Note: This page was transwikified from Open Source Ecology - please help adapt it to Appropedia.주의: 이 페이지는 오픈 소스 생태학에서 번역되었습니다.어프로피디아에 맞게 조정해 주세요.
Aquaculture production of duckweed오리풀 양식업
The Lemnaceae (duckweed, water lentils) family are the smallest flowering plants.렘나과는 가장 작은 꽃이 피는 식물이다. They are free-floating plants with 1 to 3 leaves and a single root (or root-hair) from each frond.그들은 1에서 3개의 잎과 각각의 잎에서 하나의 뿌리(또는 뿌리털)를 가진 자유롭게 떠다니는 식물이다. Because of their extremely rapid growth, duckweeds can be aggressive invaders of ponds and are often considered a nuisance.그들의 매우 빠른 성장 때문에, 오리풀은 연못의 공격적인 침입자가 될 수 있고 종종 성가신 존재로 여겨집니다. They grow in dense colonies in quiet water, best if undisturbed by wave action.조용한 물속에서 빽빽한 군락을 이루며 자라는데, 파도의 작용에 방해받지 않는 것이 가장 좋습니다. They require nutrient-rich water, high in phosphorus and nitrogen, and are therefore often found in areas of agricultural run-off.그들은 영양분이 풍부한 물을 필요로 하고, 인과 질소가 풍부하며, 따라서 종종 농업이 진행되는 지역에서 발견됩니다. Various species are known and grow in different climates throughout the world.다양한 종들이 알려져 있고 전 세계적으로 다른 기후에서 자랍니다. Because of the very high productivity per surface area, duckweed holds great potential for future global villages.표면적당 생산성이 매우 높기 때문에, 오리풀은 미래의 지구촌에 큰 잠재력을 가지고 있다. This tiny aquatic plant has tremendous potential for cleaning up pollution, combating global warming and feeding the world.이 작은 수생 식물은 오염을 정화시키고, 지구 온난화와 싸우고, 세계를 먹여 살릴 수 있는 엄청난 잠재력을 가지고 있다.
Duckweed - Not just for Ducks:Duckweed - 오리풀: Research from the Tropical Ecological Farm, College of Agriculture and Forestry -CAF, Thu Duc, Ho Chi Min City, Vietnam: 베트남 호치민시 투덕시 농업 및 임업대학 CAF 열대생태농장 연구:
"Duckweed is probably the fastest growing multi-cellular plant."덕위드는 아마도 가장 빨리 자라는 다세포 식물일 것입니다. It grows naturally on waste water and can double its weight in 24 hours.그것은 폐수에서 자연적으로 자라며 24시간 안에 무게가 두 배로 늘어날 수 있다. It is unique amongst plants in that its protein content can be manipulated according the nitrogen content of the water in which it is growing.그것은 단백질 함량이 그것이 자라는 물의 질소 함량에 따라 조절될 수 있다는 점에서 식물들 사이에서 독특하다. This is important because it integrates with the biodigester.이것은 바이오 색소와 통합되기 때문에 중요하다. It is the ideal water plant to introduce into an integrated farming system because it can use the nitrogen in the effluent coming from the biodigester to enrich its protein content to a level only slightly lower than Soya Bean, approaching 35%.바이오 색소 배출물의 질소를 이용해 단백질 함량이 35%에 육박하는 소야빈보다 약간 낮은 수준까지 농축할 수 있어 통합 농업 시스템에 도입하기에 이상적인 수초이다. In terms of protein production, grown under ideal conditions in can produce 10 tonnes of protein per hectare per year.단백질 생산 측면에서는 에서 이상적인 조건에서 재배하면 연간 헥타르당 10톤의 단백질을 생산할 수 있습니다. This compares with Soya bean which produces less than 1 tonne per year.연간 생산량이 1톤 미만인 콩과 비교된다.
Duckweed is good for the environment because it doesn’t require artificial fertilizers, on the contrary it cleans up waste by removing organic and inorganic nitrogen coming from decomposition of organic matter, contributing to the fight against eutrophication. It doesn’t need fungicides and has no significant natural pests.
Duckweed can be eaten by chickens, ducks and pigs and can supply all of the protein needs for locally adapted breeds."
Duckweed as Food
Depending on strain and growing conditions, duckweeds can have very high protein content of up to 50% of dry mass. High levels of vitamins are also present. The taste is remotely similar to spinach. Duckweeds have historically played a role in some east Asian cuisines (Wolffia genus). Because of rapid growth and ease of cultivation, duckweeds for consumption by animals and humans are now getting more attention. Current uses as animal fodder are mostly as fish food (carp, tilapia) and bird food (chicken, duck). Possible uses as part of a human diet are still vastly under-explored.
Duckweed for Bio-energy
Duckweed produces biomass faster than any other flowering plant. It has clear potential as an alternative for biofuel production.
Duckweed as Biosensors
Duckweeds are used for the detection of heavy metals and organic contaminants. A variety parameters can then be measured to assess the health of the plants: growth rate, leaf size and color, root size etc.
Duckweed for Contaminant Removal
Duckweed is very efficient at cleaning water. First it will remove all macronutrients. Then it will remove micronutrients. Finally it will remove all metal ions, including toxics and radioactives. As such, it can be used to 'polish' industrial effluent, pre-treat sewage, denitrify effluent from other aquaculture activites and other nitrogen drainange situations (stock lots, etc.). Article below on Duckweed Aquaculture addresses this topic, and there is little doubt more academic studies of duckweed as a hyperaccumulator will be forthcoming.
Duckweed for Biomining
Duckweeds are excellent concentrators of nitrogen and phosphates. They could be used for bio-mining, given their ability to pull minerals out of solution down to mere trace concentrations. The harvested duckweeds can then enter into a nutrient cycle which may include animal food, biogas digester etc. This way, phosphorus and other nutrients could be bio-accumulated from muddy water even in regions with generally phosphorus-deficient soils. However, this is still in the idea stage, and issues of undesired bio-accumulation (e.g. aluminum) will have to be solved.
A full layer of duckweed will block out most sunlight from deeper levels of a pond. Therefore, algal blooms are eliminated - a desired effect. However, the lack of sunlight at those deeper levels may also lead to low-oxygen conditions. As a result, anaerobic bacteria may proliferate, making the plants unsuitable as food for humans. An aeration device such as airstone may then be required. It is important not to agitate the surface, as duckweeds grow best on very quiet water.
Ideas and applications
- duckweed in salad or soup, on a sandwich or as a component of vegetable spread
- as a substitute for: lettuce, spinach, water cress, ... ?)
- food for fish (e.g. tilapia), chicken, pigs,
[insert here: information on new breeds, optimized for specific uses, higher yields, more lipids, different taste, more specific bio-accumulation etc.].
The duckweed genome is expected to be fully sequenced by the end of 2009. This should greatly improve our understanding of duckweed biology and will likely accelerate genetic research on these plants.
Cross, J.W. (2006). The Charms of Duckweed. 
Wikipedia entry on duckweed in general and on Wolffia
July 2008 article on Treehugger 
Very comprehensive manual on duckweed aquaculture 
Duckweed as a Primary Feedstock for Aquaculture 
Duckweed as a feed supplement for livestock 
Older patent with many details on duckweed for human consumption 
Integrated Tilapia & Duckweed Farming System 
Manual for the use of biodigester effluent and ponds for duckweed production (from Vietnam)