Difference between revisions of "Community solar"
(→System Advisor Model, SAM 2014.1.14: General Description[http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy14osti/61019.pdf])
(→Exploring New Models of Solar Energy DevelopmentPeter Asmus,"Exploring New Models of Solar Energy Development")
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''' Talks about solar saftey net and possibility of FEMA funding the project'''
''' Talks about solar saftey net and possibility of FEMA funding the project'''
===[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tej.2008.03.002 Investing in Solar Photovoltaics: A School District's Story]<ref>Carl Pechman, Peter Brown,"Investing in Solar Photovoltaics: A School District's Story"</ref>===
===[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tej.2008.03.002 Investing in Solar Photovoltaics: A School District's Story]<ref>Carl Pechman, Peter Brown,"Investing in Solar Photovoltaics: A School District's Story"</ref>===
Revision as of 22:48, 2 February 2017
|By Michigan Tech's Open Sustainability Technology Lab.
Community Solar Lit Review
- 1 Note to Readers
- 2 Back ground
- 3 Major Journals
- 3.1 Community Solar
- 3.2 Off Grid Community Solar Literature
- 3.2.1 Hu, Huafen and Godfried Augenbroe. "A Stochastic Model Based Energy Management System For Off-Grid Solar Houses". Building and Environment 50 (2012): 90-103. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.
- 3.2.2 Jolly, Suyash, Rob Raven, and Henny Romijn. "Upscaling Of Business Model Experiments In Off-Grid PV Solar Energy In India". Sustainability Science 7.2 (2012): 199-212. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.
- 3.2.3 Miller, Damian and Chris Hope. "Learning To Lend For Off-Grid Solar Power: Policy Lessons From World Bank Loans To India, Indonesia, And Sri Lanka". Energy Policy 28.2 (2000): 87-105. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.
- 3.2.4 Gupta, Ajai, R.P. Saini, and M.P. Sharma. "Steady-State Modelling Of Hybrid Energy System For Off Grid Electrification Of Cluster Of Villages". Renewable Energy 35.2 (2010): 520-535. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.
- 3.2.5 Akikur, R.K. et al. "Comparative Study Of Stand-Alone And Hybrid Solar Energy Systems Suitable For Off-Grid Rural Electrification: A Review". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 27 (2013): 738-752. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.
- 3.2.6 Off-grid electricity generation with renewable energy technologies in India: An application of HOMER
- 3.2.7 Grid-connected versus stand-alone energy systems for decentralized power—A review of literature
- 3.3 General Community Solar Literature
- 3.3.1 Alafita, T. and J.M. Pearce. "Securitization Of Residential Solar Photovoltaic Assets: Costs, Risks And Uncertainty". Energy Policy 67 (2014): 488-498. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.
- 3.3.2 Baylin, F. et al. "Economic Analysis Of Community Solar Heating Systems That Use Annual Cycle Thermal Energy Storage". (1981): n. pag. Web. 19 Jan. 2017.
- 3.3.3 Asmus, Peter. "Exploring New Models Of Solar Energy Development". The Electricity Journal 21.3 (2008): 61-70. Web. 19 Jan. 2017.
- 3.3.4 Ashok, S. "Optimised Model For Community-Based Hybrid Energy System". Renewable Energy 32.7 (2007): 1155-1164. Web. 18 Jan. 2017.
- 3.3.5 Noll, Daniel, Colleen Dawes, and Varun Rai. "Community Organizations And Active Peer Effects In The Adoption Of Residential Solar PV". SSRN Electronic Journal 67 330-343. Web. 18 Jan. 2017.
- 3.3.6 St. Denis, Genevieve and Paul Parker. "Community Energy Planning In Canada: The Role Of Renewable Energy". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 13.8 (2009): 2088-2095. Web. 19 Jan. 2017.
- 3.3.7 Walker, Gordon. "What Are The Barriers And Incentives For Community-Owned Means Of Energy Production And Use?". Energy Policy 36.12 (2008): 4401-4405. Web. 19 Jan. 2017.
- 3.3.8 Huijben, J.C.C.M. and G.P.J. Verbong. "Breakthrough Without Subsidies? PV Business Model Experiments In The Netherlands". Energy Policy 56 (2013): 362-370. Web. 19 Jan. 2017.
- 3.3.9 Palit, Debajit. "Solar Energy Programs For Rural Electrification: Experiences And Lessons From South Asia". Energy for Sustainable Development 17.3 (2013): 270-279. Web. 19 Jan. 2017.
- 3.3.10 Seyfang, Gill, Jung Jin Park, and Adrian Smith. "A Thousand Flowers Blooming? An Examination Of Community Energy In The UK". Energy Policy 61 (2013): 977-989. Web. 19 Jan. 2017.
- 3.3.11 Chaurey, A. and Kandpal, T.C., 2010. A techno-economic comparison of rural electrification based on solar home systems and PV microgrids. Energy policy, 38(6), pp.3118-3129. 22 Jan. 2017.
- 3.3.12 Poullikkas, Andreas. "A Comparative Assessment Of Net Metering And Feed In Tariff Schemes For Residential PV Systems". Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments 3 (2013): 1-8. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.
- 3.3.13 Denis, G.S. and Parker, P., 2009. Community energy planning in Canada: The role of renewable energy. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13(8), pp.2088-2095. 23rd Jan 2017.
- 3.3.14 Shakouri, M., Lee, H.W. and Choi, K., 2015. PACPIM: new decision-support model of optimized portfolio analysis for community-based photovoltaic investment. Applied Energy, 156, pp.607-617. 23rd Jan 2017.
- 3.3.15 Klein, S.J. and Coffey, S., 2016. Building a sustainable energy future, one community at a time. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 60, pp.867-880. 24th Jan 2017
- 3.3.16 Funkhouser, E., Blackburn, G., Magee, C. and Rai, V., 2015. Business model innovations for deploying distributed generation: The emerging landscape of community solar in the US. Energy Research & Social Science, 10, pp.90-101. 24th Jan 2017
- 3.3.17 Jagoda, Kalinga et al. "Development And Commercialization Of Renewable Energy Technologies In Canada: An Innovation System Perspective". Renewable Energy 36.4 (2011): 1266-1271. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.
- 3.3.18 Bauner, C. and Crago, C.L., 2015. Adoption of residential solar power under uncertainty: Implications for renewable energy incentives. Energy Policy, 86, pp.27-35. 30th January 2017
- 3.3.19 Van der Vleuten, F., Stam, N. and Van Der Plas, R., 2007. Putting solar home system programmes into perspective: What lessons are relevant?. Energy Policy, 35(3), pp.1439-1451. 30th January 2017
- 3.3.20 Darghouth, Naïm R., Galen Barbose, and Ryan H. Wiser. "Customer-Economics Of Residential Photovoltaic Systems (Part 1): The Impact Of High Renewable Energy Penetrations On Electricity Bill Savings With Net Metering". Energy Policy 67 (2014): 290-300. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.
- 3.3.21 Noll, D., Dawes, C. and Rai, V., 2014. Solar community organizations and active peer effects in the adoption of residential PV. Energy Policy, 67, pp.330-343. 30th January 2017
- 3.3.22 Li, H. and Yi, H., 2014. Multilevel governance and deployment of solar PV panels in US cities. Energy Policy, 69, pp.19-27. 30th January 2017
- 3.3.23 Asmus, P., 2008. Exploring new models of solar energy development. The electricity journal, 21(3), pp.61-70. 30th January 2017
- 3.3.24 Shakouri, M. and Lee, H.W., 2016. Mean-variance portfolio analysis data for optimizing community-based photovoltaic investment. Data in brief, 6, pp.840-842. 30th January 2017
- 3.3.25 Iler, S., 2012. Assessing the potential for community solar in Durham, North Carolina (Doctoral dissertation, Duke University). 30th January 2017
- 3.3.26 Frame, D., Tembo, K., Dolan, M.J., Strachan, S.M. and Ault, G.W., 2011, July. A community based approach for sustainable off-grid PV systems in developing countries. In Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2011 IEEE (pp. 1-7). IEEE. 30th January 2017
- 3.3.27 Alam, M.J.E., Muttaqi, K.M. and Sutanto, D., 2014. An approach for online assessment of rooftop solar PV impacts on low-voltage distribution networks. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 5(2), pp.663-672. 30th January 2017
- 3.3.28 Mohammadi, P. and Mehraeen, S., 2016. Challenges of PV Integration in Low-Voltage Secondary Networks. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery. 30th January 2017
- 3.3.29 PV site suitability analysis using GIS-based spatial fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation (2011)
- 3.3.30 Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods for the evaluation of solar farms locations: Case study in south-eastern Spain (2013)
- 3.3.31 Solar Power Prediction for Smart Community Microgrid (2016)
- 3.3.32 User-centered design for smart solar-powered micro-grid communities(2014)
- 3.3.33 Neural Network for Estimating Daily Global Solar Radiation Using Temperature, Humidity and Pressure as Unique Climatic Input Variables (2016)
- 3.3.34 Feasibility Study for a Solar-Energy Stand-Alone System:(S.E.S.A.S.)(2012)
- 3.3.35 Estimation of Hourly Solar Radiation on Horizontal and Inclined Surfaces in Western Himalayas(2011)
- 3.3.36 Towards a local learning (innovation) model of solar photovoltaic deployment
- 3.3.37 Community renewable energy: What should it mean?
- 3.3.38 What are the barriers and incentives for community-owned means of energy production and use??
- 3.3.39 The transformation of southern California's residential photovoltaics market through third-party ownership
- 3.3.40 Mobilizing community energy
- 3.3.41 Three is a crowd? Exploring the potential of crowdfunding for renewable energy in the Netherlands
- 3.3.42 Exploring New Models of Solar Energy Development
- 3.3.43 Investing in Solar Photovoltaics: A School District's Story
- 3.3.44 Business model innovations for deploying distributed generation: The emerging landscape of community solar in the U.S.
- 3.3.45 Crowdfunding for environmental ventures: an empirical analysis of the influence of environmental orientation on the success of crowdfunding initiatives
- 3.3.46 The economic effect of electricity net-metering with solar PV: Consequences for network cost recovery, cross subsidies and policy objectives
- 3.3.47 Guidebook for community solar programs in Michigan Communities (2014)
- 3.3.48 SF Environment, Community Shared Solar
- 3.3.49 Northwest Solar communities installations in Condominiums
- 3.3.50 System Advisor Model, SAM 2014.1.14: General Description
- 3.3.51 Emergency Power Systems for Critical Facilities: A Best Practices Approach to Improving Reliability
- 3.4 References
Note to Readers
- Google for Community Solar
- Google for shared solar
- Google for solar gardens
*Renewable Energy, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,Energy Policy, Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, Energy for Sustainable Development
“Community shared solar” is defined as a solar-electric system that provides power and/or financial benefit to multiple community members.
Restrictions on Community solar
- subject to regulation State and local laws.
- uncertain tax credit applicability such as 25D for residential purposes only up to 30% which restricts off site solar plant users. Section 48 for business have ventures have similar difficulties.
What is security?
There is a need of no action letter from SEC for shared solar project
To pass as Federal security there is a Howey Test criteria:
- An investment of money
- In a common enterprise
- Based solely on the efforts of a promoter or a third party
- For which there is an expectation of profits
To pass as state security there is Risk capital test criteria:
- Funds are being raised for a business venture or enterprise
- The transaction is offered indiscriminately to the public at large
- The investors are substantially powerless to affect the success of the enterprise
- The investors’ money is substantially at risk because it is inadequately secured.
Even if a project is classified as security there are exemptions
- Group net metering or VNM: California, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont
- Incentives: Washington
John Farrell , Beyond Sharing: How Communities Can Take Ownership of Renewable Power, 2016 
- Barriers are clearly defined
- Systematic way to break barriers.
- Cost of securities mentioned
- self ownership cost most out of all structures
- Crowd funding possibility
- JOBS act to provied a new way for odinary people to pool in their money to invest in renewable energy.
- Working examples of CS those who busted the barriers.
Jason Coughlin, Jennifer Grove, et al., "Guide to community solar: Utility, private, and non-profit project development"U.S. Department of Energy, 2011. 
- Great Overview of community shared solar
- Three different models – group members to be located within the same utility service territory, require solar array. Also talks about some main methods of implementation - Comparison between three main models Utility,Special purpose entity & Non profit
Note - special purpose entity mave have issues in obtaining ITC tax credits because of it recuries taxable income members.
- Includes Various state policies to support community shared solar
- sample budget for community solar
- Tax policy & incentives
- Basic step by step guidelines for community solar program
ENERGY, N.C., 50States. 24th Jan 2017
- US Distributed Solar Market
- Net Metering Policy Changes
- Community solar Policies
- Proposed Charges on Residential Solar Customers
- Third- party solar ownership
- Utility-led Rooftop Solar Program Updates
- Questions answered with this:
- Report include actions on:
- The solar PV system is located at a residential location in the U.S.
an arrangement to purchase electricity generated by a system you do not own).
installation” of the solar equipment.
How solar+storage Could Protect Multifamily Affordable Housing from Power Outages at little or no net Cost 
7.The federal government spends billions of dollars each year on energy for low-income households:
Off Grid Community Solar Literature
There are many difficulties when considering a completely off the grid solar community, unless drastic measures are taken in reducing energy usage, energy storage is necessary. The most feasible application of off grid community solar is rural areas where typical annual energy consumption is much less that of non-rural, developed areas. Concerning completely off grid solar the literature shows that most systems are extremely rural and have a very light load. Throughout the literature review there has been no mention of a real life off grid community solar application with average energy consumption values of developed countries.
Hu, Huafen and Godfried Augenbroe. "A Stochastic Model Based Energy Management System For Off-Grid Solar Houses". Building and Environment 50 (2012): 90-103. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.
- Deeply technical energy management (stochastic modeling)
- Very insightful to different risks of off grid solar (risk management)
- Ranks appliances according to which needs power most.
Jolly, Suyash, Rob Raven, and Henny Romijn. "Upscaling Of Business Model Experiments In Off-Grid PV Solar Energy In India". Sustainability Science 7.2 (2012): 199-212. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.
- Investigates different companies and their effectiveness
Miller, Damian and Chris Hope. "Learning To Lend For Off-Grid Solar Power: Policy Lessons From World Bank Loans To India, Indonesia, And Sri Lanka". Energy Policy 28.2 (2000): 87-105. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.
Abstract: The World Bank has sought to advance the diffusion of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology for o!-grid applications in the developing world. As these systems are fundamentally different to centralized power stations and conventional rural electrification, the World Bank has been learning how best to lend for such technology. This study seeks to highlight the lessons learned from the World Bank's first loans for off-grid PV to India, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka. It uses lifetime cost analysis to justify continued intervention in this sector, and it draws on theories of innovation diffusion to guide analysis and ultimately policy recommendations. Because of the special role of entrepreneurial start up companies in the rural PV sector, the paper also uses a company cash #ow model to demonstrate the efficacy of various supply-side policies. Finally, the study concludes with a checklist of policy lessons and a consideration of the role of the International Finance Corporation in this sector.
- Old, and not what is considered 'off-grid' in the present day.
Gupta, Ajai, R.P. Saini, and M.P. Sharma. "Steady-State Modelling Of Hybrid Energy System For Off Grid Electrification Of Cluster Of Villages". Renewable Energy 35.2 (2010): 520-535. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.
- Hybrid includes some sort of fossil fuel generator however, this paper shows optimization of solar usage
Akikur, R.K. et al. "Comparative Study Of Stand-Alone And Hybrid Solar Energy Systems Suitable For Off-Grid Rural Electrification: A Review". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 27 (2013): 738-752. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.
- Includes PV energy usage with respect to load type (AC, DC)
- Stresses need for Battery backup and possible fuel cell usage
Off-grid electricity generation with renewable energy technologies in India: An application of HOMER
- This paper analyses hybrid off-grid systems for rural application that can provide reliable and affordable power.
- The paper considers alternative technologies for rural India and identifies the optimal system using HOMER software.
- The solution obtained shows that a hybrid combination of renewable energy generators at an off-grid location can be a cost-effective alternative to grid extension and it is sustainable, techno-economically viable and environmentally sound
- most of the articles are context dependent and were applied to isolated cases. A generalized approach to assess suitability of SA and GC systems at a given location, based on techno-economic-financial-environmental feasibility does not find adequate coverage. If data pertaining to system costs, operation, maintenance and other relevant cost details are made available along with the learnings from the case studies, the economic-financial assessment objective could be easily accomplished.
General Community Solar Literature
Alafita, T. and J.M. Pearce. "Securitization Of Residential Solar Photovoltaic Assets: Costs, Risks And Uncertainty". Energy Policy 67 (2014): 488-498. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.
- asset evaluation and securitization
- Very technical detail about how to store heat in underground tanks
- Multiple geographic locations and community sizes looked at
- Brings up "community choice aggregation", California legislation.
- Well defined community solar definition
- Solar shares
- List and overview of current (up until 2008) community solar projects
- Community 'microgrid' idea for rural area, case study in India
- Uses multiple generation sources; wind, hydro, solar, and tries to minimize cost of each
- Analyses of residential PV increase
- Solar Community Organizations (SCOs)
- Review of residential PV across U.S.
- Large vs small communities and interest in renewable s
- energy usage management
- conservation and efficiency vs renewables
- cooperatives, community charities, etc -> diffenent community solar models
- high level overview
- micro generation deployment models, company control, plug and play, community microgrid
- Main issues being legislation
- Use of net metering
- Massive benefits to heavily populated rural areas
- Some technical detail and policy
- surveys among community energy groups in UK
- development factors
- Off-grid PV power plants
- Micro grids or mini grids distribution networks
- Micro grid: more economic option for flat geographical terrains
- Techno economic comparison of SHS and micro grids
Poullikkas, Andreas. "A Comparative Assessment Of Net Metering And Feed In Tariff Schemes For Residential PV Systems". Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments 3 (2013): 1-8. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.
- time of use vs net metering
- Strengthening of grid due to PV systems
- renewable energy credits from net metering
- Renewable energy policy
- Community energy plan
- Community energy management
- Energy conservation
- Climate change policy
- Solar energy
- Community-based investments
- Mean–Variance Portfolio theory
- Decision-support model
- Residential photovoltaic systems
- Community energy
- Renewable energy
- Sustainable energy
- Grassroots innovation
- Strategic niche management theory
- Multi-level perspective
- Community solar
- Utility Business Model
- Distributed generation
- Net energy metering
Jagoda, Kalinga et al. "Development And Commercialization Of Renewable Energy Technologies In Canada: An Innovation System Perspective". Renewable Energy 36.4 (2011): 1266-1271. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.
- efficiency vs conservation vs renewables
- Innovation systems
- development among policy makers, community, industry
- Household adoption of solar PV using the option value framework.
- Uncertainty in benefits and costs leads to delay in investment timing.
- Policy incentives that reduce uncertainty in returns from solar PV are most effective.
- New technology available to rural households. (Africa).
- Policy makers and donors supported SHSs in an efficient way?
- Luxury item or an essential element in the development process?
- Trigger or facilitate rural electrification?
Darghouth, Naïm R., Galen Barbose, and Ryan H. Wiser. "Customer-Economics Of Residential Photovoltaic Systems (Part 1): The Impact Of High Renewable Energy Penetrations On Electricity Bill Savings With Net Metering". Energy Policy 67 (2014): 290-300. Web. 2 Feb. 2017.
- Looks at long term bill savings with net metering
- Dispatch optimization per hourly load
- Net-metering case study in California, bill savings and time of use rates
- Dataset on Solar Community Organisations (SCOs) in the U.S. during 1970–2012.
- SCOs-driven peer effects found to positively impact PV adoption.
- Leveraging trust networks is crucial for the success of SCOs.
- Financing options also key for SCO's success.
- Evaluation of state and local solar PV policies.
- State RPS -> positive impacts on local solar PV capacity.
- Local financial incentives matter for solar PV deployment.
- California Solar Initiative (CSI) program
- Design community-based programs
- Solar shares
- Existing Community Solar Programs
- Community solar
- Photovoltaic system
- Portfolio theory
- Energy optimisation
- Electricity volatility
- Reduced costs and increased access to renewable energy.
- Energy cost ratio – obtained by dividing total installed cost by annual energy output.
- Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
- Rural electrification.
- Off-grid PV system for remote rural communities.
- Sustainability of off-grid renewable energy.
- Mitigate solar photovoltaic (PV) impacts in the future distribution grids.
- Low-voltage (LV) distribution networks
- Real-time network data
- Sliding window
- Solar photovoltaic (PV) impact
- Impacts of Photovoltaics
- Distributed generation
- Downtown network
- Low-voltage secondary network
- Microprocessor network protector relay (MNPR)
===Hannah Cross, Nicolas Dalhberg, Elijah Romulus, Rebecca Wolfson,The Potential for Community Shared Solar in Massachusetts===�
- Talks about taking the benift of CS to low and medium income people.
- Financing option for such project.
- Different Case studies of CS projects.
=== THE SOLARIZE GUIDEBOOK:A community guide to collective purchasing of residential PV systems===
- Systamatic 9 step approach to form Cooperative structure for Residential rooftop Installations
- Cost estimation of such approach.
- Overview of GIS base MCA and it's methodology to PV farms siting
- Case study of Oman with different PV technology
Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods for the evaluation of solar farms locations: Case study in south-eastern Spain (2013)
- Detailed method for the evaluation of solar farm location.
- Application of regression tree algorithm for solar power prediction.
- Most Important variable to predict power are humidity, time of the day and sky condition etc.
- solar power production is inversely proportional to the humidity.
- Iterative approach with an emphasis on user-centered design and lean startup product design.
- Establishment of workshops to design the model and strucure.
- quite successful in building up relations between potential users and the project teams
Neural Network for Estimating Daily Global Solar Radiation Using Temperature, Humidity and Pressure as Unique Climatic Input Variables (2016)
- Various methods to estimate solar radiation are discussed.
- This method is useful even in case of absence of data
- Main components: photovoltaic module, water electrolyzer and fuel cell.
- Economic feasibility has been carried out
- More feasible for scale up production
Estimation of Hourly Solar Radiation on Horizontal and Inclined Surfaces in Western Himalayas(2011)
Abstract -It is by now familiar that in the deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, the cost dynamics of major system component like solar cell/module is subjected to experience curve effects driven by production learning and research and development at the supplier side. What is less clear, however, is the economics of system integration or system deployment that takes place locally close to the user, involving other market players, in the downstream solar PV value chain. Experts have agreed that suppliers of solar PV system must customize their flexible characteristics to address local unique users’ and applications requirements and compete on price/performance basis. A lack of understanding of the drivers of the economics of system customization therefore is a deficiency in our understanding of the overall economics of this renewable energy technology option.
- Definiation of Balance of System.
- Trend for BOS.
- Economies of scope for deployment of PV.
Abstract Community is a much used word that is readily attached to projects, initiatives and policies as part of the discursive politics of modern governance. In this viewpoint, we consider the way in which community has become attached to renewable energy projects in the UK, both in grassroot action and in mainstream energy policy. We ask what those involved have seen as distinctive about community renewable energy projects that makes them different from other renewable energy installations. We identify a diversity of understandings and interpretations that revolve around questions of both process (who the project is by) and outcome (who the project is for). We evaluate the implications of this diversity, identifying the importance of the process of project development for realising the catalytic and learning effects of meaningful and substantial local involvement.
- Ways in which word community is interpeted
- Participation of Local and openess in project helps.
- diversity in income different opportunities for financing.
Abstract This paper on community-owned means of renewable energy production and use, reviews experience to date in the UK and the incentives for and barriers limiting current and future growth. A broad view is taken of what the meaning of ‘community-owned production and use’ might constitute, as there are different models of community ownership, different notions of community and different degrees of connection or disconnection between production and use.
- models of ownership 1) cooperative model 2) community charities 3)development trusts 4)shares owned by local community
- incentives for community projects
- Barriers w.r.t to community projects
The transformation of southern California's residential photovoltaics market through third-party ownership
Third-party photovoltaics (PV) ownership is a rapidly growing market trend, where commercial companies own and operate customer-sited PV systems and lease PV equipment or sell PV electricity to the building occupant. Third-party PV companies can reduce or eliminate up-front adoption costs, reduce technology risk and complexity by monitoring system performance, and can repackage the PV value proposition by showing cost savings in the first month of ownership rather than payback times on the order of a decade. We find that the entrance of third-party business models in southern California residential PV markets has enticed a new demographic to adopt PV systems that is more highly correlated to younger, less affluent, and less educated populations than the demographics correlated to purchasing PV systems. By enticing new demographics to adopt PV, we find that third-party PV products are likely increasing total PV demand rather than gaining market share entirely at the expense of existing customer owned PV demand. We also find that mean population demographics are good predictors of third-party and customer owned PV adoption, and mean voting trends on California carbon policy (Proposition 23) are poor predictors of PV adoption.
- Third party ownership details not retailed to community.
Abstract What explains the galvanising of communities to participate actively in energy projects? How do groups mobilize to overcome the often formidable barriers highlighted in the existing literature? Drawing on original qualitative research of 100 community energy groups in Scotland, including six in-depth case studies, we explain how effective mobilization occurs and the political dynamics surrounding such mobilization. To capture these dynamics, we adapt theories offered by literature on social movements, with a particular focus on resource mobilization theories. Applying our adapted framework, we identify two particular sets of resources shaping community energy mobilization: (i) structural resources, which refer to the broad political context structuring and constraining opportunities for community energy mobilization; and (ii) symbolic resources—less tangible resources used to galvanise participants. We investigate to what extent our case study groups were able to draw upon and exploit these resources. We find that structural resources can either facilitate or hinder mobilization; what matters is how state resources are exploited and constraints mitigated. The use of symbolic resources was highly effective in aiding mobilization. Each of the groups examined – despite their considerable variation – effectively exploited symbolic resources such as shared identity or desire for strong, self reliant communities
- case studies of communities in scotland and ways in which community energy can be mobilized.
Three is a crowd? Exploring the potential of crowdfunding for renewable energy in the Netherlands
Abstract There is a huge gap between demand and supply of finance for energy transitions, and the financial and economic crisis have had a negative impact in the already meagre funds for transforming the energy system towards renewable sources. In this paper we explore whether crowdfunding for renewable energy, as a novel sociotechnical practice developed in a niche, has the potential to break through and transform both the energy and the financial regimes, utilising the Multi-Level Perspective theory. We empirically investigate crowdfunding platforms linked to renewable electricity projects in the Netherlands. The main conclusion is that the volume of crowdfunding today is low, but the dynamic of these projects holds potential. There is limited indication of learning processes until now, as well as limited support from regime actors, pointing at a low level of niche stabilization and break-through potential, which may however be related to the early stage of development of crowdfunding in the Netherlands. On the other hand, the heterogeneity of crowdfunders is very promising. Platforms dedicated to renewable electricity exclusively, and with an investment based business model seem to be the most successful. We show how governmental market regulation and support mechanisms are shaping crowdfunding as a business model, and discuss the implications for other countries.
- The volume of crowdfunding for renewable energy projects is low, but its dynamic holds potential.
- There is limited support of crowdfunding for renewables from powerful actors.
- Crowdfunders exhibit a variety of normative, gain and even hedonic motivations.
- Governmental market support and regulations are shaping crowdfunding as a business model.
- Exploring the possibility of bring the cost of solar down by proposing collective buying for community.
- talks about people not getting benifits of solar like renters, condonium owners etc.
- Shares model for community solar is disscused.
Talks about solar saftey net and possibility of FEMA funding the project
- Case study of a community solar program stared in a school
- Detailed study from conception of idea to bidding process, fund raising.
- Difficulties and how to mitigate them.
- found PPA is better option then self funding
Business model innovations for deploying distributed generation: The emerging landscape of community solar in the U.S.
Abstract Increasing penetration of residential photovoltaic (PV) systems has intensified concerns over the related impacts on utility revenue and the equity of deployment subsidies. Community solar (CS) has surfaced as an alternative deployment model for PV that could potentially mitigate these concerns, while integrating distributed solar PV. Given the potential that CS holds in stabilizing the customer-utility relationship amid deeper penetration of distributed solar, in this paper we combine four complementary datasets to analyze how policy, regulatory, and market factors impact the deployment of CS. Specifically, we present a detailed assessment of CS deployment in the United States, including pertinent insights relating to nameplate capacity, billing models, propensities of off-taker utilities to adopt different types of CS, and local market and policy drivers. We find that accounting for both underlying demand and policy/regulatory conditions is essential for understanding the nuanced connections between utility strategy and CS adoption. A particularly interesting finding, stemming consistently across the multiple data streams we analyze, is that utilities are motivated to develop CS not only to satisfy consumer demand or regulatory requirements for renewable energy, but also to alleviate revenue losses related to residential solar PV.
- survey of the utilities and how they feel about CS.
- Main concern of Utilities is that the maintaince of transmission grid is not fairly compensated in Pv rooftop solar.
Crowdfunding for environmental ventures: an empirical analysis of the influence of environmental orientation on the success of crowdfunding initiatives
- The literature on crowdfunding for environmental ventures is reviewed.
- The statistical link between environmental orientation & funding success is tested.
- No positive influence of environmental orientation on funding success is observed.
- Theoretical explanations for the empirical findings are offered.
- The article highlights how crowdfunding for the environment can be more successful.
The economic effect of electricity net-metering with solar PV: Consequences for network cost recovery, cross subsidies and policy objectives
- Network users are frequently charged by energy charging and fixed charging.
- Net-metering with energy charging causes potential problems for DSO cost recovery.
- Increasing rolling credit timeframes amplify net-metering impacts on cost recovery.
- Observed capacity charging can incentivize local storage and self-consumption.
- PV owners should receive direct incentives in order to avoid cross subsidization.
Guidebook for community solar programs in Michigan Communities (2014)
- Michigan-based Dow Chemical Company is currently manufacturing a shingle product, which protects roofs like a standard shingle and contains solar cells tha]t can power a home.
- Michigan does not currently have any solar access laws.
- For a comprehensive list of resources Appendix III
- Colorado (followed by Arizona) has the most Community Solar projects.
- Four main business model :Buy PV power, Lease PV panels, Purchase PV panels, Invest in a PV project
(1) the basics of community shared solar; (2) the benefits of community shared solar; (3) variations in design of community shared solar programs; (4) examples of community shared solar program; (5) California’s regulatory context; and (6) community shared solar’s potential to expand San Francisco’s solar market.
Northwest Solar communities installations in Condominiums
- Ways in which housing association can help in Solarizing Condominiums
System Advisor Model, SAM 2014.1.14: General Description
- used to simulate grid connected solar model.
Emergency Power Systems for Critical Facilities: A Best Practices Approach to Improving Reliability
- Guidelines for Design Considerations for Emergency Power Systems in New Facilities.
- Design Considerations for Optional Standby Power Systems in Existing Facilities.
- Rohit Sen, Subhes C. Bhattacharyya,"Off-grid electricity generation with renewable energy technologies in India: An application of HOMER?"
- Deepak Paramashivan Kaundinya, P. Balachandra, N.H. Ravindranath,"Grid-connected versus stand-alone energy systems for decentralized power—A review of literature "
- Shum, Kwok L., Watanabe, Chihiro,"Towards a local learning (innovation) model of solar photovoltaic deployment"
- Gordon Walker, Patrick Devine-Wright,"Community renewable energy: What should it mean?"
- Gordon Walker,"What are the barriers and incentives for community-owned means of energy production and use?"
- Easan Drurya, Mackay Miller, Charles M. Macal, Diane J. Graziano, Donna Heimiller, Jonathan Ozik, Thomas D. Perry,"The transformation of southern California's residential photovoltaics market through third-party ownership"
- Elizabeth Bomberg, Nicola McEwen,,"Mobilizing community energy"
- E. Vasileiadou, J.C.C.M. Huijben, R.P.J.M. Raven,"Three is a crowd? Exploring the potential of crowdfunding for renewable energy in the Netherlands"
- Peter Asmus,"Exploring New Models of Solar Energy Development"
- Carl Pechman, Peter Brown,"Investing in Solar Photovoltaics: A School District's Story"
- Erik Funkhouser, Griselda Blackburn, Clare Magee, Varun Rai,"Business model innovations for deploying distributed generation: The emerging landscape of community solar in the U.S."
- EJacob Hörisch,"Crowdfunding for environmental ventures: an empirical analysis of the influence of environmental orientation on the success of crowdfunding initiatives"
- Cherrelle Eid, Javier Reneses Guillén, Pablo Frías Marín, Rudi Hakvoort ,"The economic effect of electricity net-metering with solar PV: Consequences for network cost recovery, cross subsidies and policy objectives"