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Life cycle analysis of distributed recycling of post-consumer high density polyethylene for 3-D printing filament
| By Michigan Tech's Open Sustainability Technology Lab.
Wanted: Students to make a distributed future with solar-powered open-source 3-D printing.
|This page is part of an international project to use RepRap 3-D printing to make OSAT for sustainable development. Learn more.
Research: Open source 3-D printing of OSAT • RecycleBot • LCA of home recycling • Green Distributed Recycling • Ethical Filament • LCA of distributed manufacturing • RepRap LCA Energy and CO2 • Solar-powered RepRaps • Feasibility hub • Mechanical testing • RepRap printing protocol: MOST• Lessons learned • MOST RepRap Build • MOST Prusa Build • MOST HS RepRap build • RepRap Print Server
- M.A. Kreiger, M.L. Mulder, A.G. Glover, J. M. Pearce, Life Cycle Analysis of Distributed Recycling of Post-consumer High Density Polyethylene for 3-D Printing Filament, Journal of Cleaner Production, 70, pp. 90–96 (2014). DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.02.009. open access
- Life cycle analysis performed on recycling of high density polyethylene (HDPE).
- HDPE filament is used additive manufacturing with open-source 3-D printers.
- Compared energy & greenhouse gas emissions for distributed vs centralized recycling.
- Distributed recycling has lower environmental impact than centralized recycling.
Abstract3-D printers is driving an interest in recycled 3-D printer filament to reduce costs of distributed production. Life cycle analysis studies were performed on the recycling of high density polyethylene into filament suitable for additive layer manufacturing with 3-D printers. The conventional centralized recycling system for high population density and low population density rural locations was compared to the proposed in home, distributed recycling system. This system would involve shredding and then producing filament with an open-source plastic extruder from post-consumer plastics and then printing the extruded filament into usable, value-added parts and products with 3-D printers such as the open-source self replicating rapid prototyper, or RepRap. The embodied energy and carbon dioxide emissions were calculated for high density polyethylene recycling using SimaPro 7.2 and the database EcoInvent v2.0. The results showed that distributed recycling uses less embodied energy than the best-case scenario used for centralized recycling. For centralized recycling in a low-density population case study involving substantial embodied energy use for transportation and collection these savings for distributed recycling were found to extend to over 80%. If the distributed process is applied to the U.S. high density polyethylene currently recycled, more than 100 million MJ of energy could be conserved per annum along with the concomitant significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. It is concluded that with the open-source 3-D printing network expanding rapidly the potential for widespread adoption of in-home recycling of post-consumer plastic represents a novel path to a future of distributed manufacturing appropriate for both the developed and developing world with lower environmental impacts than the current system.
Energy Demand & Greenhouse Gas Emissions.
|Case||Energy Demand (MJ/kg HDPE)||Percent Reduction (%) for Distributed Recycling||Greenhouse Gas Emissions (kg CO2 eq per kg HDPE)|
|Distributed Recycling: Insulated RecycleBot||8.74||--||0.52|
|Centralized Recycling – High Density Population: Detroit||9||3||0.63|
|Centralized Recycling – Low Density Population: Copper Harbor (monthly)||28.4||69||2.65|
|Centralized Recycling – Low Density Population: Copper Harbor (bi-weekly)||48.9||82||4.04|
|3DPI.tv on Recycling with Recyclebot|
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- Evaluation of Potential Fair Trade Standards for an Ethical 3-D Printing Filament
- Mechanical Properties of Components Fabricated with Open-Source 3-D Printers Under Realistic Environmental Conditions
- Mechanical testing of polymer components made with the RepRap 3-D printer
- Development and feasibility of applications for the RepRap 3-D printer
- Life cycle analysis of distributed polymer recycling
- Solar powered distributed customized manufacturing
- Distributed recycling of post-consumer plastic waste in rural areas
- Ethical Filament Foundation
- Economist article on U. of Washington's HDPE boat, Oprn3dp.me
- Cruz, F., Lanza, S., Boudaoud, H., Hoppe, S., & Camargo, M. Polymer Recycling and Additive Manufacturing in an Open Source context: Optimization of processes and methods. http://sffsymposium.engr.utexas.edu/sites/default/files/2015/2015-127-Cruz.pdf
- Waste plastic extruder: literature review
- Life cycle analysis of polymer recycling literature review
- Study: Recycling plastic at home saves energy and dramatically cuts 3D printing costs - CNN/Money, Gigaom
- Save Money and the Planet: Turn Your Old Milk Jugs into 3D Printer Filament- MTU News,Science Codex, Science Daily, Humanitarian News, ECN, Science Blog, EIA (India)
- Turning old plastic into 3D printer filament is greener than conventional recycling - 3Ders
- 3D printing with old milk jugs saves both money and energy Geek.com
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- Turning old milk jugs into 3D printer filament - Phys.org, Product Design and Development
- Michigan Tech Prof Says You Can Save Big With Milk Jug Recycling For 3D Printing - CBS Detroit
- How 3D printer can help you protect environment - Yahoo News,Business Standard, Daijiworld, IANS Live, Daily India Mail, Vancouver Desi, Malaysian Sun
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- 3D Printing: A Better Way To Recycle - Earthtechling
- DIY recycling the most energy efficient - Recycling International
- How can 3D printers help in energy conservation? - The Hindu
- 3D Printing Offers New Way to Recycle and Save Money- Franchise Herald
- Make Your Own 3-D Printer Filament From Old Milk Jugs — Exponentially Cheaper Than Buying Filament, Research Shows - Cleantechnica
- 3D Printing Plastic — Distributed Recyling and Distributing the Benefits - 3D Printing Industry
- Save the planet: Turn old milk jugs into 3D printer filament - CrowdfundingPR
- Recycling Milk Jugs into 3D Printer Filament Saves Money and the Environment - 3D Printer World
- Research: LCA of distributed recycling of post-consumer high density polyethylene for 3D printing filament - NVC Netherlands
- Can We 3D Print our Way to Sustainability? - Earth Island Journal
- Plastic: New Technology Promises Greener 3-D Printing NBC News New York, Miami Sun Times, NBC Bay Area