# 120V Photovoltaic Microinverter Literature Review

## A new panel-integratable inverter concept for grid-connected photovoltaic systems[edit | edit source]

A. Lohner, T. Meyer, and A. Nagel, “A new panel-integratable inverter concept for grid-connected photovoltaic systems,” in *Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics*, Jun. 1996, vol. 2, pp. 827–831 vol.2, doi: 10.1109/ISIE.1996.551050.

- attempts to have high efficiency over high power range
- shows output of shown line inverter

## A boost DC-AC converter: analysis, design, and experimentation[edit | edit source]

R. O. Caceres and I. Barbi, “A boost DC-AC converter: analysis, design, and experimentation,” *IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics*, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 134–141, Jan. 1999, doi: 10.1109/63.737601.

- shows circuit topology for converter
- shows how control system works
- provides results for how it responds to various loads

## A flyback-type single phase utility interactive inverter with low-frequency ripple current reduction on the DC input for an AC photovoltaic module system[edit | edit source]

T. Shimizu, K. Wada, and N. Nakamura, “A flyback-type single phase utility interactive inverter with low-frequency ripple current reduction on the DC input for an AC photovoltaic module system,” in *2002 IEEE 33rd Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference. Proceedings (Cat. No.02CH37289)*, Jun. 2002, vol. 3, pp. 1483–1488 vol.3, doi: 10.1109/PSEC.2002.1022385.

- shows circuit topology
- has dc power smoothing circuit
- decreases ripple voltage in low frequency

## A simplified nonlinear power source for simulating PV panels[edit | edit source]

L. A. C. Lopes and A.- Lienhardt, “A simplified nonlinear power source for simulating PV panels,” in *IEEE 34th Annual Conference on Power Electronics Specialist, 2003. PESC ’03.*, Jun. 2003, vol. 4, pp. 1729–1734 vol.4, doi: 10.1109/PESC.2003.1217717.

- provides circuits that simulated the V x I curves from solar panels
- used to simulate various conditions

- provides design analysis for component values

## Topologies of single-phase inverters for small distributed power generators: an overview[edit | edit source]

Yaosuo Xue, Liuchen Chang, Sren Baekhj Kjaer, J. Bordonau, and T. Shimizu, “Topologies of single-phase inverters for small distributed power generators: an overview,” *IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics*, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 1305–1314, Sep. 2004, doi: 10.1109/TPEL.2004.833460.

- single stage vs multi stage inverters
- single stage less to fail, lower input voltage range
- multi stage higher cost, less efficient
- shows four and six switch topologies for single stage
- shows multistage topologies

## Leakage current evaluation of a singlephase transformerless PV inverter connected to the grid[edit | edit source]

O. Lopez, R. Teodorescu, F. Freijedo, and J. DovalGandoy, “Leakage current evaluation of a singlephase transformerless PV inverter connected to the grid,” in *APEC 07 - Twenty-Second Annual IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition*, Feb. 2007, pp. 907–912, doi: 10.1109/APEX.2007.357623.

- leakage current from loss of galvanic connection

## A review of single-phase grid-connected inverters for photovoltaic modules[edit | edit source]

S. B. Kjaer, J. K. Pedersen, and F. Blaabjerg, “A review of single-phase grid-connected inverters for photovoltaic modules,” *IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications*, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1292–1306, Sep. 2005, doi: 10.1109/TIA.2005.853371.

- four possible categories of inverter
- cascade power processing stages
- power decoupling type
- transformer or no transformer
- type of power stage connected to grid

==

## Transformerless Inverter for Single-Phase Photovoltaic Systems[edit | edit source]

R. Gonzalez, J. Lopez, P. Sanchis, and L. Marroyo, “Transformerless Inverter for Single-Phase Photovoltaic Systems,” *IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics*, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 693–697, Mar. 2007, doi: 10.1109/TPEL.2007.892120.

- provides topology with efficiency between 95%-97%
- designed for European grids
- prototype testing validated results

## A Single-Stage Grid Connected Inverter Topology for Solar PV Systems With Maximum Power Point Tracking[edit | edit source]

S. Jain and V. Agarwal, “A Single-Stage Grid Connected Inverter Topology for Solar PV Systems With Maximum Power Point Tracking,” *IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics*, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 1928–1940, Sep. 2007, doi: 10.1109/TPEL.2007.904202.

- shows circuit topologys of existing single stage topologies
- includes proposed circuit topology

- Analysis of the design selection for component values
- provides simulated and experimental results

## A novel Parallel Active Filter for Current Pulsation Smoothing on single stage grid-connected AC-PV modules[edit | edit source]

A. C. Kyritsis, N. P. Papanikolaou, and E. C. Tatakis, “A novel Parallel Active Filter for Current Pulsation Smoothing on single stage grid-connected AC-PV modules,” in *2007 European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications*, Sep. 2007, pp. 1–10, doi: 10.1109/EPE.2007.4417545.

## A Review of the Single Phase Photovoltaic Module Integrated Converter Topologies With Three Different DC Link Configurations[edit | edit source]

Q. Li and P. Wolfs, “A Review of the Single Phase Photovoltaic Module Integrated Converter Topologies With Three Different DC Link Configurations,” *IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics*, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 1320–1333, May 2008, doi: 10.1109/TPEL.2008.920883.

- MIC with a DC link

- MIC with a pseudo DC link
- MIC without a DC link
- reduced stages

## A single-phase current source solar inverter with reduced-size DC link[edit | edit source]

C. R. Bush and B. Wang, “A single-phase current source solar inverter with reduced-size DC link,” in *2009 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition*, Sep. 2009, pp. 54–59, doi: 10.1109/ECCE.2009.5316285.

- addresses low frequency ripple

## A New Topology With High Efficiency Throughout All Load Range for Photovoltaic PCS[edit | edit source]

B. Min, J. Lee, J. Kim, T. Kim, D. Yoo, and E. Song, “A New Topology With High Efficiency Throughout All Load Range for Photovoltaic PCS,” *IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics*, vol. 56, no. 11, pp. 4427–4435, Nov. 2009, doi: 10.1109/TIE.2008.928098.

- provides topology for proposed inverter
- designed for pv output of 450-580V

## Design and Analysis of a Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System[edit | edit source]

B. Yang, W. Li, Y. Zhao, and X. He, “Design and Analysis of a Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power System,” *IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics*, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 992–1000, Apr. 2010, doi: 10.1109/TPEL.2009.2036432.

## Power decoupling techniques for micro-inverters in PV systems-a review[edit | edit source]

H. Hu, S. Harb, N. Kutkut, I. Batarseh, and Z. J. Shen, “Power decoupling techniques for micro-inverters in PV systems-a review,” in *2010 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition*, Sep. 2010, pp. 3235–3240, doi: 10.1109/ECCE.2010.5618285.

- Power decoupling, isolates solar panel from the power of the grid

- Shows power decoupling circuitry for various topologies
- compares AC vs DC power decoupling

## Buck-boost interleaved inverter for grid connected Photovoltaic system[edit | edit source]

O. Abdel-Rahim, M. Orabi, and M. E. Ahmed, “Buck-boost interleaved inverter for grid connected Photovoltaic system,” in *2010 IEEE International Conference on Power and Energy*, Nov. 2010, pp. 63–68, doi: 10.1109/PECON.2010.5697558.

- shows proposed control system for buck-boost inverter
- single stage design
- two converters
- one for half of each cycle

- two converters

## A Novel PV Microinverter With Coupled Inductors and Double-Boost Topology[edit | edit source]

Y. Fang and X. Ma, “A Novel PV Microinverter With Coupled Inductors and Double-Boost Topology,” *IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics*, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 3139–3147, Dec. 2010, doi: 10.1109/TPEL.2010.2087417.

- proposes two boost circuits in parallel
- provides principal of operation
- gives circuit topology

- high efficiency
- appears to be more complex than other topologies

## A New High-Efficiency Single-Phase Transformerless PV Inverter Topology[edit | edit source]

T. Kerekes, R. Teodorescu, P. Rodríguez, G. Vázquez, and E. Aldabas, “A New High-Efficiency Single-Phase Transformerless PV Inverter Topology,” *IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics*, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 184–191, Jan. 2011, doi: 10.1109/TIE.2009.2024092.

- proposed topology has efficiency of 93% to 95%

## A compact seven switches topology and reduced DC-link capacitor size for single-phase stand-alone PV system with hybrid energy storages[edit | edit source]

X. Liu, P. Wang, P. C. Loh, F. Blaabjerg, and F. Gao, “A compact seven switches topology and reduced DC-link capacitor size for single-phase stand-alone PV system with hybrid energy storages,” in *2011 Twenty-Sixth Annual IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC)*, Mar. 2011, pp. 1920–1925, doi: 10.1109/APEC.2011.5744858.

- part of an dc-ac-dc for battery storage

## Six switches solution for single-phase AC/DC/AC converter with capability of second-order power mitigation in DC-link capacitor[edit | edit source]

X. Liu, P. Wang, P. C. Loh, F. Blaabjerg, and M. Xue, “Six switches solution for single-phase AC/DC/AC converter with capability of second-order power mitigation in DC-link capacitor,” in *2011 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition*, Sep. 2011, pp. 1368–1375, doi: 10.1109/ECCE.2011.6063938.

## Low cost transformer isolated boost half-bridge micro-inverter for single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic system[edit | edit source]

D. Cao, S. Jiang, F. Z. Peng, and Y. Li, “Low cost transformer isolated boost half-bridge micro-inverter for single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic system,” in *2012 Twenty-Seventh Annual IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC)*, Feb. 2012, pp. 71–78, doi: 10.1109/APEC.2012.6165800.

- two popular topologies of transformer isolated inverters
- single stage flyback
- isolated buck-boost

- paper shows two stage
- half bridge dc-dc
- full bridge pwm dc-ac

- gives proposed circuit

## Improved Transformerless Inverter With Common-Mode Leakage Current Elimination for a Photovoltaic Grid-Connected Power System[edit | edit source]

B. Yang, W. Li, Y. Gu, W. Cui, and X. He, “Improved Transformerless Inverter With Common-Mode Leakage Current Elimination for a Photovoltaic Grid-Connected Power System,” *IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics*, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 752–762, Feb. 2012, doi: 10.1109/TPEL.2011.2160359.

- improves on transformerless to prevent common-mode current leakage
- adds two extra switches to an H-4 design

## Grid-Connected Boost-Half-Bridge Photovoltaic Microinverter System Using Repetitive Current Control and Maximum Power Point Tracking[edit | edit source]

S. Jiang, D. Cao, Y. Li, and F. Z. Peng, “Grid-Connected Boost-Half-Bridge Photovoltaic Microinverter System Using Repetitive Current Control and Maximum Power Point Tracking,” *IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics*, vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 4711–4722, Nov. 2012, doi: 10.1109/TPEL.2012.2183389.

- proposed topology designed for 180 V at 220 W 60 HZ
- plug in repetitive controller

## A module-integrated isolated solar microinverter[edit | edit source]

H. Chiu *et al.*, “A module-integrated isolated solar microinverter,” *IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics*, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 781–788, Feb. 2013, doi: 10.1109/TIE.2012.2206351.

- provides topology for two stage isolated microinverter
- max power of 250 W
- designed for both 110V and 220V grid
- frequency from 47 - 63 Hz

- Max efficiency of 93%

## High Reliability and Efficiency Single-Phase Transformerless Inverter for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems[edit | edit source]

B. Gu, J. Dominic, J. Lai, C. Chen, T. LaBella, and B. Chen, “High Reliability and Efficiency Single-Phase Transformerless Inverter for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems,” *IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics*, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 2235–2245, May 2013, doi: 10.1109/TPEL.2012.2214237.

- aims to remove "shot through issue"

## Microinverter and string inverter grid-connected photovoltaic system — A comprehensive study[edit | edit source]

S. Harb, M. Kedia, H. Zhang, and R. S. Balog, “Microinverter and string inverter grid-connected photovoltaic system — A comprehensive study,” in *2013 IEEE 39th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC)*, Jun. 2013, pp. 2885–2890, doi: 10.1109/PVSC.2013.6745072.

- microinverters have lower cost than string inverter

## Hybrid ZVS BCM Current Controlled Three-Phase Microinverter[edit | edit source]

D. M. Scholten, N. Ertugrul, and W. L. Soong, “Micro-inverters in small scale PV systems: A review and future directions,” in *2013 Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference (AUPEC)*, Sep. 2013, pp. 1–6, doi: 10.1109/AUPEC.2013.6725465.

- compares efficiency of three different current modulations for the converter
- fixed reverse current
- variable reverse current
- fixed bandwitch

- hybrid control used is able to increase efficiency

## High efficiency transformerless MOSFET inverter for grid-tied photovoltaic system[edit | edit source]

M. Islam and S. Mekhilef, “High efficiency transformerless MOSFET inverter for grid-tied photovoltaic system,” in *2014 IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition - APEC 2014*, Mar. 2014, pp. 3356–3361, doi: 10.1109/APEC.2014.6803788.

- proposes topology which works for 230V at 50Hz
- based on 6 mosfets, 2 diodes

- simulated results are promising

## A hybrid resonant converter utilizing a bidirectional GaN AC switch for high-efficiency PV applications[edit | edit source]

T. LaBella and J. Lai, “A hybrid resonant converter utilizing a bidirectional GaN AC switch for high-efficiency PV applications,” in *2014 IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition - APEC 2014*, Mar. 2014, pp. 1–8, doi: 10.1109/APEC.2014.6803281.

- upwards of 97% efficincy
- input ranges from 22V-36V

## A multi-objective study for down selection of a micro-inverter topology for residential applications[edit | edit source]

M. H. Todorovic *et al.*, “A multi-objective study for down selection of a micro-inverter topology for residential applications,” in *2014 IEEE 40th Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC)*, Jun. 2014, pp. 3108–3113, doi: 10.1109/PVSC.2014.6925595.

- compares various single stage and two-stage topologies
- shows proposed circuit topology for 240V inverter
- shows output results, but does not have any load analysis
- 96.1% peak efficiency

## A review of technical requirements for plug-and-play solar photovoltaic microinverter systems in the United States[edit | edit source]

A. S. Mundada, Y. Nilsiam, and J. M. Pearce, “A review of technical requirements for plug-and-play solar photovoltaic microinverter systems in the United States,” *Solar Energy*, vol. 135, pp. 455–470, Oct. 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.solener.2016.06.002.

- Relevant US National Electric Codes
- Section 690.5: ground fault protection
- Section 690.11: arc fault circuit protection
- Section 690.12: rapid shutdown of PC systems on buildings
- Section 690.13 and 690.15: disconnecting means
- Section 690.17: disconnect type
- 690.8: PV circuit sizing and current calculation
- 690.46: PV array equipment grounding conductors

- More local and state codes must be followed

## A Single-Stage Microinverter Without Using Eletrolytic Capacitors[edit | edit source]

H. Hu, S. Harb, N. H. Kutkut, Z. J. Shen, and I. Batarseh, “A Single-Stage Microinverter Without Using Eletrolytic Capacitors,” *IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics*, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 2677–2687, Jun. 2013, doi: 10.1109/TPEL.2012.2224886.

- isolates decoupling capacitor from pv
- requires lower energy density in capacitor

- uses flyback, single stage

## A high-efficiency pv grid-tied micro-inverter with soft switching for dc/ac stage[edit | edit source]

Y. Zhao, T. Wei, H. Hu, and Y. Xing, “A high-efficiency pv grid-tied micro-inverter with soft switching for dc/ac stage,” in *2015 IEEE 10th Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA)*, Jun. 2015, pp. 1150–1154, doi: 10.1109/ICIEA.2015.7334280.

- combines LLC resonator with full bridge inverter
- improve efficiency over just full bridge inverter
- able to get efficiency of 98.5%

## A High-Efficiency MOSFET Transformerless Inverter for Nonisolated Microinverter Applications[edit | edit source]

B. Chen *et al.*, “A High-Efficiency MOSFET Transformerless Inverter for Nonisolated Microinverter Applications,” *IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics*, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 3610–3622, Jul. 2015, doi: 10.1109/TPEL.2014.2339320.

- provides topology for high step up for dc-dc then transformerless dc-ac
- designed for 240V operation

- goes through component selection

## Modeling and control of a wide-input hybrid resonant microconverter for photovoltaic applications[edit | edit source]

X. Zhao, L. Zhang, Q. Ma, and J. Lai, “Modeling and control of a wide-input hybrid resonant microconverter for photovoltaic applications,” in *2016 Asian Conference on Energy, Power and Transportation Electrification (ACEPT)*, Oct. 2016, pp. 1–6, doi: 10.1109/ACEPT.2016.7811524.

- phase shift operation, secondary boost mode
- wider input voltage range

## A Review of Power Decoupling Techniques for Microinverters With Three Different Decoupling Capacitor Locations in PV Systems[edit | edit source]

H. Hu, S. Harb, N. Kutkut, I. Batarseh, and Z. J. Shen, “A Review of Power Decoupling Techniques for Microinverters With Three Different Decoupling Capacitor Locations in PV Systems,” *IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics*, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 2711–2726, Jun. 2013, doi: 10.1109/TPEL.2012.2221482.

- decoupling at high voltage for multistage microinverter
- three phase systems use ac decoupling

## Micro-inverters in small scale PV systems: A review and future directions[edit | edit source]

D. M. Scholten, N. Ertugrul, and W. L. Soong, “Micro-inverters in small scale PV systems: A review and future directions,” in *2013 Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference (AUPEC)*, Sep. 2013, pp. 1–6, doi: 10.1109/AUPEC.2013.6725465.

- multiple microinverters vs single central inverter
- microinverters easier to add and subtract
- microinverters can better maximize the power output of each panel

## Low-cost photovoltaic microinverter with ultra-wide MPPT voltage range[edit | edit source]

E. Liivik, A. Chub, R. Kosenko, and D. Vinnikov, “Low-cost photovoltaic microinverter with ultra-wide MPPT voltage range,” in *2017 6th International Conference on Clean Electrical Power (ICCEP)*, Jun. 2017, pp. 46–52, doi: 10.1109/ICCEP.2017.8004790.

- two stage inverter
- experimental results at 250W shows an efficiency of 94%

## A common-ground single-phase five-level transformerless boost inverter for photovoltaic applications[edit | edit source]

B. Shaffer, H. A. Hassan, M. J. Scott, S. U. Hasan, G. E. Town, and Y. Siwakoti, “A common-ground single-phase five-level transformerless boost inverter for photovoltaic applications,” in *2018 IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC)*, Mar. 2018, pp. 368–374, doi: 10.1109/APEC.2018.8341037.

## A novel Parallel Active Filter for Current Pulsation Smoothing on single stage grid-connected AC-PV modules[edit | edit source]

Y. P. Siwakoti and F. Blaabjerg, “Common-Ground-Type Transformerless Inverters for Single-Phase Solar Photovoltaic Systems,” *IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics*, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 2100–2111, Mar. 2018, doi: 10.1109/TIE.2017.2740821.

- trend toward transformerless
- operates off of a 'flying capacitor'
- the type I and type II topologies are more efficient than the third type III topology

## Review and Comparison of Single-Phase Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Microinverters[edit | edit source]

K. Alluhaybi and I. Batarseh, “Review and Comparison of Single-Phase Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Microinverters,” in *2018 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE)*, Sep. 2018, pp. 7101–7108, doi: 10.1109/ECCE.2018.8558076.

- emphasized transformerless topologies as better than transformer
- single stage non-isolated topologies are ideal

## A High-Efficiency Single-Phase T-Type BCM Microinverter[edit | edit source]

Z. Zhang, J. Zhang, S. Shao, and J. Zhang, “A High-Efficiency Single-Phase T-Type BCM Microinverter,” *IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics*, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 984–995, Jan. 2019, doi: 10.1109/TPEL.2018.2824342.

- T-type BCM vs full bridge BCM for single phase
- as shown T-type more efficient
- most efficiency improvement at lower power

- Circuit topology for T-type BCM

## An Overview of Photovoltaic Microinverters: Topology, Efficiency, and Reliability[edit | edit source]

J. Yuan, F. Blaabjerg, Y. Yang, A. Sangwongwanich, and Y. Shen, “An Overview of Photovoltaic Microinverters: Topology, Efficiency, and Reliability,” in *2019 IEEE 13th International Conference on Compatibility, Power Electronics and Power Engineering (CPE-POWERENG)*, Apr. 2019, pp. 1–6, doi: 10.1109/CPE.2019.8862334.

- compares four different microinverters on the market

## Design and Analysis of a Flyback Micro Inverter with H5 Inverter[edit | edit source]

E. Kabalci, A. Boyar, and N. A. Metin, “Design and Analysis of a Flyback Micro Inverter with H5 Inverter,” in *2019 1st Global Power, Energy and Communication Conference (GPECOM)*, Jun. 2019, pp. 368–373, doi: 10.1109/GPECOM.2019.8778530.

- topology designed for 220V
- simulated efficiency of 94%
- adds a switch to an h-4 inverter

## Computational Model of a Two-stage Microinverter With Flyback Active Clamp and Dual Buck[edit | edit source]

M. A. Bolaños-Navarrete, G. Osorio, J. D. Bastidas-Rodriguez, and E. J. Revelo-Fuelagan, “Computational Model of a Two-stage Microinverter With Flyback Active Clamp and Dual Buck,” in *2019 IEEE 4th Colombian Conference on Automatic Control (CCAC)*, Oct. 2019, pp. 1–6, doi: 10.1109/CCAC.2019.8921241.

- provides model to simulate the output of a microinverter

## A Transformerless Photovoltaic Microinverter using High-gain Z-Source Boost Converter for Single-phase Grid connected Applications[edit | edit source]

N. S. Prabhu, R. Viswadev, B. Venkatesaperumal, and S. Mishra, “A Transformerless Photovoltaic Microinverter using High-gain Z-Source Boost Converter for Single-phase Grid connected Applications,” in *2020 IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics, Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (PESGRE2020)*, Jan. 2020, pp. 1–6, doi: 10.1109/PESGRE45664.2020.9070677.

- Tests if high gain z-source boost converters are suitable for microinverters
- provides circuit topology
- describes control system

- gives simulated results on 230V grid

## Comprehensive Review and Comparison of Single-Phase Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Microinverters[edit | edit source]

K. Alluhaybi, I. Batarseh, and H. Hu, “Comprehensive Review and Comparison of Single-Phase Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Microinverters,” *IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics*, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 1310–1329, Jun. 2020, doi: 10.1109/JESTPE.2019.2900413.

- Breaks down the main topologies
- provides given examples for most popular topologies

- Single stage superior to double stage
- non-isolated single stage best option
- buck-boost great option, needs optimization

## A Quasi Z -Source Matrix Microinverter for Grid Connected PV Applications[edit | edit source]

L. Palma, “A Quasi Z -Source Matrix Microinverter for Grid Connected PV Applications,” in *2020 International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM)*, Jun. 2020, pp. 526–531, doi: 10.1109/SPEEDAM48782.2020.9161972.

- designed for 220v 50 Hz
- simulation shows would work connected to grid

## Two-Stage Flyback Micro Inverter for Solar Power Conversion[edit | edit source]

A. BOYAR and E. KABALCI, “Two-Stage Flyback Micro Inverter for Solar Power Conversion,” in *2020 2nd Global Power, Energy and Communication Conference (GPECOM)*, Oct. 2020, pp. 6–11, doi: 10.1109/GPECOM49333.2020.9247905.

## An Interleaved Flyback Micro Inverter with H5 Topology for Photovoltaic Applications[edit | edit source]

E. KABALCI and A. BOYAR, “An Interleaved Flyback Micro Inverter with H5 Topology for Photovoltaic Applications,” in *2020 2nd Global Power, Energy and Communication Conference (GPECOM)*, Oct. 2020, pp. 12–17, doi: 10.1109/GPECOM49333.2020.9247879.

- proposes 220V 50Hz topology
- 40-60V in, dc-dc up to 450V