain Crystals-Photonic Materials
(3)MTI Corp.
(4)MTI Corp.
(5)RF-Lambda USA LLC
(6)RF-Lambda USA LLC
(7)Kyma Technologies
~1017(P type)[1]
1017-3x1018(P type)[3]
5x1017(P type)[7]

3x1017(undoped)[2]
<2x1017(undoped)[5]
1016(undoped)[7]

Thickness(epilayer)
um
Ellipsometry
3-100(N type,undoped)[1,2,3,4,5,6]

(1)Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co., Ltd.
(2)Anhui Haibei Import & Export Co., Ltd.
(3)Saint-Gobain Crystals-Photonic Materials
(4)Precision Micro-Optics LLC
(5)RF-Lambda USA LLC
(6)Atecom Technology Co., Ltd.
5-100(P type)[1]

20-90(Semi insulating)[1,2,3,6]

Buffer layer(sapphire) thickness
um
Ellipsometry
430[1,3],330[2]

(1)Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co., Ltd.
(2)Saint-Gobain Crystals-Photonic Materials
(3)MTI Corp.
Misorientation
deg
SEM and TEM
On demand


Macro defect density
/cm2
TEM and XRD
<5[1,3], <10[2]

(1)MTI Corp.
(2)RF-Lambda USA LLC
(3)Kyma Technologies
Bow
um
SEM or AFM
10-500[1]

(1)RF-Lambda USA LLC
Total thickness variation (TTV)
um
AFM(prefered)and SEM
<10


Surface roughness
nm
Profilometer and AFM
RMS~10[1],Ra<0.2;RMS<0.5(epi ready)

(1)MTI Corp.
Thermal expansion coeff(300K)
/K
Thermal elaastic measurement
along a0:5.59x10-6[1]; along c0:7.75x10-6[1]

(1)Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co. Ltd.
Dielectric constant(300K)

Ellipsometry
along a0:10.4[1]; along c0:9.5[1]

(1)Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co. Ltd.
Refractive index

Ellipsometry
2.67 at 3.38eV[1]

(1)Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co. Ltd.
Electron Effective mass


0.22[1]

(1)Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co. Ltd.
FWHM of(102)XRD arcsec

X-ray diffraction
<250[1],~350[2],<300[3]

(1)Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co., Ltd.
(2)MTI Corp.
(3)RF-Lambda USA LLC
FWHM of(002)XRD arcsec

X-ray diffraction
<150[1],~250[2]

(1)Xiamen Powerway Advanced Material Co., Ltd.
(2)MTI Corp.