Caption underneath These 3D printed models accurately simulate bone length and diameter, external contour, cross-sectional shape, bicortical anatomy, cortical hardness, cancellous bone porosity, and microstructure, and far cortex thickness for adult, non-obese males at left tibial shaft fracture pin drilling sites for modular external fixation.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10] These models feature a semi-engraved model number, gender symbol, and drilling direction arrow on the base of each model to assist with model identification and proper orientation. Each model has a vise attachment to allow the user to secure the model inside a standard vise clamp to maximize safety during simulation training. When a model is placed inside a standard vise clamp, the bone model will be properly positioned to simulate a patient in the supine position. These open-source, locally reproducible, and high fidelity 3D printed bone models teach essential irrigation and debridement, powered and manual drilling, and modular external fixation skills that are transferable to the performance of other limb-saving and life-saving surgeries that require hardware stabilization and fixation.[11]

Find Local 3D Print On Demand Services[edit | edit source]

On-site access to a 3D printer is not required. The open-source 3D files can be downloaded by any 3D printing organization anywhere. There are many networks you can use to find and contact 3D print on demand services in your region.

Prusa World Map[edit | edit source]

Prusa offers a map of Prusa 3D printer users worldwide with a "Print on Demand" option (in the left-side menu), which allows you to filter all users who accept print on demand requests and send a message to each user.

Register a New Prusa Account[edit | edit source]

  1. Go to https://account.prusa3d.com/registration/?next=/o/authorize/%3Fclient_id%3DM8LpfPFdUlFWcOpLmEdEm7IXmDQfNqhkMqRUYOnv%26response_type%3Dcode%26scope%3Dbasic_info%26redirect_uri%3Dhttps%3A//www.prusa3d.com/login/
  2. Fill in the requested information to register a new Prusa account
  3. Login to your Prusa account

Look up 3D Print on Demand Services Near You[edit | edit source]

  1. Go to https://www.prusaprinters.org/world
  2. Click on the white square icon in the bottom left corner of the map to reveal the filter feature
  3. Click on "Print on Demand" in the left-side menu
  4. Review the map to identify the 3D print on demand services in your country
  5. Click on the orange pin(s) for local 3D printing on demand services

Contact the 3D Print on Demand Services Near You[edit | edit source]

  1. Click on "Send a message" to contact each 3D print on demand service

Table 1. Contact Information for Prusa World 3D Print on Demand Services in 13 Countries[edit | edit source]

Contact Info for Prusa World 3D Print on Demand Services in 13 Countries
# Country City Prusa World Map User URL Contact URL Special Notes
1 Brazil Please contact each user individually. There are an estimated 254 users who provide print on demand services in Brazil.[12]
2.1 Burundi Bujumbura https://world.prusa3d.com/user/christos-mnts-34886 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/34886 Has a Prusa MK3/S/S+ Printer so can print Adult Tibial Bone Models at 100% scale.
2.2 Burundi https://world.prusa3d.com/user/ygeorgewilliamsgmailcom-59182 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/59182

Email: ygeorgewilliams@gmail.com

Phone/WhatsApp: +256758366278

Now has Creality CR10s, Creality CR 10S Pro V2.0, GMax 2, Creality Ender 3 and Anet ET5  Pro 3D printers and can print Adult Tibial Bone Models at 100% scale. May 1, 2022 email response states, "since I am in an e-commerce business, I Do ship across the country, Africa, Europe and the rest of the World between 24Hours to 7Days without Weekends."
3 Colombia Please contact each user individually. There are an estimated 137 users who provide print on demand services in Colombia.[12]
4.1 Cote D'Ivoire Abidjan https://world.prusa3d.com/user/patrice-46105 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/46105 Profile states, "I am 51 years old, and I am passionate about manual work. Novice, I really want to learn and make objects with this process."
4.2 Cote D'Ivoire Grand Bassam https://world.prusa3d.com/user/mdk014-152683 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/152683 Has a Creality Ender-3 Printer ($189.00 USD) which has a maximum build volume Z height of 250 mm so can print Adult Tibial Bone Models at 100% scale.[13]
4.3 Cote D'Ivoire https://world.prusa3d.com/user/ygeorgewilliamsgmailcom-59182 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/59182

Email: ygeorgewilliams@gmail.com

Phone/WhatsApp: +256758366278

Now has Creality CR10s, Creality CR 10S Pro V2.0, GMax 2, Creality Ender 3 and Anet ET5  Pro 3D printers and can print Adult Tibial Bone Models at 100% scale. May 1, 2022 email response states, "since I am in an e-commerce business, I Do ship across the country, Africa, Europe and the rest of the World between 24Hours to 7Days without Weekends."
5.1 Ethiopia Addis Ababa https://world.prusa3d.com/user/yafet-girum-64086 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/64086 Has a Creality Ender-3 Printer ($189.00 USD) which has a maximum build volume Z height of 250 mm so can print Adult Tibial Bone Models at 100% scale.[13] Profile states, "We are makers and 3D printing enthusiasts!!"
5.2 Ethiopia Addis Ababa https://world.prusa3d.com/user/next3d-studio-68567 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/68567
5.3 Ethiopia Addis Ababa https://world.prusa3d.com/user/tedy-53081 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/53081 Has a Prusa MK3/S/S+ Printer so can print Adult Tibial Bone Models at 100% scale.
5.4 Ethiopia Addis Ababa https://world.prusa3d.com/user/shem-13188 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/13188 Has a Prusa MK3/S/S+ Printer so can print Adult Tibial Bone Models at 100% scale.
5.5 Ethiopia Addis Ababa https://world.prusa3d.com/user/creative-hub-fab-lab-214780 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/214780 Profile states, "Creative Hub Ethiopia supports creative innovators, designers and SMEs in various fields by deepening understanding of global design and industrial concepts, providing state-of-the-art working tools and resources, and enhancing the link between young innovators, industrial and governmental entities."
5.6 Ethiopia Addis Ababa https://world.prusa3d.com/user/abiel-yirga-58071 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/58071
5.7 Ethiopia Gersa Halila https://world.prusa3d.com/user/pushadam-27131 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/27131 Has Prusa MK2/S with a maximum build volume Z height of 200 mm so can print Adult Tibial Bone Models at 95% scale.[14]
5.8 Ethiopia https://world.prusa3d.com/user/yidnek-89334 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/89334 Profile states, "made in Africa."
5.9 Ethiopia https://world.prusa3d.com/user/ygeorgewilliamsgmailcom-59182 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/59182

Email: ygeorgewilliams@gmail.com

Phone/WhatsApp: +256758366278

Now has Creality CR10s, Creality CR 10S Pro V2.0, GMax 2, Creality Ender 3 and Anet ET5  Pro 3D printers and can print Adult Tibial Bone Models at 100% scale. May 1, 2022 email response states, "since I am in an e-commerce business, I Do ship across the country, Africa, Europe and the rest of the World between 24Hours to 7Days without Weekends."
6.1 Ghana Accra https://world.prusa3d.com/user/francis-38748 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/38748 Has a Prusa MK3/S/S+ Printer so can print Adult Tibial Bone Models at 100% scale.
6.2 Ghana Accra https://world.prusa3d.com/user/richardkwofie-26813 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/26813 Has a Prusa MK3/S/S+ Printer so can print Adult Tibial Bone Models at 100% scale.
6.3 Ghana Accra https://world.prusa3d.com/user/adepa-229182 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/229182
6.4 Ghana Kumasi https://world.prusa3d.com/user/joe-58788 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/58788 Has a Creality Ender-3 Printer ($189.00 USD) which has a maximum build volume Z height of 250 mm so can print Adult Tibial Bone Models at 100% scale.[13]
6.5 Ghana Kumasi https://world.prusa3d.com/user/samash-211910 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/211910
6.6 Ghana https://world.prusa3d.com/user/ygeorgewilliamsgmailcom-59182 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/59182

Email: ygeorgewilliams@gmail.com

Phone/WhatsApp: +256758366278

Now has Creality CR10s, Creality CR 10S Pro V2.0, GMax 2, Creality Ender 3 and Anet ET5  Pro 3D printers and can print Adult Tibial Bone Models at 100% scale. May 1, 2022 email response states, "since I am in an e-commerce business, I Do ship across the country, Africa, Europe and the rest of the World between 24Hours to 7Days without Weekends."
7 India Please contact each user individually. There are an estimated 292 users who provide print on demand services in India.[12]
8.1 Malawi https://world.prusa3d.com/user/takenolab-56155 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/56155 Has a Prusa MK3/S/S+ Printer so can print Adult Tibial Bone Models at 100% scale. Profile states, "I am passionate about computer programming |Java | C# | Cross-Platform Technology | Database | Developed Android Application for Ninayo Inc called Karibu System | Senior Developer for Smart Mapokezi and Dzaleka Notifier (A Cross-Platform mobile and PC Applications for Refugees in Dzaleka) | Teaching Computer Programming in C# and Java at App Factory (Microsoft 4 Africa) and takenoLAB in Dzaleka Camp | Founder and CEO of Computer Training Center in Dzaleka (takenoLAB) | Winner of Best Community Service for 2017 in Dzaleka Refugee Camp | Best EdTech Award and Best Social Impact award. Now I have dive into 3D Printing to make connect my computer programming skills with hardware. I realized that I will need 3D printer to reach my goal of making robots, embedded systems and the proper IoT."
8.2 Malawi https://world.prusa3d.com/user/ygeorgewilliamsgmailcom-59182 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/59182

Email: ygeorgewilliams@gmail.com

Phone/WhatsApp: +256758366278

Now has Creality CR10s, Creality CR 10S Pro V2.0, GMax 2, Creality Ender 3 and Anet ET5  Pro 3D printers and can print Adult Tibial Bone Models at 100% scale. May 1, 2022 email response states, "since I am in an e-commerce business, I Do ship across the country, Africa, Europe and the rest of the World between 24Hours to 7Days without Weekends."
9.1 Nigeria Abjua https://world.prusa3d.com/user/juergen-154372 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/154372 Has a Prusa MK3/S/S+ Printer so can print Adult Tibial Bone Models at 100% scale.
9.2 Nigeria Abuja https://world.prusa3d.com/user/afam-64246 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/64246 Profile states, "I am available for printing."
9.3 Nigeria Abuja https://world.prusa3d.com/user/hideville-29808 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/29808 Has a Prusa 2.5/S. Will need to inquire if 3D printer has a build volume Z height of at least 180 mm. Profile states, "I am an Architect, love to print and create things with 3d printers."
9.4 Nigeria Akure https://world.prusa3d.com/user/sunny500-9397 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/9397 Profile states, "I got a passion for 3Dprinting technology." May 13, 2022 email states, "The maximum build volume of my 3Dprinter is 150mmapprox" so unable to 3D print Adult Tibial Bone Models.
9.5 Nigeria Barakin Nafam Dregi https://world.prusa3d.com/user/rick-16185 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/16185
9.6 Nigeria Kano https://world.prusa3d.com/user/najeebyunusa-4474 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/4474
9.7 Nigeria Lagos https://world.prusa3d.com/user/iquest3dmaker-79501 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/79501 Has a Prusa MK3/S/S+ Printer so can print Adult Tibial Bone Models at 100% scale. Profile states, "3d Printing."
9.8 Nigeria Lagos https://world.prusa3d.com/user/skaggia_svensk-10482 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/10482 Has a Prusa MK3/S/S+ Printer so can print Adult Tibial Bone Models at 100% scale. Profile states, "Just a guy who likes to make and print things."
9.9 Nigeria Mama https://world.prusa3d.com/user/onil-113024 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/113024 Profile states, "Design is Life."
9.10 Nigeria Sagamu https://world.prusa3d.com/user/abul-khayr-59858 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/59858
10.1 Rwanda Kigali https://world.prusa3d.com/user/eric-rutayisire-177575 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/177575 Has a Prusa MK3/S/S+ Printer so can print Adult Tibial Bone Models at 100% scale.
10.2 Rwanda Kigali https://world.prusa3d.com/user/mmihi-6604 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/6604 Profile states, "Entrepreneur & Educator in 3D Innovation."
10.3 Rwanda https://world.prusa3d.com/user/emilengabo11gmailcom-56664 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/56664

Email: emilengabo11@gmail.com

Profile states, "Community oriented healthcate personnel." May 5, 2022 email states, "We loved your mission and commend the job you are doing across the world. For us we are not yet starting 3D printing services yet. Thus we have explored for you local organizations which might help you with 3D Printing at the moment. That is FabLab, I guess we can work with them currently to explore their capacity in accordance with your requirements. I hope it turns into a success in improving Rwanda's healthcare system. In case you need some on ground support, do not hesitate to contact me."
10.4 Rwanda https://world.prusa3d.com/user/ygeorgewilliamsgmailcom-59182 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/59182

Email: ygeorgewilliams@gmail.com

Phone/WhatsApp: +256758366278

Now has Creality CR10s, Creality CR 10S Pro V2.0, GMax 2, Creality Ender 3 and Anet ET5  Pro 3D printers and can print Adult Tibial Bone Models at 100% scale. May 1, 2022 email response states, "since I am in an e-commerce business, I Do ship across the country, Africa, Europe and the rest of the World between 24Hours to 7Days without Weekends."
11 South Africa Please contact each user individually. There are around 245 users who provide print on demand services in South Africa.[12]
12.1 Sudan Khartoum https://world.prusa3d.com/user/mohammed-elmustafa-50946 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/50946 Has a Prusa MK3/S/S+ Printer so can print Adult Tibial Bone Models at 100% scale.
12.2 Sudan https://world.prusa3d.com/user/ygeorgewilliamsgmailcom-59182 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/59182

Email: ygeorgewilliams@gmail.com

Phone/WhatsApp: +256758366278

Now has Creality CR10s, Creality CR 10S Pro V2.0, GMax 2, Creality Ender 3 and Anet ET5  Pro 3D printers and can print Adult Tibial Bone Models at 100% scale. May 1, 2022 email response states, "since I am in an e-commerce business, I Do ship across the country, Africa, Europe and the rest of the World between 24Hours to 7Days without Weekends."
13.1 Uganda Kampala https://world.prusa3d.com/user/annet-26276 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/26276
13.2 Uganda Kampala https://world.prusa3d.com/user/ygeorgewilliamsgmailcom-59182 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/59182

Email: ygeorgewilliams@gmail.com

Phone/WhatsApp: +256758366278

Now has Creality CR10s, Creality CR 10S Pro V2.0, GMax 2, Creality Ender 3 and Anet ET5  Pro 3D printers and can print Adult Tibial Bone Models at 100% scale. May 1, 2022 email response states, "since I am in an e-commerce business, I Do ship across the country, Africa, Europe and the rest of the World between 24Hours to 7Days without Weekends."
13.3 Uganda Murchison Bay https://world.prusa3d.com/user/okedi-deogratius-170827 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/170827 Has a Prusa MK3/S/S+ Printer so can print Adult Tibial Bone Models at 100% scale. Profile states, "am a computer engineer and 3d printing and design enthusiast"
13.4 Uganda Nakawa https://world.prusa3d.com/user/louis-41707 https://www.printables.com/cs/messenger/new/41707

Ultimaker Re-sellers[edit | edit source]

Ultimaker 3D Printers are available in 85 countries and territories through Ultimaker re-sellers.

You can search for and reach out to an Ultimaker re-seller in your region to inquire if they or a customer have a fused filament fabrication 3D printer with a build volume Z height of at least 180 mm and if they or a customer can provide 3D print on demand services.

  1. Go to: https://ultimaker.com/resellers/gb?utm_campaign=2022_Alwayson_srengineer_traffic_do_CA&utm_source=google&utm_medium=cpc&gclid=EAIaIQobChMIyrGU1JGx9wIVxm5vBB2aAAFJEAAYASABEgIiIfD_BwE.
  2. Select your country.
  3. Scroll down to see preferred re-sellers on the bottom left side of the webpage.
  4. Click on each re-seller's name to visit their website.
  5. Look up the contact information on the re-seller's website.

or

  1. Go to: Ultimaker S5 3D Printer#Global Availability of Ultimaker 3D Printers.
  2. Review the map to identify the Ultimaker re-sellers in your region.
  3. Click on the blue pin(s) for local Ultimaker re-sellers.
  4. Click on the Ultimaker re-seller website link displayed for each blue pin.

Fab Labs[edit | edit source]

"The Fab Lab Network is an open, creative community of fabricators, artists, scientists, engineers, educators, students, amateurs, professionals, of all ages located in more than 149 countries in approximately 2,000 Fab Labs. From community based labs to advanced research centers, Fab Labs share the goal of democratizing access to the tools for technical invention. This community network is an extension of fablabs.io and is simultaneously a manufacturing network, a distributed technical education campus, and a distributed research laboratory working to digitize fabrication, promoting the next generation of manufacturing and personal fabrication."[15]

You can search for and reach out to a local Fab Lab to inquire if they have a fused filament fabrication 3D printer with a build volume Z height of at least 180 mm and if they can provide 3D print on demand services.

  1. Go to: https://www.fablabs.io/labs/map to view a global map of Fab Labs.
  2. Go to https://www.fablabs.io/labs search for active Fab Labs by country.
  3. In the "Filter by Country" dropdown menu, select your country's name.
  4. In the "Filter by activity status" dropdown menu, select "ACTIVE."
  5. In the "Show" dropdown menu, select "100."
  6. Click on "Filter."
  7. In the left side of the screen, you will see a list of all the active Fab Labs in your country.
  8. Click on the green arrow for each Fab Lab listed on the left.
  9. Find the website link and contact information for each Fab Lab.
  10. Each Fab Lab page will also list any nearby Fab Labs on the righthand side of the page.
  11. If there are more than 100 Fab Labs in your country, click on the "Next" green button to view the next 100 Fab Labs.
  12. Repeat Step #11 until you have viewed all the pages listing Fab Labs in your country.

Impact Hubs[edit | edit source]

Impact Hubs is "a global network of 24,250 people driving change – made up of 100+ communities in 60+ countries across 5 continents."[16]

You can search for and reach out to a local Impact Hub to inquire if they or a partner have a fused filament fabrication 3D printer with a build volume Z height of at least 180 mm and if an Impact Hub member or partner can provide 3D print on demand services.

  1. Go to https://impacthub.net/about-us-regions-locations/. to view a global map of Impact Hubs.
  2. Click on each pin in your region to see the website link for that Impact Hub.
  3. Click on the website link for each Impact Hub.
  4. Click on the Contact Us link on each website.

Hackerspaces[edit | edit source]

"Hackerspaces are community-operated physical places, where people can meet and work on their projects."[17] "There are currently 2447 hackerspaces listed in this wiki, 876 of them are marked as active and 360 as planned."[18]

You can search for and reach out to a local Hackerspace to inquire if they have a fused filament fabrication 3D printer with a build volume Z height of at least 180 mm and if they can provide 3D print on demand services.

  1. Go to: https://wiki.hackerspaces.org/List_of_Hacker_Spaces to view "a comprehensive, user-maintained list of all active hackerspaces throughout the world."
  2. Go to: https://wiki.hackerspaces.org/Category:Country to search for Hackerspaces in your country.
  3. Click on each hackerspace link to look up the contact information on the right side of each individual Hackerspace page.

Makerspaces[edit | edit source]

You can search for and reach out to a local Makerspace to inquire if they or a member have a fused filament fabrication 3D printer with a build volume Z height of at least 180 mm and if they or a member can provide 3D print on demand services.

  1. Go to to https://makerspaces.make.co/ view a global map of Makerspaces.
  2. Click on each pin in your region to see the website link for that Makerspace.
  3. Click on the website link for each Makerspace.
  4. Click on the Contact Us link on each website.

Table 2. Contact Info for 3D Print on Demand Services in 13 Countries[edit | edit source]

Reach out to an Ultimaker re-seller, FabLab, Impact Hub, Hackerspaces, or Makerspace in your region to find local 3D print on demand services.

Contact Info for Ultimaker Re-sellers, FabLabs, Impact Hubs, Hackerspaces, or Makerspaces in 13 Countries
# Country Website Contact Email Special Notes
1.1 Brazil Wishbox Contact

Phone: (47) 2125-7773

Official Ultimaker Reseller for Brazil
1.2 Brazil 3DCRIAR Contact Official Ultimaker Reseller for Brazil
1.3 Brazil Fablabs.io Contact each active Fab Lab individually There are 109 active Fab Labs in Brazil.
1.4 Brazil Impact Hub Manaus Contact

Email: manaus@impacthub.net

Phone: (92) 98805-2040

1.5 Brazil Impact Hub Belo Horizonte Phone: +55 31 3515 6135
1.6 Brazil Impact Hub Brasilia Email: brasilia@impacthub.net

Phone: (61) 3550-8779

1.7 Brazil Impact Hub Sao Paulo Email: rh.saopaulo@impacthub.net
1.8 Brazil Hackerspaces in Brazil Contact each active Hackerspace individually
2.1 Burundi Impact Hub Bujumbura Email: bujumbura@impacthub.net

Phone: +257 75 79 60 07

Coordinator

2.2 Burundi AIGE Limited Contact Us

Email: training@aige.info

Phone: +234 806 630 6719

Able to produce and ship 3D printed bone models to Melchior Ndadaye International Airport (IATA: BJM, ICAO: HBBA) to receive the package
3.1 Colombia 3D Solutions Contact

Email: info@3dsolutions.com.co

Phone: (+57) 1 7438434

Cell: (+57) 320 214 2762

Official Ultimaker Reseller for Colombia
3.2 Colombia Fablabs.io Contact each active Fab Lab individually There are 12 active Fab Labs in Colombia.
3.3 Colombia Impact Hub Bogota Message

Phone: 533 55 87

3.4 Colombia Impact Hub Medellin Phone: +57 305 4695347
3.5 Colombia Hackerspaces in Colombia Contact each active Hackerspace individually
3.6 Colombia Gora Makerspace Email: goraspace@gmail.com

Whatsapp: 3195106840

4.1 Cote D'Ivoire TIC4Ed Email: contact@tic4ed.org

Phone: +225 07 77 84 41 92

4.2 Cote D'Ivoire Impact Hub Abidjan Phone: +225 68 84 91 90
4.3 Cote D'Ivoire AIGE Limited Contact Us

Email: training@aige.info

Phone: +234 806 630 6719

Able to produce and ship 3D printed bone models to Félix-Houphouët-Boigny International Airport (IATA: ABJ, ICAO: DIAP) to receive the package.
5 Ethiopia AIGE Limited Contact Us

Email: training@aige.info

Phone: +234 806 630 6719

Able to produce and ship 3D printed bone models to Addis Ababa Bole International Airport (IATA: ADD, ICAO: HAAB) and Dire Dawa International Airport (IATA: DIR, ICAO: HADR) to receive the package.
6.1 Ghana SIT Fab Lab Email: info@sitghana.org

Phone: +233 24 944 0222

Phone: 1 8572659493

6.2 Ghana Impact Hub Accra Website - go to "Click here to send us an email"

Phone: +233543962412

Impact Hub is a global network of over 15,000 members in over 100+ locations.
6.3 Ghana AIGE Limited Contact Us

Email: training@aige.info

Phone: +234 806 630 6719

Able to produce and ship 3D printed bone models to Kotoka International Airport (IATA: ACC, ICAO: DGAA) to receive the package.
7.1 India Imaginarium Contact Us

Email: hello@imaginarium.io

Phone: +91 22 6738 0100

Official Ultimaker Reseller for India
7.2 India Fablabs.io Contact each active Fab Lab individually There are 38 active Fab Labs in India.
7.3 India Hackerspaces in India Contact each active Hackerspace individually
7.4 India Makerspaces Contact each Makerspace directly There are 18 Makerspaces in India listed in the Makerspace directory.
7.5 India Maker's Asylum Contact

Email: info@makersasylum.com

Phone: +91 90046 86828

The image AMP_6688 shows a fused filament fabrication 3D printer on the far right that appears to have an adequate minimum build volume Z height to print the Adult Tibial Bone Models at 100% scale.
8 Malawi AIGE Limited Contact Us

Email: training@aige.info

Phone: +234 806 630 6719

Able to produce and ship 3D printed bone models to Chileka International Airport (IATA: BLZ, ICAO: FWCL) and Kamuzu International Airport (IATA: LLW, ICAO: FWKI) to receive the package.
9.1 Nigeria AIGE Limited Contact Us

Email: training@aige.info

Phone: +234 806 630 6719

Official Ultimaker Reseller for Nigeria and able to produce and ship 3D printed bone models to any African country with an international airport to receive the package.
9.2 Nigeria Fablabs.io Contact each active Fab Lab individually There are 5 active Fab Labs in Nigeria.
9.3 Nigeria Impact Hub Lagos Facebook
9.4 Nigeria Co-Creation Hub Nigeria Email: info@cchubnigeria.com CcHUB Design Lab collaborates "with scientists, researchers, health professionals and developers to use technology in accelerating the adoption of locally-created solutions for better detection and surveillance of diseases and adherence to treatment."[19]
9.5 Nigeria 3DAfrica Contact Us 3D Africa is the latest program developed by the Youth for Technology Foundation, a long-time developer of education, training, and economic empowerment programs in Africa and other developing nations. "The goal is to give you the technical skills, education, business training, and support during AND after the program so that you can be employed in STEM fields, start a business, create new sources of income, or find a better job and career."
10.1 Rwanda FabLab Rwanda Request Quotation

Email: info@fablab.rw

Phone: +250 789 276 080

Website shows an Ultimaker 2+ which has a minimum build volume Z height of 200 mm so can print Adult Tibial Bone Models at 100% scale.
10.2 Rwanda Impact Hub Kigali Email: connect.kigali@impacthub.net

Phone: +250 788 544 203

10.3 Rwanda AIGE Limited Contact Us

Email: training@aige.info

Phone: +234 806 630 6719

Able to produce and ship 3D printed bone models to Kamembe International Airport, (IATA: KME, ICAO: HRZA) and Kigali International Airport (IATA: KGL, ICAO: HRYR) to receive the package.
11.1 South Africa BuildVolume Contact Us

Email: info@buildvolume.co.za

Phone: +27(0)10 594 4644

WhatsApp: +27(0)67 309 1772

Official Ultimaker Reseller for South Africa
11.2 South Africa Chillipepper 3D Request Quotation

Contact

Email: info@chillipepper3d.co.za

Phone: 021 9820165

Official Ultimaker Reseller for South Africa
11.3 South Africa AIGE Limited Contact Us

Email: training@aige.info

Phone: +234 806 630 6719

Able to produce and ship 3D printed bone models to Cape Town International Airport (IATA: CPT, ICAO: FACT), King Shaka International Airport (IATA: DUR, ICAO: FALE), Lanseria International Airport (IATA: HLA, ICAO: FALA), O. R. Tambo International Airport (IATA: JNB, ICAO: FAOR), Kruger Mpumalanga International Airport (IATA: MQP, ICAO: FAKN), Pilanesberg International Airport (IATA: NTY, ICAO: FAPN), Polokwane International Airport (IATA: PTG, ICAO: FAPP), and Chief Dawid Stuurman International Airport (IATA: PLZ, ICAO: FAPE) to receive the package.
11.4 South Africa FADA FabLab University of Johannesburg Email: uj.fablab@gmail.com

Phone: +27 76 617 3504

Website link is not working.
11.5 South Africa Hackerspaces in South Africa Contact each active Hackerspace individually There are 5 active Hackerspaces in South Africa.
12.1 Sudan Impact Hub Khartoum Let's Talk
12.2 Sudan Sumakers Lab Email: info@sumakerslab.com

Phone: +249-905866883

Website states, "The first makerspace in Sudan."
12.3 Sudan AIGE Limited Contact Us

Email: training@aige.info

Phone: +234 806 630 6719

Able to produce and ship 3D printed bone models to Khartoum International Airport (IATA: KRT, ICAO: HSSK) and Port Sudan New International Airport (IATA: PZU, ICAO: HSPN) to receive the package.
13.1 Uganda Oysters and Pearls Contact

Email: info@OystersAndPearls.org

Phone: +256 773929407

Uses a Flashforge Creator 3 Printer with a maximum build volume Z height of 200 mm so the bone models will need to be uniformly scaled down to 95%.
13.2 Uganda MoTIV Contact

Email: info@motivug.org

Phone: +256 39 3252658

Has a fused filament fabrication 3D printer with a maximum build volume Z height of 200 mm so the bone models will need to be uniformly scaled down to 95%. Able to arrange shipping of our 3D printed models to anywhere across the country at the clients cost.
13.3 Uganda AIGE Limited Contact Us

Email: training@aige.info

Phone: +234 806 630 6719

Able to produce and ship 3D printed bone models to Entebbe International Airport (IATA: EBB, ICAO: HUEN) to receive the package.
13.4 Uganda CORSU Rehabilitation Hospital in partnership with Nia Technologies Contact Us - CORSU Rehabilitation Hospital

Email: customercare@corsuhospital.org

Phone: +256 761 002 111


Contact Us - Nia Technologies

Website - Nia Technologies

13.5 Uganda Innovation Village Contact Us

Email: info@innovationvillage.co.ug

Phone: +256 39 324 1297

Global Simulation Societies[edit | edit source]

Click on this link to find and reach out to simulation societies in your region to inquire if any of their member institutions and/or partners accept 3D print on demand requests.

African Biomedical Engineering Consortium[edit | edit source]

"The African Biomedical Engineering Consortium (ABEC) is a regional platform for promoting innovation and entrepreneurship in healthcare infrastructure and technologies for improved healthcare outcomes in Africa."[20]

The African Biomedical Engineering Consortium is composed of 16 members from North, East, West and Southern Africa:[21]

  1. Addis Ababa Institute of Technology (Ethiopia)
  2. Cairo University (Egypt)
  3. Dar Es Salaam Institute of Technology (Tanzania)
  4. Jimma University (Ethiopia)
  5. Kenyatta University (Kenya)
  6. Kyambogo University (Uganda)
  7. Makerere University (Uganda)
  8. Malawi University of Science and Technology (Malawi)
  9. Mbarara University of Science and Technology (Uganda)
  10. Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (Tanzania)
  11. Stellenbosch University
  12. Technical University of Mombasa (Kenya)
  13. Uganda Industrial Research Institute (Uganda)
  14. University of Cape Town (South Africa)
  15. University of Ibadan (Nigeria)
  16. University of Eldoret (Kenya)
  17. University of Lagos (Nigeria)
  18. University of Pisa (Italy)

Reach out to ABEC at secretariat@abec-africa.org or info@abec-africa.org to ask if any of their member institutions and/partners are able and willing to manufacture the 3D Printed Adult Male Tibial Bone Models and/or 3D Printed Adult Female Tibial Bone Models.

Nia Technologies[edit | edit source]

Click on this link to contact Nia Technologies to inquire if any of their clinical partners in Tanzania, Cambodia, and Uganda accept 3D print on demand requests.

Contact 3D Print on Demand Services[edit | edit source]

Once you have collected contact information for local 3D print on demand services, prepare to inquire about their print on demand capabilities.

Estimate National Market Size[edit | edit source]

When reaching out to a local 3D print on demand service, it's helpful to share the total national market size (i.e., total number of physicians who are not orthopedic surgeons in a country) they can potentially serve. We strongly encourage you to use this market information to negotiate a reasonable and fair quote with your local 3D printing organization.

Here's how to estimate the total number of physicians who are not orthopedic surgeons in your country:

  1. Go to https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.MED.PHYS.ZS
  2. Scroll down and record the number of physicians per 1,000 people in your country
  3. Go to https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL
  4. Scroll down and record the total population (in thousands) in your country
  5. Multiple the value in Step #2 with the value in Step #4 to calculate the total number of physicians in your country
  6. Reach out to your local medical licensing board or national surgical college to identify the total number of orthopedic surgeons in your country
  7. Subtract the value in Step #6 from the value in Step #5 to calculate the total number of physicians who are not orthopedic surgeons

Here's an example of how we calculated this statistic in Nigeria:

  1. In 2018, there are 0.4 physicians per 1,000 people in Nigeria[22]
  2. In 2020, there are 206,139.59 thousand people in Nigeria[23]
  3. We multiplied 206,139.59 by 0.4 to calculate that there are 82,455 physicians in Nigeria
  4. According to our Team Lead, there are 400 orthopedic surgeons in Nigeria[24]
  5. We subtracted 400 from 82,455 to calculate there are an estimated total of 82,055 physicians across Nigeria who are not orthopedic surgeons
  6. This estimate does not account for physicians who migrate or are not available due to other factors[25]

Table 3. Estimated National Market Size for 3D Printed Adult Tibial Bone Models in 13 Countries[edit | edit source]

Estimated National Market Size for 3D Printed Adult Tibial Bone Models in 13 Countries
# Country Estimated Total Number of Physicians[22][23] Estimated Number of Orthopedic Surgeons Total Number of Physicians Who are Not Orthopedic Surgeons
1 Brazil 491,012 15,600[26] 475,412
2 Burundi 1,189 4 1,185
3 Colombia 195,390 Research in progress Research in progress
4 Cote D'Ivoire 5,275 Research in progress Research in progress
5 Ethiopia 11,496 122 11,374
6 Ghana 3,107 24[27] 3,083
7 India 1,242,003 20,000[28] 1,222,003
8 Malawi 266[29] 9[29] 257
9 Nigeria 82,455 400[24] 82,055
10 Rwanda 1,295 8[30] 1,287
11 South Africa 46,853 967[31] 45,886
12 Sudan 13,154 50[32] 13,104
13 Uganda 7,775 70[33] 7,705

Send a Message[edit | edit source]

Feel free to use and adapt this introductory email template provided in italics below:

  1. *Include your name, clinical title, institutional affiliation, and city location; and
  2. **Use the estimated national market size for your country.

Greetings,

I hope this message finds you well.

My name is Dr. Habila Umaru, and I am an orthopedic surgeon who works at the National Hospital of Abuja in Nigeria.*

We are looking to collaborate with local 3D printing organizations and estimate pricing for 3D printing open-source bone simulation models for training local healthcare practitioners to improve fracture care and outcomes in resource-constrained settings. All the 3D printed models print support-free and are designed to be made on any fused filament fabrication 3D printer that has a build volume Z height of 200 mm or more (at 100% scale) or a minimum build volume Z height of 180 mm to 200 mm (less than 100% scale).

If this interests you, can you please provide us with the following information:

  • What is the brand name, printer model, and maximum build volume Z height (in millimeters) of your fused filament fabrication 3D printer?
  • How much does white polylactic acid (PLA) filament cost per gram for your 3D printer? Please use the total cost (including local taxes and shipping) for a roll of white PLA filament to estimate the filament cost in local currency per gram for your 3D printer.
  • If known, how much does your organization pay in local currency for 1 kWh of electricity?
  • Are you able to arrange shipping of our 3D printed models to anywhere across the country?

If this project is successful, the potential national market size for 3D printed bone models is the estimated 82,055 physicians across Nigeria who are not orthopedic surgeons.**

A research project has found that the 2022 price of 3D printing each bone model #1 and #2 at 95% scale in Nigeria is $11.25 and $10.90 USD (not including local taxes or shipping costs).

If your organization is not interested or available for this potential contract, can you please recommend another local 3D printing organization with a fused filament fabrication 3D printer and PLA filament who might be interested?

Thank you very much for taking the time to review our message. If we don't hear back from you, we will reach out in 2 weeks' time to confirm you received this message, answer any questions you may have, and determine what our next action steps might be.

Sincerely,

Habila Umaru, MBBS, FWACS, MDM, MHPM*

Reader/Chief Consultant Orthopaedics/Trauma Surgeon*

Department of Surgery, National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria*

Acknowledgements[edit | edit source]

This work is funded by a grant from the Intuitive Foundation. Any research, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this work are those of the author(s), and not of the Intuitive Foundation.

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Ugochukwu EG, Ugbem LP, Ijomone OM, Ebi OT. Estimation of Maximum Tibia Length from its Measured Anthropometric Parameters in a Nigerian Population. J Forensic Sci Med [serial online] 2016 [cited 2021 Jun 27];2:222-8. Available from: https://www.jfsmonline.com/text.asp?2016/2/4/222/197928.
  2. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services  —  National Institutes of Health. Human tibia and fibula. [Internet]. Bethesda, (MD): NIH 3D Print Exchange; 2014 May 29 [cited 2021 Aug 17]. Available from: https://3dprint.nih.gov/discover/3DPX-000169.
  3. Gosman JH, Hubbell ZR, Shaw CN, Ryan TM. Development of cortical bone geometry in the human femoral and tibial diaphysis. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2013 May;296(5):774-87. doi: 10.1002/ar.22688. Epub 2013 Mar 27. PMID: 23533061.
  4. Ultimaker. Ultimaker PLA Technical Data Sheet [Internet]. Ultimaker Support. [cited 2021 July 29]. Available from: https://support.ultimaker.com/hc/en-us/articles/360011962720-UltimakerPLA-TDS.
  5. Vian, Wei Dai and Denton, Nancy L., "Hardness Comparison of Polymer Specimens Produced with Different Processes" (2018). ASEE IL-IN Section Conference. 3. https://docs.lib.purdue.edu/aseeil-insectionconference/2018/tech/3.
  6. Society For Biomaterials 30th Annual Meeting Transactions, page 332. Femoral Cortical Wall Thickness And Hardness Evaluation. K. Calvert, L.A. Kirkpatrick, D.M. Blakemore, T.S. Johnson. Zimmer, Inc., Warsaw, IN.
  7. Meyers, M. A.; Chen, P.-Y. (2014). Biological Materials Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-01045-1.
  8. Forrest AM, Johnson AE, inventors; Pacific Research Laboratories, Inc., assignee. Artificial bones and methods of making same. United States patent 8,210,852 B2. Date issued 2012 Jul 3.
  9. National Institutes of Health Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases National Resource Center. What is Bone? [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): The National Institutes of Health (NIH); 2018. [Cited 2021 Aug 17]. Available from: https://www.bones.nih.gov/health-info/bone/bone-health/what-is-bone.
  10. Maeda K, Mochizuki T, Kobayashi K, Tanifuji O, Someya K, Hokari S, Katsumi R, Morise Y, Koga H, Sakamoto M, Koga Y, Kawashima H. Cortical thickness of the tibial diaphysis reveals age- and sex-related characteristics between non-obese healthy young and elderly subjects depending on the tibial regions. J Exp Orthop. 2020 Oct 6;7(1):78. doi: 10.1186/s40634-020-00297-9. PMID: 33025285; PMCID: PMC7538524.
  11. Debas, H. T., P. Donkor, A. Gawande, D. T. Jamison, M. E. Kruk, and C. N. Mock, editors. 2015. Essential Surgery. Disease Control Priorities, third edition, volume 1. Washington, DC: World Bank. doi:10.1596/978-1-4648 -0346-8. License: Creative Commons Attribution CC BY 3.0 IGO.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 https://world.prusa3d.com/
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 https://www.creality3dofficial.com/products/official-creality-ender-3-3d-printer
  14. https://help.prusa3d.com/article/faq-frequently-asked-questions_1932
  15. https://live.fablabs.io/
  16. https://impacthub.net/about-us/
  17. https://wiki.hackerspaces.org/Hackerspaces
  18. https://wiki.hackerspaces.org/List_of_Hacker_Spaces
  19. https://cchubnigeria.com/designlab/health/
  20. http://abec-africa.org/about-us/
  21. http://abec-africa.org/universities/
  22. 22.0 22.1 https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.MED.PHYS.ZS
  23. 23.0 23.1 https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL
  24. 24.0 24.1 National Hospital records high patronage on knee, hip replacement surgeries. (2020, January 26) The Sun Nigeria. Retrieved November 11, 2020 from https://www.sunnewsonline.com/national-hospital-records-high-patronage-on-knee-hip-replacement-surgeries/.
  25. https://www.thecable.ng/nma-40000-doctors-practising-in-nigeria-out-of-over-80000-registered-with-medical-council
  26. https://www.statista.com/statistics/962193/number-licensed-orthopedists-traumatologists-brazil/
  27. Brouillette MA, Kaiser SP, Konadu P, Kumah-Ametepey RA, Aidoo AJ, Coughlin RC. Orthopedic surgery in the developing world: workforce and operative volumes in Ghana compared to those in the United States. World J Surg. 2014 Apr;38(4):849-57. doi: 10.1007/s00268-013-2314-0. PMID: 24218152.
  28. Jain AK. Current state of orthopedic education in India. Indian J Orthop. 2016 Jul-Aug;50(4):341-4. doi: 10.4103/0019-5413.185586. PMID: 27512213; PMCID: PMC4964764.
  29. 29.0 29.1 Mkandawire N, Ngulube C, Lavy C. Orthopaedic clinical officer program in Malawi: a model for providing orthopaedic care. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008 Oct;466(10):2385-91. doi: 10.1007/s11999-008-0366-5. Epub 2008 Jul 15. PMID: 18633684; PMCID: PMC2584281.
  30. https://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/read/51030
  31. Dell AJ, Gray S, Fraser R, Held M, Dunn R. Orthopaedic Surgeon Density in South Africa. World J Surg. 2018 Dec;42(12):3849-3855. doi: 10.1007/s00268-018-4709-4. PMID: 29947987.
  32. https://www.jointreplacementsurgeryhospitalindia.com/en-sd/#:~:text=The%20surprising%20statistics%20by%20Sudan,surgeons%20for%2042%20million%20Sudanese!
  33. ETALO (2022). "ETALO Bone Drilling Module". Appropedia. Retrieved April 26, 2022.