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Open-pv.png This page is part of an MTU graduate course MY5490/EE5490: Solar Photovoltaic Science and Engineering. Both the course documentation and the course generated content is open source. However, the course runs over Spring semesters during this time it is not open edit. Please leave comments using the discussion tab.


Smart shade methods[edit]

in this page we review methods for this project

Literature Review[edit]

See also : Smart solar shades literature review

  1. Joshua M, Pearce (2002-09). "Photovoltaics — a path to sustainable futures". Futures 34 (7): 663-674. doi:10.1016/S0016-3287(02)00008-3. ISSN 0016-3287.


    Abstract: As both population and energy use per capita increase, modern society is approaching physical limits to its continued fossil fuel consumption. The immediate limits are set by the planet’s ability to adapt to a changing atmospheric chemical composition, not the availability of resources. In order for a future society to be sustainable while operating at or above our current standard of living a shift away from carbon based energy sources must occur. An overview of the current state of active solar (photovoltaic, PV) energy technology is provided here to outline a partial solution for the environmental problems caused by accelerating global energy expenditure. The technical, social, and economic benefits and limitations of PV technologies to provide electricity in both off-grid and on-grid applications is critically analyzed in the context of this shift in energy sources. It is shown that PV electrical production is a technologically feasible, economically viable, environmentally benign, sustainable, and socially equitable solution to society’s future energy requirements.


    Key Features:
    • Introduction to photovoltaics
    open access


  2. Kimball, J.W.; Kuhn, B.T.; Balog, R.S. (2009-04). "A System Design Approach for Unattended Solar Energy Harvesting Supply". Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on 24 (4): 952-962. doi:10.1109/TPEL.2008.2009056. ISSN 0885-8993.


    Abstract: Remote devices, such as sensors and communications devices, require continuously available power. In many applications, conventional approaches are too expensive, too large, or unreliable. For short-term needs, primary batteries may be used. However, they do not scale up well for long-term installations. Instead, energy harvesting methods must be used. Here, a system design approach is introduced that results in a highly reliable, highly available energy harvesting device for remote applications. First, a simulation method that uses climate data and target availability produces Pareto curves for energy storage and generation. This step determines the energy storage requirement in watt-hours and the energy generation requirement in watts. Cost, size, reliability, and longevity requirements are considered to choose particular storage and generation technologies, and then to specify particular components. The overall energy processing system is designed for modularity, fault tolerance, and energy flow control capability. Maximum power point tracking is used to optimize solar panel performance. The result is a highly reliable, highly available power source. Several prototypes have been constructed and tested. Experimental results are shown for one device that uses multicrystalline silicon solar cells and lithium-iron-phosphate batteries to achieve 100% availability. Future designers can use the same approach to design systems for a wide range of power requirements and installation locations.

    Key Features:
    • MPPT information


  3. Nasiri, A.; Zabalawi, S.A.; Mandic, G. (2009-11). "Indoor Power Harvesting Using Photovoltaic Cells for Low-Power Applications". Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on 56 (11): 4502-4509. doi:10.1109/TIE.2009.2020703. ISSN 0278-0046.


    Abstract: Utilization of low-power indoor devices such as remote sensors, supervisory and alarm systems, distributed controls, and data transfer system is on steady rise. Due to remote and distributed nature of these systems, it is attractive to avoid using electrical wiring to supply power to them. Primary batteries have been used for this application for many years, but they require regular maintenance at usually hard to access places. This paper provides a complete analysis of a photovoltaic (PV) harvesting system for indoor low-power applications. The characteristics of a target load, PV cell, and power conditioning circuit are discussed. Different choices of energy storage are also explained. Implementation and test results of the system are presented, which highlights the practical issues and limitations of the system.

    Key Features:
    • Battery connection
    • Other energy storage possibilities


  4. Stephenson, D.G. (1964). "Equations for solar heat gain through windows". Solar Energy 9 (2): 81-86. http://services.lib.mtu.edu:2116/science/article/pii/0038092X65902070. Retrieved 2012-02-10.

    Abstract: An analysis of solar-radiation records obtained at Scarborough, Ontario, indicates that the insolation in Canada can be significantly greater than the values given by Moon's1 standard solar-radiation curves. It is possible to represent the solar data by a single analytical expression involving an atmospheric extinction coefficient and an apparent value of the solar constant. This expression allows the calculation of insolation on any surface and the determination of the time and date when the maximum insolation can occur for any surface. Simple expressions relate the time, date, latitude, building orientation, and the type of window glass and shading with the solar heat gain through windows. These can be used to program any digital computer to compute design values of the instantaneous heat gain through the windows of a building.
    Key Features:
    • Calculates insolation empirically (20 stations in Scarborough, Ontario)
    • Similar Latitude (Scarborough: 43.78º, Houghton: 47.12º)
    • Variables: time, date, latitude, building orientation, type of glass, and shading
    • Equations for Direct Normal Insolation @ ground level (DNI)...
    • Isolation Charts


  5. Galasiu, Anca D; Morad R Atif, Robert A MacDonald (2004-01). "Impact of window blinds on daylight-linked dimming and automatic on/off lighting controls". Solar Energy 76 (5): 523-544. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2003.12.007. ISSN 0038092X. http://nparc.cisti-icist.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/npsi/ctrl?action=shwart&index=an&req=5753984&lang=en. Retrieved 2012-02-10.

    Key Features:
    • Photo controlled lighting systems (variable lighting based off of PV sensing)
    • Possibly useful for future work section
    • lighting control systems found to be responsible for 50-60% reduction in energy consumption
    • Compares dimming systems and on/off systems
    • investigates numerous blinds configurations


  6. Boubekri, Mohamed; Robert B. Hull, Lester L. Boyer (1991-07-01). "Impact of Window Size and Sunlight Penetration on Office Workers' Mood and Satisfaction". Environment and Behavior 23 (4): 474 -493. doi:10.1177/0013916591234004. http://eab.sagepub.com/content/23/4/474.abstract. Retrieved 2012-02-10.

    Abstract: Sunlighting or direct-gain passive solar strategies let sunlight penetrate the living space. In environments where the well-being of the building occupant is a salient concern to the designer, this intrusion of sunlight ought to be controlled so that it does not impede the performance of the occupant. This study investigates the impact of window size and different amounts of sunlight penetration on occupant emotional response and degree of satisfaction. Unlike previous sunlight requirement studies, sunlight penetration is measured not in terms of duration, but rather in terms of size of sunlit areas, and therefore as a visual stimulus. The study was performed in an office room of a typical size. It was found that window size did not significantly affect the occupant emotional state or the degree of satisfaction. Sunlight penetration significantly affected the feeling of relaxation when the observer was sitting sideways to the window and the relationship had an inverted U-shape. The study stresses the validity of this novel way of assessing sunlight penetration in terms of size of the sun patches inside the room and its importance as a significant environmental attribute and design parameter that ought to be accounted for during the design of windows in sunlighting or direct-gain passive solar strategies.
    Key Features:
    • Possibly useful for general discussion (Effects on users) and important information for controls, QC, reception, and design
    • Study investigates the impact of window size as well as assorted amounts of sunlight penetration's effect on occupant (user) emotional response and satisfaction
    • Interesting algebraic approach to determine mood
    • Trends for mood based on area of floor covered in sun


  7. Lee, E.S.; D.L. DiBartolomeo, S.E. Selkowitz (1998-12). "Thermal and daylighting performance of an automated venetian blind and lighting system in a full-scale private office". Energy and Buildings 29 (1): 47-63. doi:10.1016/S0378-7788(98)00035-8. ISSN 0378-7788.

    Key Features:
    • Study utilized automated Venetian blinds synchronized with a dimmable electric lighting system.
    • Report is very well written and may provide good introduction information
    • Contains room blueprints, list of monitored data...
    • Paper could be extremely useful for a basis for writing report


  8. Roisin, B.; M. Bodart, A. Deneyer, P. D. Herdt (2008). "Lighting energy savings in offices using different control systems and their real consumption". Energy and Buildings 40 (4): 514-523. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2007.04.006. ISSN 0378-7788.

    Key Features:
    • Simulations based off of DAYSIM
    • Estimates energy savings due to smart dimming of lights
    • Savings found to be between 45-61%
    • Possibly useful for future work and background information


  9. Christoph F., Reinhart (2004). "Lightswitch-2002: a model for manual and automated control of electric lighting and blinds". Solar Energy 77 (1): 15-28. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2004.04.003. ISSN 0038-092X.

    Key Features:
    • Proposes a simulation algorithm that predicts the switching patterns of lightswitches
    • References several papers on blind use that may be useful


  10. Newsham, G.r. (1994-05-01). "Manual Control of Window Blinds and Electric Lighting: Implications for Comfort and Energy Consumption". Indoor and Built Environment 3 (3): 135 -144. doi:10.1177/1420326X9400300307. http://ibe.sagepub.com/content/3/3/135.abstract. Retrieved 2012-02-10.

    Abstract: Algorithms to describe the manual control of window blinds and electric light ing, in response to comfort stimuli, were incorporated into a building thermal model. By comparison with fixed control schedules, this paper examines the impact of manual control on model predictions of thermal comfort and build ing energy consumption. For a typical, south-facing office in Toronto, the ther mal comfort of an occupant close to the window was substantially improved by the provision of window blinds. Compared to an office with no blinds, mean PPD (predicted percentage of occupants dissatisfied with the thermal environment) was lowered from 22 to 13%, and overheated hours were reduced by over 200 per year. However, when the lighting was also manually controlled, the blinds imposed an energy penalty. Though reduced solar gain lowered cooling energy by 7%, heating energy increased by 17%, and reduced daylight increased lighting energy by 6 6 %. The implications of these results on the modelling of occupied buildings are discussed.
    Key Features:
    • Paper examines impact of manual control of window blinds and lighting for a typical south-facing office room in Toronto, ON
    • Stresses user comfort over thermal efficiency


  11. Reinhart, Cf; K Voss (2003-09-01). "Monitoring manual control of electric lighting and blinds". Lighting Research and Technology 35 (3): 243-260. doi:10.1191/1365782803li064oa. ISSN 00000000 14771535, 00000000. http://nparc.cisti-icist.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/npsi/ctrl?action=shwart&index=an&req=5756023&lang=en. Retrieved 2012-02-10.

    Key Features:
    • Builds off previous research paper
    • Probability of light switching based on illuminance


  12. Charron, Raemi; Andreas K. Athienitis (2006-05). "Optimization of the performance of double-facades with integrated photovoltaic panels and motorized blinds". Solar Energy 80 (5): 482-491. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2005.05.004. ISSN 0038-092X.

    Key Features:
    • System uses a double-facade system for energy capture


  13. Tilmann E., Kuhn (2006-06). "Solar control: A general evaluation method for facades with venetian blinds or other solar control systems". Energy and Buildings 38 (6): 648-660. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2005.10.002. ISSN 0378-7788.

    Key Features:
    • More-so a study of building design
    • Equation dense, may still be useful for energy calculations


  14. Roche, L (2002-03-01). "Summertime performance of an automated lighting and blinds control system". Lighting Research and Technology 34 (1): 11 -25. doi:10.1191/1365782802li026oa. http://lrt.sagepub.com/content/34/1/11.abstract. Retrieved 2012-02-10.

    Abstract: An innovative automated blind and lighting control system was developed to eliminate direct solar penetration and keep working plane illuminances within an optimal range, while making maximum use of daylight, and minimizing blind movement. Data collected from a controlled experiment indicate that the system eliminated direct solar glare and kept the working plane illuminance within the target range, while providing only 30% more electric lighting than a theoretical system with no blinds and perfect knowledge of the working plane illuminance. The system needed to provide 60% less electric lighting than a similar system with switchable rather than dimmable luminaires. Total blind movement varied from less than 1 min to over 6 min in one day depending on the weather, with an average of 190 s. Similar integrated systems have the potential to save a large fraction of the electricity used for lighting, while providing an amenable visual environment.
    Key Features:
    • Automated blind and lighting control system
    • Shown to provide 60% less electric lighting
    • Higher importance on staying within an illumination band than thermal


  15. Tzempelikos, Athanassios; Andreas K. Athienitis (2007). "The impact of shading design and control on building cooling and lighting demand". Solar Energy 81 (3): 369 - 382. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2006.06.015. ISSN 0038-092X.

    Key Features:
    • Study done in Montreal, Quebec... daylight availability ratio tables
    • Another good option to base writing off of


  16. M., Zaheer-Uddin (1987). "The influence of automated window shutters on the design and performance of a passive solar house". Building and Environment 22 (1): 67-75. doi:10.1016/0360-1323(87)90043-6. ISSN 0360-1323.

    Key Features:

  17. Kachadorian, James (2006-07-31). The passive solar house. Chelsea Green Publishing. ISBN 9781933392035.

    Key Features:
    • Book about general passive house information (Do-It-Yourself type book)
    • Chapter about solar design calculations


  18. Li, Yanqiu; Hongyun Yu, Bo Su, Yonghong Shang (2008-06). "Hybrid Micropower Source for Wireless Sensor Network". IEEE Sensors Journal 8 (6): 678-681. doi:10.1109/JSEN.2008.922692. ISSN 1530-437X. http://services.lib.mtu.edu:2107/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4529197&tag=1. Retrieved 2012-02-07.

    Key Features:
    • Utilizes a hybrid energy system (Li-ion batteries and ultracapacitors)
    • Entire paper on power source
    • Little design information


  19. Kimball, Jonathan W.; Brian T. Kuhn, Robert S. Balog (2009-04). "A System Design Approach for Unattended Solar Energy Harvesting Supply". IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics 24 (4): 952-962. doi:10.1109/TPEL.2008.2009056. ISSN 0885-8993. http://services.lib.mtu.edu:2107/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4812334. Retrieved 2012-02-07.

    Abstract:Remote devices, such as sensors and communications devices, require continuously available power. In many applications, conventional approaches are too expensive, too large, or unreliable. For short-term needs, primary batteries may be used. However, they do not scale up well for long-term installations. Instead, energy harvesting methods must be used. Here, a system design approach is introduced that results in a highly reliable, highly available energy harvesting device for remote applications. First, a simulation method that uses climate data and target availability produces Pareto curves for energy storage and generation. This step determines the energy storage requirement in watt-hours and the energy generation requirement in watts. Cost, size, reliability, and longevity requirements are considered to choose particular storage and generation technologies, and then to specify particular components. The overall energy processing system is designed for modularity, fault tolerance, and energy flow control capability. Maximum power point tracking is used to optimize solar panel performance. The result is a highly reliable, highly available power source. Several prototypes have been constructed and tested. Experimental results are shown for one device that uses multicrystalline silicon solar cells and lithium-iron-phosphate batteries to achieve 100% availability. Future designers can use the same approach to design systems for a wide range of power requirements and installation locations.
    Key Features:
    • Good Design flow diagrams
    • Good information on energy storage options
    • Well written, a good basis for energy information


  20. Glavin, M.; W.G. Hurley (2006-09). "Battery Management System for Solar Energy Applications". IEEE. pp. 79-83. doi:10.1109/UPEC.2006.367719. ISBN 978-186135-342-9. http://services.lib.mtu.edu:2107/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4218648. Retrieved 2012-02-08.

    Abstract:Generally in photovoltaic applications the storage battery has the highest life time cost in the system; it has a profound affect on the reliability and performance of the system. Currently the most commonly used storage technology for photovoltaic applications is the lead acid battery. The advantages of the lead acid battery are its low cost and great availability. The problem is that photovoltaic panels are not an ideal source for charging batteries. With the lead acid battery the charging regime may have a significant impact on its service life. The battery management system described in this paper aims to optimize the use of the battery, to prolong the life of the battery, making the overall system more reliable and cost effective. Maximum power point tracking will also be incorporated into the battery management system, to move the solar array operating voltage close to the maximum power point under varying atmospheric conditions, in order to draw the maximum power from the array. This paper will describe different battery technologies that are currently used with photovoltaic systems along with some of the charging techniques that are available
    Key Features:
    • Mentions a few different storage technologies (mostly nickel metal and ultracaps)
    • Some simple background on MPPTs
    • All around not a very detailed paper


  21. Brunelli, D.; C. Moser, L. Thiele, L. Benini (2009-11). "Design of a Solar-Harvesting Circuit for Batteryless Embedded Systems". IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers 56 (11): 2519-2528. doi:10.1109/TCSI.2009.2015690. ISSN 1558-0806 1549-8328, 1558-0806. http://services.lib.mtu.edu:2107/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4785219. Retrieved 2012-02-08.
    Abstact:The limited battery lifetime of modern embedded systems and mobile devices necessitates frequent battery recharging or replacement. Solar energy and small-size photovoltaic (PV) systems are attractive solutions to increase the autonomy of embedded and personal devices attempting to achieve perpetual operation. We present a battery less solar-harvesting circuit that is tailored to the needs of low-power applications. The harvester performs maximum-power-point tracking of solar energy collection under nonstationary light conditions, with high efficiency and low energy cost exploiting miniaturized PV modules. We characterize the performance of the circuit by means of simulation and extensive testing under various charging and discharging conditions. Much attention has been given to identify the power losses of the different circuit components. Results show that our system can achieve low power consumption with increased efficiency and cheap implementation. We discuss how the scavenger improves upon state-of-the-art technology with a measured power consumption of less than 1 mW. We obtain increments of global efficiency up to 80%, diverging from ideality by less than 10%. Moreover, we analyze the behavior of super capacitors. We find that the voltage across the supercapacitor may be an unreliable indicator for the stored energy under some circumstances, and this should be taken into account when energy management policies are used.
    Key Features:
    • Uses an ultracapacitor
    • Section specifically about ultracapacitor analysis and problems
    • Section specifically about System problems (MPPT)


  22. Glavin, M.E.; Paul K.W. Chan, S. Armstrong, W.G. Hurley (2008-09). "A stand-alone photovoltaic supercapacitor battery hybrid energy storage system". IEEE. pp. 1688-1695. doi:10.1109/EPEPEMC.2008.4635510. ISBN 978-1-4244-1741-4. http://services.lib.mtu.edu:2107/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4635510. Retrieved 2012-02-08.

    Abstract:Most of the stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems require an energy storage buffer to supply continuous energy to the load when there is inadequate solar irradiation. Typically, Valve Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA) batteries are utilized for this application. However, supplying a large burst of current, such as motor startup, from the battery degrades battery plates, resulting in destruction of the battery. An alterative way of supplying large bursts of current is to combine VRLA batteries and supercapacitors to form a hybrid storage system, where the battery can supply continuous energy and the supercapacitor can supply the instant power to the load. In this paper, the role of the supercapacitor in a PV energy control unit (ECU) is investigated by using Matlab/Simulink models. The ECU monitors and optimizes the power flow from the PV to the battery-supercapacitor hybrid and the load. Three different load conditions are studied, including a peak current load, pulsating current load and a constant current load. The simulation results show that the hybrid storage system can achieve higher specific power than the battery storage system.
    Key Features:
    • Utilizes an ultracapacitor/battery hybrid system
    • Contains matlab model results for PV system, battery, and ultracapacitor
    • Purely theoretical


  23. Liu, Xiong; Peng Wang, Poh Chiang Loh, Feng Gao, Fook Hoong Choo (2010-09). "Control of hybrid battery/ultra-capacitor energy storage for stand-alone photovoltaic system". IEEE. pp. 336-341. doi:10.1109/ECCE.2010.5618014. ISBN 978-1-4244-5286-6. http://services.lib.mtu.edu:2107/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=5618014. Retrieved 2012-02-08.

    Abstract:Battery life is an important criterion in a stand-alone photovoltaic system operation due to intermittent characteristic of solar irradiation and demand. This paper presents a stand-alone photovoltaic system with Ni-MH battery and ultra-capacitor serving as its energy storage elements. A control strategy is proposed in this paper to reduce charging and discharging cycles and avoid deep discharges of battery. The battery converter is controlled in current mode to track a charging/discharging reference current which is given by energy management system, whereas the ultra-capacitor converter is controlled to corporate solar irradiation fluctuations, load spikes and variations to maintain a stable dc-link voltage. Isolated PV system with the proposed control schemes is created using MATLAB SIMULINK. An optimum performance is achieved to serve as both high power and high energy sources due to complementary characteristic of battery and ultra-capacitor.
    Key Features:
    • Good DC/DC Converter schematic and calculations and results
    • Detailed information for power electronics design


  24. "Maxwell Technologies - Products - Ultracapacitors - K2 Series". Maxwell Technologies. http://www.maxwell.com/products/ultracapacitors/product.aspx?pid=K2-SERIES. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
    Overview:Maxwell Technologies’ K2 series of ultracapacitor cells provide extended power availability, allowing critical information and functions to remain available during dips, sags, and outages in the main power source. In addition, it can relieve batteries of burst power functions, thereby reducing costs and maximizing space and energy efficiency. The ultracapacitor features a cylindrical design and an electrostatic storage capability that can cycle a million charges and discharges without performance degradation. They are available in quick and easy to implement threaded terminals or in compact, weldable terminals.
    Key Features:
    • Data sheet for specified ultracapacitors


  25. Vasquez, Jose; Fernando Rodrigo, Jose Ruiz, Santiago Matilla. "Using Ultracapacitors in Photovoltaic Systems. A technical proposal". E.T.S.I.I. Valladolid University. http://www.icrepq.com/icrepq06/273_dominguez.pdf. Retrieved 2012-02-10.

    Abstract:In this paper we expose a new strategy to deliver the power of a Photovoltaic (or any other energy source of small power) System attached to the main. The object of the implementation of a battery of ultracapacitors in the photovoltaic system is to convert a variable power delivery to constant power. This will improve the energy efficiency by two ways. One is to take advantage of the time in which the system does not work because the power flow is too low (irradiation). Another advantage is that the output power is lower than input power.
    Key Features:
    • Not dated
    • Not published
    • Equation dense
    • May be able to use conclusion for background information


  26. Chiras, Daniel D. (2002). The solar house: passive heating and cooling. Chelsea Green Publishing. ISBN 9781931498128.

    Key Features:
    • Another book about general passive house information
    • More in depth approach
    • Section about best places in US for passive heating/cooling



  27. Enslin, J.H.R.; D.B. Snyman (1991-01). "Combined low-cost, high-efficient inverter, peak power tracker and regulator for PV applications". IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics 6 (1): 73-82. doi:10.1109/63.65005. ISSN 08858993. http://services.lib.mtu.edu:2107/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=65005&tag=1. Retrieved 2012-02-10.

    Abstract:A novel compound power converter that serves as a DC-to-AC inverter, maximum power point tracker (MPPT), and battery charger for stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) power systems is introduced. A theoretical analysis of the proposed converter is performed, and the results are compared with experimental results obtained from a 1.5 kW prototype. The overall cost of PV systems can thus be reduced by using load management control and efficiency-optimization techniques. Power flow through the converter is controlled by means of a combination of duty cycle and output frequency control. With load management, large domestic loads, such as single phase induction motors for water pumping, hold-over refrigerators, and freezers, can be driven by day at a much higher energy efficiency. This is due to the high efficiency of the inverter with high insolation, and because the inverter uses the energy directly from the solar array. The battery loss component is thus reduced.
    Key Features:
    • Emphasises low cost
    • MPPT only
    • Schematics
    • AC application - may not be useful


  28. Alghuwainem, S.M. (1994-03). "Matching of a DC motor to a photovoltaic generator using a step-up converter with a current-locked loop". IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion 9 (1): 192-198. doi:10.1109/60.282492. ISSN 08858969. http://services.lib.mtu.edu:2107/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=282492. Retrieved 2012-02-10.

    Abstract:A photovoltaic (PV) generator is a nonlinear device having insolation-dependent volt-ampere characteristics. Because of its relatively high cost, the system designer is interested in optimum matching of the motor and its mechanical load to the PV generator so that maximum power is obtained during the entire operating period. However, since the maximum-power point varies with solar insolation, it is difficult to achieve an optimum matching that is valid for all insolation levels. In this paper it is shown that for maximum power, the generator current must be directly proportional to insolation. This remarkable property is utilized to achieve insolation-independent optimum matching. A shunt DC motor driving a centrifugal water pump is supplied from a PV generator via a step-up converter whose duty ratio is controlled using a current-locked feedback loop.
    Key Features:
    • Applications load is a DC motor
    • Much higher power application


  29. Pandey, Ashish; Nivedita Dasgupta, Ashok K. Mukerjee (2007-03). "A Simple Single-Sensor MPPT Solution". IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics 22 (2): 698-700. doi:10.1109/TPEL.2007.892346. ISSN 0885-8993. http://services.lib.mtu.edu:2107/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4118324. Retrieved 2012-02-10.

    Abstract:Maximum power point trackers (MPPTs) are used to ensure optimal utilization of solar cells. The implementation essentially involves sensing input current and voltage. An MPPT algorithm uses this information to maximize power drawn from the solar cells. Understandably, such realization is costly. Current state of the art allows replacing one of the sensors by complicated computations. In the present work, an empirical observation is used to develop a strategy, which employs a single voltage sensor and carries out simple computations for a buck converter-based MPPT.
    Key Features:
    • Introduces a method for simple MPPT algorithms
    • Regarded as costly
    • Analysis is very simple


  30. Enslin, J.H.R.. "Maximum power point tracking: a cost saving necessity in solar energy systems". IEEE. pp. 1073-1077. doi:10.1109/IECON.1990.149286. ISBN 0-87942-600-4. http://services.lib.mtu.edu:2107/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=149286. Retrieved 2012-02-10.

    Key Features:
    • Possible usage for background in paper
    • MPPT algorithm explained


  31. Esram, Trishan; Patrick L. Chapman (2007-06). "Comparison of Photovoltaic Array Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques". IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion 22 (2): 439-449. doi:10.1109/TEC.2006.874230. ISSN 0885-8969. http://services.lib.mtu.edu:2107/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4207429. Retrieved 2012-02-10.

    Abstract:It is argued that a well-engineered renewable remote energy system utilizing the principal of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) can be cost effective, has a high reliability, and can improve the quality of life in remote areas. A highly efficient power electronic converter for converting the output voltage of a solar panel or wind generator to the required DC battery bus voltage has been realized. The converter is controlled to track the maximum power point of the nput source under varying input and output parameters. MPPT for relatively small systems is achieved by maximization of the output current in a battery charging regulator, using an optimized hill-climbing, inexpensive microprocessor-based algorithm. Through field measurements it is shown that a minimum input source saving of 15% on 3-5 kWh/day systems can easily be achieved
    Key Features:
    • Well cited paper
    • Definitive paper for MPPT
    • Well defined problem statement


  32. Walker, Geoff (2001). "Evaluating MPPT converter topologies using a MATLAB PV model". Journal of Electrical Electronics Engineering 21 (1): 49-56.

    Key Features:
    • Theoretical approach
    • Includes model code
    • Presents MPPT equations


  33. Enslin, J.H.R.; M.S. Wolf, D.B. Snyman, W. Swiegers (1997-12). "Integrated photovoltaic maximum power point tracking converter". IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 44 (6): 769-773. doi:10.1109/41.649937. ISSN 02780046. http://services.lib.mtu.edu:2107/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=649937. Retrieved 2012-02-10.

    Abstract:A low-power low-cost highly efficient maximum power point tracker (MPPT) to be integrated into a photovoltaic (PV) panel is proposed. This can result in a 25% energy enhancement compared to a standard photovoltaic panel, while performing functions like battery voltage regulation and matching of the PV array with the load. Instead of using an externally connected MPPT, it is proposed to use an integrated MPPT converter as part of the PV panel. It is proposed that this integrated MPPT uses a simple controller in order to be cost effective. Furthermore, the power converter has to be very efficient, in order to transfer more energy to the load than a directly-coupled system. This is achieved by using a simple soft-switched topology. A much higher conversion efficiency at lower cost will then result, making the MPPT an affordable solution for small PV energy systems.
    Key Features:
    • MPPT schematics and results


  34. Simoes, M.G.; N.N. Franceschetti, M. Friedhofer. "A fuzzy logic based photovoltaic peak power tracking control". 1. IEEE. pp. 300-305. doi:10.1109/ISIE.1998.707796. ISBN 0-7803-4756-0. http://services.lib.mtu.edu:2107/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=707796. Retrieved 2012-02-10.

    Abstract:This paper describes the analysis, modeling and implementation of a fuzzy based photovoltaic peak power tracking system. The maximum power of a photovoltaic system changes with temperature, solar intensity and load. An analytical model is built for the solar cell on the basis of the manufacturer characteristics. The solar panel is integrated with the converter model and a fuzzy algorithm is developed so as to perform an on-line search procedure to track the maximum power continuously. The system is implemented by an inexpensive RISC microcontroller. Experimental results have shown excellent performance, robustness with parameter variation, modularity for parallel operation at higher power, and ready to retrofit existing installations.
    Key Features:
    • Well documented algorithm (Fuzzy logic)


  35. Thulasiyammal, C.; S. Sutha (2011-01). "An efficient method of MPPT tracking system of a solar powered Uninterruptible Power Supply application". IEEE. pp. 233-236. doi:10.1109/ICEES.2011.5725334. ISBN 978-1-4244-9732-4. http://services.lib.mtu.edu:2107/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=5725334&tag=1. Retrieved 2012-02-10.

    Abstract:The study deals with an innovative system achieving an alternative source of energy supply from photovoltaic energy system which operates in case of utility power failure and provides continuity of supply even in medical appliances or industrial applications. It is also designed to reduce usage of utility supply which is generated from coals, nuclear having more carbons as outlets, lagging of sources and providing impure power to consumers. But the solar power is a pure and precious resource and no more impure outlets other disadvantages as like high initial cost. But the economical status may be improved in future but we may not have resource to generate power sometimes. So cost criteria can be meeting out in future to generate power from solar energy. The proposed PV system is composed of conventional novel single axis tracking system and PV system with DC-DC boost converter and PWM voltage source inverter. Here the tracking system is designed to get always 12 V dc output. This voltage is taken as input to the proposed method to maximize the output.
    Key Features:
    • 12v output
    • lacking methodology


  36. Sharaf, A.M.; E. Elbakush, I. H. Altas (2007-10). "Novel Control Strategies For Photovoltaic Powered PMDC Motor Drives". IEEE. pp. 461-466. doi:10.1109/EPC.2007.4520376. ISBN 978-1-4244-1444-4, 978-1-4244-1445-1. http://services.lib.mtu.edu:2107/search/srchabstract.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4520376&openedRefinements%3D*%26filter%3DAND%28NOT%284283010803%29%29%26searchField%3DSearch+All%26queryText%3Dphotovoltaic+motor+control. Retrieved 2012-02-10.

    Key Features:
    • PID controller for PV powered PMDC drives
    • Well documented simulation
    • Lacking on the PV side



  37. "Arduino motor/stepper/servo control - How to use". http://learn.adafruit.com/adafruit-motor-shield. Retrieved 2012-02-10.

    Key Features:
    • Reference/requirements for small motor control using arduino microcontroller boards
    • May be useful resource for blind/shade actuation


  38. "Arduino playground - InterfacingWithHardware". http://arduino.cc/playground/Main/InterfacingWithHardware. Retrieved 2012-02-10.

    Key Features:
    • Resource for interfacing arduino microcontrollers with many types of hardware
    • Interfacing with temperature sensors potentially useful


  39. "Arduino playground - PIDLibrary". http://arduino.cc/playground/Code/PIDLibrary. Retrieved 2012-02-10.

    Key Features:
    • Useful for PID control on arduino
    • contains libraries for PID functions



  40. Popat, Pradeep. "Patent US5760558 - Solar-powered, wireless, retrofittable, automatic controller for venetian blinds and similar window converings". http://www.google.com/patents/US5760558. Retrieved 2012-02-08.

    Abstract:A system for automatic operation of venetian blinds and similar window coverings. A preferred embodiment, system 30, can be retrofitted to any conventional venetian blind without tools, removal of the blind, or installation of wiring (FIG. 10A). System 30 is attached to a blind 15 by a bracket 80, which engages a headrail 16 of blind 15, and is secured by a thumbscrew 84 (FIG. 4C). System 30 includes a gearmotor 85 which drives a coupling tube 91; coupling tube 91 is attached to a tilt-adjustment shaft 18 of blind 15 (FIG. 3A). The mechanical coupling between gearmotor 85 and coupling tube 91 includes a flexible coupling and an extensible coupling, which enable gearmotor 85 to rotate shaft 18 over a wide range of sizes and configurations of blind 15 (FIGS. 5A and 5B). System 30 also includes a photovoltaic source 31 mounted on a flexible member 99. Member 99 provides electrical connections to source 31, and supports it in an advantageous position to receive solar radiation (FIGS. 8B and 8C), regardless of the size and mounting arrangement of blind 15. System 30 also includes four momentary-contact electrical switches 38 to 41 and an actuating body 94, to which a tilt-control wand 19 of blind 15 can be attached. Together, actuating body 94 and switches 38 to 41 enable system 30 to be conveniently controlled by rotary and axial movements of wand 19 (FIG. 10A).
    Key Features:
    • Patent
    • Good resource for control logic
    • Retrofittable


  41. Corazzini, Warren. "Patent US5413161 - Solar powered window shade". http://www.google.com/patents/US5413161. Retrieved 2012-02-08.

    Abstract: A solar powered window shade is provided which consists of a venetian blind mounted within an interior of a frame of a window in a wall of a building. An apparatus is carried by the venetian blind, for converting solar radiation of sunlight into electrical energy. A mechanism is carried by the venetian blind for utilizing the electrical energy to open and close the venetian blind. At sunrise and all through the day, the venetian blind will remain opened to allow sunlight to enter through the window, to help heat up the building. At sunset and all through the night, the venetian blind will remain closed to produce a thermal barrier, to help retain the heat within the building.
    Key Features:
    • Patent
    • Short


  42. Knowles, Byron (2008-07-02). "Motorized window shade". http://www.freepatentsonline.com/EP1939389.html. Retrieved 2012-02-10.

    Key Features:
    • Patent


  43. "Automatic Window Blinds Controller (PICAXE)". http://www.instructables.com/id/Build-A-Motorized-Window-Blinds-Controller-For-Les/. Retrieved 2012-02-10.

    Key Features:
    • Not published
    • DIY approach to an automated window blind
    • Uses a PIC microcontroller


  44. E., Bilgen (1994-01). "Experimental study of thermal performance of automated venetian blind window systems". Solar Energy 52 (1): 3-7. doi:10.1016/0038-092X(94)90076-E. ISSN 0038-092X.

    Key Features:
    • No MTU Access



  45. Raghunathan, Vijay; Kansal Aman, Jason Hsu, Jonathan Friedman, Mani Srivastava. Design considerations for solar energy harvesting wireless embedded systems. Proceedings of the 4th international symposium on Information processing in sensor networks. http://services.lib.mtu.edu:3919/citation.cfm?id=1147764. Retrieved 2012-02-07.

    Abstract:Sustainable operation of battery powered wireless embedded systems (such as sensor nodes) is a key challenge, and considerable research effort has been devoted to energy optimization of such systems. Environmental energy harvesting, in particular solar based, has emerged as a viable technique to supplement battery supplies. However, designing an efficient solar harvesting system to realize the potential benefits of energy harvesting requires an in-depth understanding of several factors. For example, solar energy supply is highly time varying and may not always be sufficient to power the embedded system. Harvesting components, such as solar panels, and energy storage elements, such as batteries or ultracapacitors, have different voltage-current characteristics, which must be matched to each other as well as the energy requirements of the system to maximize harvesting efficiency. Further, battery non-idealities, such as self-discharge and round trip efficiency, directly affect energy usage and storage decisions. The ability of the system to modulate its power consumption by selectively deactivating its sub-components also impacts the overall power management architecture. This paper describes key issues and tradeoffs which arise in the design of solar energy harvesting, wireless embedded systems and presents the design, implementation, and performance evaluation of Heliomote, our prototype that addresses several of these issues. Experimental results demonstrate that Heliomote, which behaves as a plug-in to the Berkeley/Crossbow motes and autonomously manages energy harvesting and storage, enables near-perpetual, harvesting aware operation of the sensor node.
    Key Features:
    • interesting power densities of alternative energies table
    • MPPT background
    • Solar harvesting design section
    • Lacking schematics/diagrams
    • Applicable design considerations to smart shades project


  46. Hande, Abhiman; Todd Polk, William Walker, Dinesh Bhatia (2006-09-22). "Self-Powered Wireless Sensor Networks for Remote Patient Monitoring in Hospitals". Sensors 6 (9): 1102-1117. doi:10.3390/s6091102. ISSN 1424-8220. http://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/6/9/1102. Retrieved 2012-02-08.

    Abstract: Patient vital sign monitoring within hospitals requires the use of non-invasivesensors that are hardwired to bedside monitors. This set-up is cumbersome, forcing thepatient to be confined to his hospital bed thereby not allowing him to move around freelywithin the hospital premises. This paper addresses the use of wireless sensor networks formonitoring patient vital sign data in a hospital setting. Crossbow MICAz motes have beenused to design a robust mesh network that routes patient data to a remote base station withinthe hospital premises. A hospital care giver can have access to this data at any point in timeand doesn’t have to be physically present in the patient’s room to review the readings. Thenetwork infrastructure nodes are self-powered and draw energy from overhead 34Wfluorescent lights via solar panels. The sensor nodes can be interfaced to a variety of vitalsign sensors such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), pulse-oximeters and blood pressure (BP)sensors. In order to verify a completely functioning system, a commercial BP/heart-ratemonitor (BPM) was interfaced to a wireless sensor node. The sensor node controls the BPMto initiate a reading, then collects the data and forwards it to the base station. An attractivegraphical user interface (GUI) was designed to store and display patient data on the basestation PC. The set-up was found to be extremely robust with low power consumption.
    Key Features:
    • Mostly implementation and lacking design


  47. Bhuvaneswari, P.T.V.; R. Balakumar, V. Vaidehi, P. Balamuralidhar (2009-07). "Solar Energy Harvesting for Wireless Sensor Networks". IEEE. pp. 57-61. doi:10.1109/CICSYN.2009.91. ISBN 978-0-7695-3743-6. http://services.lib.mtu.edu:2107/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=5231747. Retrieved 2012-02-08.

    Abstract:The commercially available sensor nodes are battery-driven devices. A number of nodes together constitute a network. As days proceed, the batteries used in the nodes lose their charge and subsequently get isolated from the network. Many energy harvesting schemes have been proposed to alleviate this problem. In this paper, a solar energy based energy harvesting scheme is proposed. This scheme works on the principle of photo-voltaic effect. A recharging circuitry is also designed, that recharges the batteries of the nodes when the charge drops below a threshold level. This leads to strengthening the lifetime of the nodes as well as the network. Compatibility and low power design are the two major salient features of the designed circuitry. The performance of the circuit is also tested with the MICAz hardware.
    Key Features:
    • Builds off previous work
    • Circuit schematic included
    • Utilizes battery


  48. Simjee, Farhan; Pai H. Chou (2006-10). "Everlast: Long-life, Supercapacitor-operated Wireless Sensor Node". IEEE. pp. 197-202. doi:10.1109/LPE.2006.4271835. ISBN 1-59593-462-6. http://services.lib.mtu.edu:2107/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4271835. Retrieved 2012-02-08.

    Abstract:This paper describes a supercapacitor-operated, solar-powered wireless sensor node called Everlast. Unlike traditional wireless sensors that store energy in batteries, Everlast's use of supercapacitors enables the system to operate for an estimated lifetime of 20 years without any maintenance. The novelty of this system lies in the feedforward, PFM (pulse frequency modulated) converter and open-circuit solar voltage method for maximum power point tracking, enabling the solar cell to efficiently charge the supercapacitor and power the node. Experimental results show that Everlast can achieve low power consumption, long operational lifetime, and high transmission rates, something that traditional sensor nodes cannot achieve simultaneously and must trade-off.
    Key Features:
    • Operates on supercapacitor
    • Equations and diagrams


  49. Hande, Abhiman; Todd Polk, William Walker, Dinesh Bhatia (2007-09-01). "Indoor solar energy harvesting for sensor network router nodes". Microprocessors and Microsystems 31 (6): 420-432. doi:10.1016/j.micpro.2007.02.006. ISSN 0141-9331.

    Key Features:
    • Similar to hospital paper, although better design
    • Limited application to smart shades


  50. Nasiri, A.; S.A. Zabalawi, G. Mandic (2009-11). "Indoor Power Harvesting Using Photovoltaic Cells for Low-Power Applications". IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 56 (11): 4502-4509. doi:10.1109/TIE.2009.2020703. ISSN 0278-0046. http://services.lib.mtu.edu:2107/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4838877&tag=1. Retrieved 2012-02-10.

    Abstract:Utilization of low-power indoor devices such as remote sensors, supervisory and alarm systems, distributed controls, and data transfer system is on steady rise. Due to remote and distributed nature of these systems, it is attractive to avoid using electrical wiring to supply power to them. Primary batteries have been used for this application for many years, but they require regular maintenance at usually hard to access places. This paper provides a complete analysis of a photovoltaic (PV) harvesting system for indoor low-power applications. The characteristics of a target load, PV cell, and power conditioning circuit are discussed. Different choices of energy storage are also explained. Implementation and test results of the system are presented, which highlights the practical issues and limitations of the system.
    Key Features:

  51. Thienpondt, Jorge; Sven Leyre, Jean-Pierre Goemaere, Lieven Strycker. "Energy Harvesting for Home Automation Applications". Catholic University College Sint Lieven. http://www.els.usv.ro/pagini/past_editions/ELS%202009/C2.09_THIENPONDT%20Jorge.pdf. Retrieved 2012-02-10.

    Key Features:

  52. Andersen, M.; B. Alvsten. "200 W low cost module integrated utility interface for modular photovoltaic energy systems". 1. IEEE. pp. 572-577. doi:10.1109/IECON.1995.483472. ISBN 0-7803-3026-9. http://services.lib.mtu.edu:2107/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=483472. Retrieved 2012-02-10.

    Abstract:This paper describes the design of a utility interface for a 200 W solar cell array. The interface comprises high frequency soft switching PWM power conversion, analog and logic control and protection circuits and an analog maximum power point tracker (MPPT). All circuits are implemented with standard components (no microcontroller) and thus facilitates integration into ASIC components at a later development stage. The design emphasis is on module integration, low cost production and compliance with standards on utility interfacing. The special requirements of utility interfacing and solar cell array utilization are described and the design of the components of the utility interface is described. The theory and design are verified with the implemented laboratory prototype, which shows excellent performance and verifies the operation of the interface
    Key Features:
    • MPPT design