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Distributed recycling of post-consumer plastic waste in rural areas
| By Michigan Tech's Open Sustainability Technology Lab.
Wanted: Students to make a distributed future with solar-powered open-source 3-D printing.
|This page is part of an international project to use RepRap 3-D printing to make OSAT for sustainable development. Learn more.
Research: Open source 3-D printing of OSAT • RecycleBot • LCA of home recycling • Green Distributed Recycling • Ethical Filament • LCA of distributed manufacturing • RepRap LCA Energy and CO2 • Solar-powered RepRaps • solar powered recyclebot • Feasibility hub • Mechanical testing • RepRap printing protocol: MOST• Lessons learned • MOST RepRap Build • MOST Prusa Build • MOST HS RepRap build • RepRap Print Server
M. Kreiger, G. C. Anzalone, M. L. Mulder, A. Glover and J. M Pearce (2013). Distributed Recycling of Post-Consumer Plastic Waste in Rural Areas. MRS Online Proceedings Library, 1492, mrsf12-1492-g04-06 doi:10.1557/opl.2013.258. open access
Although the environmental benefits of recycling plastics are well established and most geographic locations within the U.S. offer some plastic recycling, recycling rates are often low. Low recycling rates are often observed in conventional centralized recycling plants due to the challenge of collection and transportation for high-volume low-weight polymers. The recycling rates decline further when low population density, rural and relatively isolated communities are investigated because of the distance to recycling centers makes recycling difficult and both economically and energetically inefficient. The recent development of a class of open source hardware tools (e.g. RecycleBots) able to convert post-consumer plastic waste to polymer filament for 3-D printing offer a means to increase recycling rates by enabling distributed recycling. In addition, to reducing the amount of plastic disposed of in landfills, distributed recycling may also provide low-income families a means to supplement their income with domestic production of small plastic goods. This study investigates the environmental impacts of polymer recycling. A life-cycle analysis (LCA) for centralized plastic recycling is compared to the implementation of distributed recycling in rural areas. Environmental impact of both recycling scenarios is quantified in terms of energy use per unit mass of recycled plastic. A sensitivity analysis is used to determine the environmental impacts of both systems as a function of distance to recycling centers. The results of this LCA study indicate that distributed recycling of HDPE for rural regions is energetically favorable to either using virgin resin or conventional recycling processes. This study indicates that the technical progress in solar photovoltaic devices, open-source 3-D printing and polymer filament extrusion have made distributed polymer recycling and upcycling technically viable.
Table 1: Energy Demand and Reduction for Various Recycling Cases
|Case||Energy Demand (MJ/kg HDPE)||Percent Reduction (Δ%) for Distributed Recycling c|
| Distributed Recycling:
|Centralized Recyclingb – Rural: Copper Harbor (monthly)||28.4||69|
|Centralized Recyclingb – Rural: Copper Harbor (bi-weekly)||48.9||82|
|Notes: a. , b. Estimate based on , c. Percent reduction = (Central-Distributed)/Central*100|
- Waste plastic extruder: literature review
- Life cycle analysis of polymer recycling literature review
- RepRapable Recyclebot: Open source 3-D printable extruder for converting plastic to 3-D printing filament
- Tightening the loop on the circular economy: Coupled distributed recycling and manufacturing with recyclebot and RepRap 3-D printing
- Life cycle analysis of distributed recycling of post-consumer high density polyethylene for 3-D printing filament
- Energy Payback Time of a Solar Photovoltaic Powered Waste Plastic Recyclebot System
- Recyclebot on RepRap wiki
- Mechanical testing of polymer components made with the RepRap 3-D printer
- Development and feasibility of applications for the RepRap 3-D printer
- Wood Furniture Waste-Based Recycled 3-D Printing Filament
- Life cycle analysis of distributed polymer recycling
- Solar powered distributed customized manufacturing
- Economist article on U. of Washington's HDPE boat, Oprn3dp.me
- Ethical Filament Foundation