Orang-Utan In Bukit Lawang, Nord Sumatra. January 2006. Attribution: Tbachner
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Authors Phil Green
Published 2011
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Biodiversity is the biological variety and variability of life on Earth. Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the genetic, species, and ecosystem level. Terrestrial biodiversity is usually greater near the equator, which is the result of the warm climate and high primary productivity. Biodiversity is not distributed evenly on Earth, and is richer in the tropics. These tropical forest ecosystems cover less than ten percent of earth's surface, and contain about ninety percent of the world's species. Marine biodiversity is usually higher along coasts in the Western Pacific, where sea surface temperature is highest, and in the mid-latitudinal band in all oceans. There are latitudinal gradients in species diversity. Biodiversity generally tends to cluster in hotspots, and has been increasing through time, but will be likely to slow in the future as a primary result of deforestation. It encompasses the evolutionary, ecological, and cultural processes that sustain life.

Community action projects[edit | edit source]

Ecosystem restoration[edit | edit source]

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Ecosystem restoration is the process of halting and overturning degradation, resulting in cleaner air and water, extreme weather mitigation, better human health, and recovered biodiversity, including improved pollination of plants. Restoration encompasses a wide continuum of practices, from reforestation to re-wetting peatlands and coral rehabilitation. [1]

Rewilding[edit | edit source]

Rewilding, or re-wilding, activities are conservation efforts aimed at restoring and protecting natural processes and wilderness areas. This may include providing connectivity between such areas, and protecting or reintroducing apex predators and keystone species.

Rewilding is a form of ecological restoration with an emphasis on humans stepping back and leaving an area to nature, as opposed to more active forms of natural resource management. Rewilding efforts can aim to create ecosystems requiring passive management. Successful long term rewilding projects can need little ongoing human attention, as successful reintroduction of keystone species creates a self-regulatory and self-sustaining stable ecosystem, possibly with near pre-human levels of biodiversity.

While re-wilding initiatives can be controversial, the United Nations have listed re-wilding as one of several methods needed to achieve massive scale restoration of natural ecosystems, which they say must be accomplished by 2030.

Wildlife garden[edit | edit source]

A wildlife garden (or wild garden) is an environment created by a gardener that serves as a sustainable haven for surrounding wildlife. Wildlife gardens contain a variety of habitats that cater to native and local plants, birds, amphibians, reptiles, insects, mammals and so on. Establishing a garden that emulates the environment before the residence was built and/or renders the garden similar to intact wild areas nearby (rewilding) will allow natural systems to interact and establish an equilibrium, ultimately minimizing the need for gardener maintenance and intervention. Wildlife gardens can also play an essential role in biological pest control, and also promote biodiversity, native plantings, and generally benefit the wider environment.

Wildlife corridor[edit | edit source]

A wildlife corridor, habitat corridor, or green corridor is an area of habitat connecting wildlife populations separated by human activities or structures (such as roads, development, or logging). This allows an exchange of individuals between populations, which may help prevent the negative effects of inbreeding and reduced genetic diversity (via genetic drift) that often occur within isolated populations. Corridors may also help facilitate the re-establishment of populations that have been reduced or eliminated due to random events (such as fires or disease).

This may potentially moderate some of the worst effects of habitat fragmentation, wherein urbanization can split up habitat areas, causing animals to lose both their natural habitat and the ability to move between regions to use all of the resources they need to survive. Habitat fragmentation due to human development is an ever-increasing threat to biodiversity, and habitat corridors are a possible mitigation.

Resources[edit | edit source]

Citizens data initiative[edit | edit source]

  • More than 1,200 species of bats comprise nearly a quarter of all mammals, and their ecological services are essential to human economies and the health of whole ecosystems worldwide. Source: unep.org, 21 January 2011
  • In Asia, more than 70 percent of primates are classified on the IUCN Red List as Vulnerable, Endangered or Critically Endangered – meaning they could disappear forever in the near future. Source: IUCN, August 2008
  • The great apes are the closest living relatives to man, bonobos sharing 98.4 per cent of our DNA, gorillas 97.7 per cent and orang-utans 96.4 per cent. Source: Defra

Inspiration[edit | edit source]

Maps[edit | edit source]

Quotes[edit | edit source]

"We are not defending nature, we are nature defending itself" Resistencia Indigena [2]

"I believe in God, only I spell it Nature." Frank Lloyd Wright

"If you hurt nature you are hurting yourself" ~ J Krishnamurti

Video[edit | edit source]

Nature needs half[edit | edit source]

What Is Nature Needs Half ?
Authors: First Light Films, Apr 17, 2017

At the 9th World Wilderness Congress in Mérida, Mexico, WILD, with the collaboration of a spectrum of international organizations, governments and individuals, introduced Nature Needs Half, which aspires that humans give up use of half of land and water on Earth, in order to support wilderness. Nature Needs Half is an idea put forth by the WILD Foundation. Marine biologist Sylvia Earle and Jane Goodall have endorsed Nature Needs Half, with Earle's only criticism being that she "hoped that half would be enough". Since its inception, WILD has begun collecting and conducting case studies of places around the world that have, or are on track to achieve, at least half protection.

Biodiversity in agriculture[edit | edit source]

Increasing biodiversity in agriculture may increase the sustainability of the farm.

The biodiversity of farms is an aspect of agroecology.

Cities and biodiversity[edit | edit source]

Cities and Biodiversity Outlook

News and comment[edit | edit source]

See separate article: Biodiversity news

Events[edit | edit source]

May 22 International Day for Biological Diversity, 2021, Sat
Mar 20 - 30 Pesticide Action Week 2020: Fri - Mon
Mar 3 World Wildlife Day, 2021: Wed
Feb 2 World Wetlands Day, 2021: Tue

2021-2030, UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration

Campaigns[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]


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External links[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Press release, unep.org
  2. Wild Open
  3. International Animal Rescue W