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Template:LIT [Category: MY 5490-PV technology and IP impacts on PV]

Contents

Intellectual property and access to clean energy technologies in developing countries[edit]

Barton, John H. "Intellectual property and access to clean energy technologies in developing countries." ICTSD Issue Paper 2 (2007).

Link[edit]

Intellectual property and access to clean energy technologies in developing countries

Keypoints[edit]

  • reducing greenhouse effects.
  • explore possibilities of IP barriers to access clean technology in developing countries.
  • IP in renewable sector reduces monopoly in marketing due to competition between numerous patents and continuously updating technology.
  • even after facing oligopoly, developing countries with small firms can obtain license on reasonable terms due to large competition on this sector.
  • research in photovoltaic is mainly government funded.
  • just like Humanitarian clauses developed nations may release their patent license for publicly funded inventions in favor of importance of environment.
  • more importance to remove unnecessary trade in renewable sector.
  • litigation issues on photovoltaic appliances.[1]


Placing a glove on invisible hand:how intellectual property rights may impede innovation in energy researach and development(R & D)[edit]

Sovacool, Benjamin K. "Placing a Glove on the Invisible Hand: How Intellectual Property Rights May Impede Innovation in Energy Research and Development (R& (and) D)." Alb. LJ Sci. & Tech. 18 (2008): 381.

Link[edit]

Placing a Glove on the Invisible Hand: How Intellectual Property Rights May Impede Innovation in Energy Research and Development (R& (and) D)

Abstract[edit]

Contrary  to  the  impassioned  view  that  strong  intellectual  property  

rights always spur innovation, this Article focuses on how a host of intellectual property barriers may impede the diffusion of renewable energy technologies, clean coal systems, and alternative vehicles. High transaction costs, legal and structural problems at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, cognitive biases, anti- competitive patent techniques, and disintegrating government -university -industry partnerships can prevent the innovation and diffusion of clean energy technologies. Quick and decisive action may be warranted to overcome these barriers if greenhouse gas reducing energy systems are to reach commercialization

Keypoints[edit]

  • IP barriers impeding diffusion of renewable technologies.
  • factors which affect and prevents the innovation and diffusion of technology.
  • uncertainty concerns related to future energy prices and tax advantages is main barrier which prevents investors to invest in renewable energy projects and products
  • solutions for structural barriers.
  • importance of unearthing the IP barriers.
  • reasons for unearthing the IP barriers.


CLEAN TECH REALITY CHECK: NINE INTERNATIONAL GREEN TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER DEALS UNHINDERED BY INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS[edit]

Lane, Eric L. "Clean Tech Reality Check: Nine International Green Technology Transfer Deals Unhindered by Intellectual Property Rights." Browser Download This Paper (2010).

Link[edit]

TECH REALITY CHECK: NINE INTERNATIONAL GREEN TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER DEALS UNHINDERED BY INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

Keypoints[edit]

  • discussion on significant technology transfer between developed countries and developing countries without facing IP barrier.
  • difference between developed nation and low-income countries for patent protection policy.
  • few examples proves that proposals which weaken the IP rights are not necessary for clean tech transfers between countries.


Study of the Linkages between Innovation and Intellectual Property[edit]

Jain, Karuna, Mukundan Raghavan, and Shishir K. Jha. "Study of the linkages between innovation and intellectual property." Management of Engineering & Technology, 2009. PICMET 2009. Portland International Conference on. IEEE, 2009.

Link[edit]

of the Linkages between Innovation and Intellectual Property

Keypoints[edit]

  • introduction to strategic(SMP),innovation(IMP),technology management(TMP)
  • IP system and variables affecting them.
  • Proposed firm level IP system.
  • relation between IP system components (SMP,IMP,TMP) and diffusion impactors as well as photovoltaic.


On the use of Photovoltaic ambient energy sources for powering indoor electronic devices[edit]

Randall, Julian F. On the use of photovoltaic ambient energy sources for powering indoor electronic devices.no. 22,25. No. LPM-STUDENT-2003-001. 2003.

Link[edit]

the use of Photovoltaic ambient energy sources for powering indoor electronic devices

Keypoints[edit]

  • Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)
  • Analysis of numerous abstract for indoor photovoltaic sensor (example).
  • protected technology in application specific way.
  • no Intellectual property protection for extending the concept technology for different applications.


IP landscape for Photovoltaics[edit]

Bauer, C. E., and H. J. Neuhaus. "The IP landscape for photovoltaics." Electronics System-Integration Technology Conference, 2008. ESTC 2008. 2nd. IEEE, 2008.

Link[edit]

landscape for Photovoltaics

=Keypoint[edit]

  • rudimentary valuation of IP within Photovoltaic field.
  • key questions and methodologies to analyze photovoltaics and IP landscape.
  • categories for photovoltaic patents and patent application.
  • visualization of data for increase in Photovoltaic patent application.
  • benefit of deep understanding of IP landscape in terms of future prospective.



Compulsory Licensing in TRIPS: Chinese and Indian Comparative Advantage in the Manufacture and Exportation of Green Technologies[edit]

Gupta, Rishi R. "Compulsory Licensing in TRIPS: Chinese and Indian Comparative Advantage in the Manufacture and Exportation of Green Technologies." Sustainable Development Law & Policy 12.3 (2013): 5.

Link[edit]

Licensing in TRIPS: Chinese and Indian Comparative Advantage in the Manufacture and Exportation of Green Technologies

Keypoints[edit]

  • trouble accessing newest and most effective technology for financially trapped developing countries.
  • compulsory licensing is often criticized because of its potential harm to economic growth in patent holding countries and the expansion of future green technologies.[2]
  • royalty: licensor pay the patent holder.


Evaluation of the commercial potential of novel organic photovoltaic technologies[edit]

Barr, Jonathan Jonathan Allan. Evaluation of the commercial potential of novel organic photovoltaic technologies. Diss. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2005.

Link[edit]

of the commercial potential of novel organic photovoltaic technologies

Keypoints[edit]

  • advantages of organic photovoltaics.
  • neccessity of IP for companies and individuals from profit point of view.
  • importance of previous patent studies.
  • strengthening IP to begin commercialization in coming years.

Business, market and intellectual property analysis of polymer solar cells[edit]

Nielsen, Torben D., et al. "Business, market and intellectual property analysis of polymer solar cells." Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 94.10 (2010): 1553-1571.

Link[edit]

market and intellectual property analysis of polymer solar cells

Keypoints[edit]

  • comparison between future business potential and current performance in thin film photovoltaic market.
  • introduction to polymer solar cell.
  • ability of polymer cell to replace photovoltaic technology.
  • performance and cost analysis of different photovoltaic technology.
  • description of intellectual property and patent rights.
  • protection for high tech investment.
  • competitive thin film photovoltaic market
  • advantage of settlement of disputes about patent infringements.


Differentiated intellectual property regimes for environmental and climate technologies[edit]

Maskus, Keith. "Differentiated intellectual property regimes for environmental and climate technologies." OECD Environment Working Papers 17 (2010): 0_1.

Link[edit]

intellectual property regimes for environmental and climate technologies

Keypoints[edit]

  • sharp differences between developed and developing countries for climate change policy regarding IPR fostering ITT.(international tech transfer)
  • ex-ante extensions
  • proposals outside IP regime to encourage tech transfer
  • focus on reforming global IPR system on environmental sound technologies.
  • few policy recommendations and possible effects.


Open solar photovoltaic systems optimization[edit]

Pearce, Joshua M., Adegboyega Babasola, and Rob Andrews. "Open solar photovoltaic systems optimization." VentureWell. Proceedings of Open, the Annual Conference. National Collegiate Inventors & Innovators Alliance, 2012.

Link[edit]

Open solar photovoltaic systems optimization

Keypoints[edit]

  • effect of restrictive IP rights on university and institutions in terms of innovations.
  • factors which maintain IP in companies.
  • comparing innovation barrier due to IP in other fields with PV.
  • business monopoly and example.
  • patent violation with industry growth and effect on solar PV.
  • open source framework.
  • intellectual integrity and MOU(memorandum of understanding).


Intellectual property and alternatives: strategies for green innovation[edit]

Reichman, Jerome H., et al. "Intellectual property and alternatives: strategies for green innovation." Intellectual Property Rights: Legal and Economic Challenges for Development (2014): 356.

Link[edit]

Intellectual property and alternatives: strategies for green innovation

Keypoints[edit]

  • IPR issues to be addressed for externality increase in GHG.
  • obtaining quantitative information about patent rights in green technology is not easy.
  • important technical areas in which future potential patenting may have issues and its evidences.
  • moderately concentrated PV industry choice for patents as a substitute for others.
  • various alternatives for licensing and patenting.

Globalizing the Energy Revolution-How to Really Win the Clean-Energy Race[edit]

Levi, Michael, et al. "Globalizing the Energy Revolution-How to Really Win the Clean-Energy Race." Foreign Aff. 89 (2010): 111.

Link[edit]

the Energy Revolution-How to Really Win the Clean-Energy Race

Keypoints[edit]

  • comparison of green tech with other fields
  • global climate change negotiations used by emerging economies to relax patent rules in developing countries.
  • argument on weakening IP rules for developing countries, stating that it obstructs tech transfer.
  • factors which matter for advance patent and technology in terms of diffusion & application.
  • open investment and trade policies as essential jump start to spread technology fast.
  • intellectual property insurance.


Intellectual returnees as drivers of indigenous innovation: evidence from the Chinese Photovoltaic Industry[edit]

Luo, Siping, Mary E. Lovely, and David Popp. Intellectual returnees as drivers of indigenous innovation: evidence from the Chinese Photovoltaic Industry. No. w19518. National Bureau of Economic Research, 2013.

Link[edit]

Intellectual returnees as drivers of indigenous innovation: evidence from the Chinese Photovoltaic Industry

Keypoints[edit]

  • evidence on native innovations and intellectual returnees by estimating relationships between Chinese photovoltaic firms and corporate ladders.
  • parallel diffusion of international technologies with native innovations.
  • reasons behind incremental innovation explosion in China
  • IP conflicts with in weak IP protection architecture.


Overcoming the impasse on intellectual property and climate change at the UNFCCC: A way forward[edit]

Abdel-Latif, Ahmed, et al. "Overcoming the impasse on intellectual property and climate change at the UNFCCC: A way forward." (2011).

Link[edit]

the impasse on intellectual property and climate change at the UNFCCC: A way forward

Keypoints[edit]

  • dual role of IP
  • exclusion of patentability for green technology in developing and poor low-income countries.
  • few suggested modification in existing IP framework in favor of environmental friendly technology.


Photovoltaic industry and market investigation[edit]

Yan, Huimin, Zhizhi Zhou, and Huayong Lu. "Photovoltaic industry and market investigation." Sustainable Power Generation and Supply, 2009. SUPERGEN'09. International Conference on. IEEE, 2009.

Link[edit]

industry and market investigation

Keypoints[edit]

  • photovoltaic market
  • cost analysis of pv
  • policy recommendations
  • reasonable change in IP structure to promote innovations and R&D.


Managing intellectual property rights in cross-border clean energy collaboration: The case of the US–China Clean Energy Research Center[edit]

Lewis, Joanna I. "Managing intellectual property rights in cross-border clean energy collaboration: The case of the US–China Clean Energy Research Center." Energy policy 69 (2014): 546-554.

Link[edit]

intellectual property rights in cross-border clean energy collaboration: The case of the US–China Clean Energy Research Center

Keypoints[edit]

  • US – China clean energy research center.
  • new IP generation
  • technology management plan (TMP)
  • key issues related to IP protection in conjunction with international, collaborative research.


Assessing the drivers of regional trends in solar photovoltaic manufacturing[edit]

Goodrich, Alan C., et al. "Assessing the drivers of regional trends in solar photovoltaic manufacturing." Energy & Environmental Science 6.10 (2013): 2811-2821.

Link[edit]

the drivers of regional trends in solar photovoltaic manufacturing

Keypoints[edit]

  • qualitative factors for factory siting decisions
  • Importance of IP protection for advance tech scenario.
  • high tech manufacturer supports heavily for IP protection rights.
  • advantage of stronger IP protection in US for commercialization.
  • importance of market access in future.

Addressing the green patent global deadlock through Bayh-Dole reform[edit]

Ouellette, Lisa Larrimore. "Addressing the green patent global deadlock through Bayh-Dole reform." Yale LJ 119 (2009): 1727.

Link[edit]

the green patent global deadlock through Bayh-Dole reform

Keypoints[edit]

  • insufficient cap-and-trade system to reduce greenhouse emission.
  • critical to increase research in green tech
  • impeding technology dissemination.
  • trade off between innovation and access.
  • treaty climate change issues to put forth negotiation proposals for weakening the IP rights.
  • reason for delay in reaching and addressing climate change issue globally on one platform.
  • commercialization theory.
  • current US IP laws disadvantage and suggested way to improvise on that.


The bumpy road to low carbon development: Insights from changes in the innovation system of China’s photovoltaic industry[edit]

Fischer, Doris. "The bumpy road to low carbon development: Insights from changes in the innovation system of China’s photovoltaic industry." The 8th GLOBELICS International Conference. 2010.

Link[edit]

[file://homedir.mtu.edu/home/Desktop/316%20Doris%20Fischer.pdfThe bumpy road to low carbon development: Insights from changes in the innovation system of China’s photovoltaic industry]

Keypoints[edit]

  • necessity to distinguish between technology availability and its application in PV field in China.
  • putting less stress on IP rights as a barrier in efficient technology transfer.
  • specific targets for PV industries.
  • PV industry goals in China and weak IP protection causing strong competition in weak competitive environment.


Developing and Diffusing Green Technologies: The Impact of Intellectual Property Rights and their Justification[edit]

Chu, Jonathan MWW. "Developing and Diffusing Green Technologies: The Impact of Intellectual Property Rights and their Justification." Washington and Lee Journal of Energy, Climate, and the Environment 4.1 (2012): 53.

Link[edit]

and Diffusing Green Technologies: The Impact of Intellectual Property Rights and their Justification

Keypoints[edit]

  • Technological and non-technological IP rights.
  • positive and negative impacts of IP rights.
  • joint ventures suppressing impediments caused by IP rights.

Climate Change and Intellectual Property Rights for New Plant Varieties[edit]

Sinha, Tapen, and Bradly J. Condon. "Climate Change and Intellectual Property Rights for New Plant Varieties." (2011)

Link[edit]

Change and Intellectual Property Rights for New Plant Varieties

Keypoints[edit]

  • comparing IPR for pharmaceutical and renewable sectors.
  • different approaches towards IP policies in developed and developing countries.
  • faulty IPR regimes and its affect on innovation.
  • incentives on innovation because of IPR and relationship with purchasing power of developing countries.


Evaluation of the commercial potential of novel organic photovoltaic technologies[edit]

Barr, Jonathan Jonathan Allan. Evaluation of the commercial potential of novel organic photovoltaic technologies. Diss. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2005.
Barr, Jonathan Jonathan Allan. "Evaluation of the commercial potential of novel organic photovoltaic technologies." PhD diss., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2005.

Link[edit]

of the commercial potential of novel organic photovoltaic technologies

Keypoints[edit]

  • organic photovoltaic technology
  • intellectual property importance from profit point of view for private investors.
  • importance of ownership of key patents.
  • technological sectors to be studied thoroughly for creation and modification from innovation point of view in PV.
  • IPR from competitive advantage point of view in industries.

WHAT ARE THE OPTIONS OF TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER FOR SOUTH AFRICA?[edit]

Poulton, Wendy, Steve Lennon, and Laurie Steenkamp. "WHAT ARE THE OPTIONS OF TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER FOR SOUTH AFRICA?." 

Link[edit]

ARE THE OPTIONS OF TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER FOR SOUTH AFRICA?

Keypoints[edit]

  • share of technology
  • consideration of IP for nation specific technology transfer.
  • government provided conducive environment for technology transfer.
  • IP and know-how secrecy as a obstruction for technology transfer .
  • Eskom-Shell solar home initiative through joint venture.



Intellectual Property Rights and International Technology Transfer to Address Climate Change[edit]

Maskus, Keith E., and Ruth L. Okediji. "Intellectual Property Rights and International Technology Transfer to Address Climate Change." (2010).

Link[edit]

Property Rights and International Technology Transfer to Address Climate Change

Keypoints[edit]

  • qualitative review of patenting in Solar PV as well as other renewable energy fields.
  • protection for existing patents with moderate improvements and feature causing emerging substitute technologies in market.
  • price restrained due to competition.
  • numerous sources for licensing at reasonable cost.
  • economic perspective for IPR.

Intellectual Property Rights: The Role of Patents in Renewable Energy Technology Innovation[edit]

Isaka, Mirei. "Intellectual Property Rights: The Role of Patents in Renewable Energy Technology Innovation." International Renewable Energy Agency 17 (2013).

Link[edit]

Property Rights: The Role of Patents in Renewable Energy Technology Innovation

Keypoints[edit]

  • what is patent and how do they work?
  • technology life cycle and innovation in RET (Renewable Energy Technology).
  • how important it is to disclose the patent information to public from future technology development point of view.
  • patent ownership and licensing.
  • monitoring and planning for innovation through patent base platform.
  • PV industries and their patent holding position (because of dispersed patents no companies are in position to monopolize their market and business.

Patenting and access to clean energy technologies in developing countries[edit]

Barton, John. "Patenting and access to clean energy technologies in developing countries." WIPO Magazine 2 (2008).

Link[edit]

and access to clean energy technologies in developing countries

Keypoints[edit]

  • PV sector and its competitive sectors.
  • IP as a barrier to export market of PV.

The role of patent protection in (clean/green) technology transfer[edit]

Hall, Bronwyn H., and Christian Helmers. The role of patent protection in (clean/green) technology transfer. No. w16323. National Bureau of Economic Research, 2010.

Link[edit]

role of patent protection in (clean/green) technology transfer

Keypoints[edit]

  • patent protection may be neither useful nor available in some settings for green technology issues.
  • impacts of IPR on PV in India, China and Brazil for technology transfer.
  • import tariffs on photovoltaic and wind energy as a barrier for technology transfer and development.
  • strengthening IPR for emerging economies with positive impact on domestic development.


Photovoltaic technology development: A perspective from patent growth analysis[edit]

Liu, John S., et al. "Photovoltaic technology development: A perspective from patent growth analysis." Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 95.11 (2011): 3130-3136.

Link[edit]

technology development: A perspective from patent growth analysis

Keypoints[edit]

  • cross-correlation to analyze the direct impact on price hike of crude oils and PV technology development.
  • relation between price hike for crude oil and PV development with one year lag.
  • classification of patents.
  • 10 year lag between solar cell market and PV technology development and implication.

Against intellectual property[edit]

Kinsella, N. Stephan. "Against intellectual property." Journal of libertarian studies 15.2; SEAS SPR (2001): 1-54.

Link[edit]

intellectual property

Keypoints[edit]

  • different types of Intellectual Property and its aspects such as patent, copyright, trademarks and trade secrets.
  • problem related to creation based approach in protecting creations.

Do stronger intellectual property rights increase international technology transfer? Empirical evidence from US firm-level data[edit]

Branstetter, Lee G., Raymond Fisman, and C. Fritz Foley. "Do stronger intellectual property rights increase international technology transfer? Empirical evidence from US firm-level panel data." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 121.1 (2006): 321-349.

Link[edit]

stronger intellectual property rights increase international technology transfer? Empirical evidence from US firm-level data

Keypoints[edit]

  • Firm IPR to support technology transfer between countries.
  • strong IPR spurs domestic innovation.
  • IPR reform and conditions to be met.


Interrelation between patenting and standardization strategies: empirical evidence and policy implications[edit]

Blind, Knut, and Nikolaus Thumm. "Interrelation between patenting and standardization strategies: empirical evidence and policy implications." Research Policy 33.10 (2004): 1583-1598.
==Link==

between patenting and standardization strategies: empirical evidence and policy implications

Keypoints[edit]

  • tremendous increase in patent applications.
  • trade off between patent information disclosure against assurance of limited monopoly awarded by state
  • protection of technological know-how and its impacts are given in conclusion part.


Global prospects, progress, policies, and environmental impact of solar photovoltaic power generation[edit]

Hosenuzzaman, M., et al. "Global prospects, progress, policies, and environmental impact of solar photovoltaic power generation." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 41 (2015): 284-297.

Link[edit]

prospects, progress, policies, and environmental impact of solar photovoltaic power generation

Keypoints[edit]

  • 0.9% contribution from Solar, Wind, Geothermal and Heat among other.renewable energy sources which totally contributes 13% for global energy demand.


AAAS PROJECT ON SECRECY AND OPENNESS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY-OVERVIEW[edit]

CHALK, R. "AAAS PROJECT ON SECRECY AND OPENNESS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY-OVERVIEW." SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY & HUMAN VALUES 51 (1985): 28-35.

Link[edit]

PROJECT ON SECRECY AND OPENNESS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY-OVERVIEW

Keypoints[edit]

  • good example for understanding of IP with the help of comparing apple exchanged between two people and idea exchanged between two people.
  • openness in science and methods of solving conflicts.

A new generalized detailed balance formulation to calculate solar cell efficiency limits[edit]

Honsberg, Christiana B., Richard C. Corkish, and Stephen P. Bremner. "A new generalized detailed balance formulation to calculate solar cell efficiency limits." Georgia Institute of Technology, 2001.

Link[edit]

new generalized detailed balance formulation to calculate solar cell efficiency limits

Keypoints[edit]

  • solar cell efficiency calculation using thermodynamics or balanced equations.
  • factors affecting the efficiency calculations.
  • higher efficiency obtained using new approaches.


Optimised antireflection coatings for planar silicon solar cells using remote PECVD silicon nitride and porous silicon dioxide[edit]

Nagel, Henning, Armin G. Aberle, and Rudolf Hezel. "Optimised antireflection coatings for planar silicon solar cells using remote PECVD silicon nitride and porous silicon dioxide." Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 7.4 (1999): 245-260. 

Link[edit]

antireflection coatings for planar silicon solar cells using remote PECVD silicon nitride and porous silicon dioxide

Keypoints[edit]

  • Silicon Nitride (SiN) films fabricated by remote plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (RPECVD).
  • electronic passivation of silicon surface.
  • ideal candidate for surface passivating ARC on solar cell.
  • use of EVA between glass and solar cell to prevent penetration of humidity into PV module.
  • neccessity of optimization.
  • refractive indices and extinction coefficient of materials to be considered by optimization procedure.
  • currently used PV modules mentioned in conclusion.
  • reduced short circuit current density in encapsulated solar cells than non-capsulated.
  • optimized AR coating to improvise the performance.

Realization of a near-perfect antireflection coating for silicon solar energy utilization[edit]

Kuo, Mei-Ling, et al. "Realization of a near-perfect antireflection coating for silicon solar energy utilization." Optics letters 33.21 (2008): 2527-2529.

Link[edit]

of a near-perfect antireflection coating for silicon solar energy utilization.

Keypoints[edit]

  • single layer, double layer & artificially modified surface structure for reflectance at specific angles, range of wavelengths & alternate sub wavelength structure respectively.
  • final reflectance of AR dependency on smoothness of the index profile.
  • theoretical modelling of several graded index profile has predicted low reflectance for broad range of wavelengths.
  • oblique angle deposition role.
  • 1-6% reflection for solar application.
  • reduction of optical reflection over all wavelengths of sunlight and incident angles using multilayer antireflection coating.

Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolumns[edit]

Yu, Peichen, et al. "Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolumns." Advanced materials 21.16 (2009): 1618-1621.

Link[edit]

enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolumns

Keypoints[edit]

  • importance of AR, reduction of recombination losses, and good ohmic contacts.
  • optimization of metal grids.
  • efficiency limiting factors such as trade off between electrode and AR coating.
  • SWS (sub-wavelength structure) AR coating.
  • surface recombination losses due to dry or wet itching prevents SWS technology to be used commercially.
  • tapered column profiles to function as a graded refractive index profile.
  • verification of excellent AR characteristics at an incident angle 70° for wavelength range of 350-900nm.
  • efficiency boosting strategy for next generation photovoltaics.


Silica and silica-like films and method of production[edit]

Meredith, Paul, and Michael Harvey. "Silica and silica-like films and method of production." U.S. Patent No. 7,642,199. 5 Jan. 2010..

Link[edit]

and silica-like films and method of production

Abstarct[edit]

A method of producing a silica or silica-like coating by forming a precursor formulation from oligomeric organosilicate. The precursor formulation is coated on a substrate as a continuous liquid phase. The precursor formulation is then cured in an ammoniacal atmosphere to produce a continuous, interconnected, nano-porous silica network.

Keypoints[edit]

  • use of silica or silica-like films used as an AR coating and/or anti fogging and/or protective coatings.
  • precursor formulation.
  • formations of oxide using sol-gel process.
  • sol-gel process is complex, costly, requires high temperature and/or surfactant for templating as well as films made using this process are easy to damage.


A highly abrasive-resistant, long-lasting anti-reflective coating for PV module glass[edit]

Pop, Sergiu C., et al. "A highly abrasive-resistant, long-lasting anti-reflective coating for PV module glass." Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC), 2014 IEEE 40th. IEEE, 2014.

Link[edit]

highly abrasive-resistant, long-lasting anti-reflective coating for PV module glass

Keypoints[edit]

  • use of ARC to reduce surface reflection and to increase the efficiency.
  • focus of PV industry on levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) thus trying to make more durable and high-performance ARC glass.
  • abrasive resistance obtained at low process temperature with denser coatings and chemically derives.
  • coating longevity for new coating is 4 times greater than existing coatings.
  • coatings with high durability is needed to extended use of PV modules.


Design and Optimization of Wide Angle Passivation and Antireflection Coating for N-Type High Efficiency Silicon Solar Cells[edit]

Wang, Lisheng, and Fengxiang Chen. "Design and Optimization of Wide Angle Passivation and Antireflection Coating for N-Type High Efficiency Silicon Solar Cells." Photonics and Optoelectronics (SOPO), 2011 Symposium on. IEEE, 2011.

Link[edit]

and Optimization of Wide Angle Passivation and Antireflection Coating for N-Type High Efficiency Silicon Solar Cells

Keypoints[edit]

  • N type silicon cell passivation using Al2O3.
  • 30° as the optimal angle for AR film designing.
  • weighted average reflectivity of SiNx/ Al2O3 AR film is higher than the SiO2/SiNx/ Al2O3 coating. Thus efficient reduction in light reflection using SiO2/SiNx/ Al2O3 coating.
  • few optimal layer parameters are given at the end of conclusion.


Solar power generation by PV (photovoltaic) technology: a review[edit]

Singh, Girish Kumar. "Solar power generation by PV (photovoltaic) technology: a review." Energy 53 (2013): 1-13.

Link[edit]

power generation by PV (photovoltaic) technology: a review

Keypoints[edit]

  • solar energy- very abundant and in exhaustive energy source.
  • conversion of sunlight into electricity directly using PV modules or indirectly using concentrated solar power.(CSP).
  • energy conversion depends on PV panel as well as practical system has overall low efficiency.
  • weather conditions also affect the efficiency factor and explained using one example in introduction part.
  • tracking system to track maximum sun intensity to give maximum output power and hence increasing efficiency.
  • arrangement of PV modules is series-parallel configuration depending upon the energy requirements.
  • cell photo current Iph, reverse saturation current Id, series resistance Rs, shunt resistance Rsh are important parameters to be considered for efficient solar cell designing.
  • energy generation using solar energy is suitable for off-grid applications.

On realizing higher efficiency polymer solar cells using a textured substrate platform[edit]

Nalwa, Kanwar S., et al. "On realizing higher efficiency polymer solar cells using a textured substrate platform." Advanced Materials 23.1 (2011): 112-116.

Link[edit]

realizing higher efficiency polymer solar cells using a textured substrate platform

Keypoints[edit]

  • Low cost organic photovoltaic (OPV) as a favorable technology.
  • light absorption is increased by 100% and high wavelength photons are trapped.
  • 20% improvement in PCE as compared to flat PV cell.
  • enhancement of optical absorption in OPV using collector mirror.
  • higher efficiency OPV with active layer on textured light trapping substrates.


Photovoltaic technology: the case for thin-film solar cells[edit]

Shah, Arvind, et al. "Photovoltaic technology: the case for thin-film solar cells." science 285.5428 (1999): 692-698.  

Link[edit]

technology: the case for thin-film solar cells

Keypoints[edit]

  • domination of wafer based crystalline silicon solar cell modules in terms of production.
  • thin-film crystalline solar cell as a prominent candidate from future perspective.
  • Photogeneration.
  • conversion of photons in electron-hole pairs to generate electricity which is primarily dependent upon bandgap energy Eg of semiconductor material.
  • for absorption of photons, photons energy hʋ > Eg.
  • almost more than 80% solar cell produced today are crystalline solar cells.
  • production volume of PV modules increasing continuously so there is possibility to have issues on availability of raw materials, production aspects and ecological considerations.
  • efficient light trapping technologies used in indirect bandgap materials eliminates the use of direct bandgap materials.


Efficient hybrid solar cells based on meso-superstructured organometal halide perovskites[edit]

Lee, Michael M., et al. "Efficient hybrid solar cells based on meso-superstructured organometal halide perovskites." Science 338.6107 (2012): 643-647.

Link[edit]

hybrid solar cells based on meso-superstructured organometal halide perovskites.

Keypoints[edit]

  • meso superstructured solar cell (MSSC) with very less fundamental losses illustrated by generating open circuit voltage over 1.1 Volts, despite of narrower absorption bandgap of 1.55eV
  • inert scaffold structures the absorber in such a way that it forces electrons to reside in and to be transported through the pervoskites.
  • solution processed solar cell overcomes the fundamental losses of organic absorber and disordered metal oxides.
  • MSSC delivering 10.9% power conversion efficiency under full sun illumination.
  • improvements in increasing photo current, reducing series resistance for better fill factor to draw maximum power from solar cell modules.


Amorphous silicon alloy photovoltaic technology-from R&D to production[edit]

Guha, S., et al. "Amorphous silicon alloy photovoltaic technology-from R&D to production." MRS Proceedings. Vol. 336. Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Link[edit]

silicon alloy photovoltaic technology-from R&D to production

Keypoints[edit]

  • Key requirements for photovoltaic modules are low material cost, high efficiency with good stability, environmental safety and low manufacturing cost.
  • using multijunction, multi-bandgap material initial efficiency was 11.8% and after 1000 h of sunlight soaking stable efficiency for module was 10.2%
  • amorphous silicon alloy with thickness less than 1µm absorbs solar photons.
  • triple junction structure solar cell module .
  • high-efficiency multijunction cell requires high-quality reflector for efficient light trapping, high-efficiency cell components, high-quality doped layers, optimum matching of the component cells.
  • function of back reflector.


PV-Tec: Photovoltaic technology evaluation center-design and implementation of a production research unit[edit]

Biro, D., et al. "PV-Tec: Photovoltaic technology evaluation center-design and implementation of a production research unit." Proceedings of the 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference. 2006.

Link[edit]

Photovoltaic technology evaluation center-design and implementation of a production research unit

Keypoints[edit]

  • standard solar cell process for mono and multi-crystalline silicon wafers is set up, serving as reference for PV technology innovation.
  • baseline process which produces complete solar cells on large quantities.

OPAL 2: Rapid optical simulation of silicon solar cells[edit]

McIntosh, Keith R., and Simeon C. Baker-Finch. "OPAL 2: Rapid optical simulation of silicon solar cells." Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2012 38th IEEE. IEEE, 2012.

Link[edit]

2: Rapid optical simulation of silicon solar cells

Keypoint[edit]

  • freeware program OPAL 2 computes the optical losses within few seconds at any incident angles.
  • dependency of optical losses on texture quality and surface texturing.
  • ARC and surface texturing improves efficiency by increasing the solar absorption capacity.
  • Reflection, absorption and transmission are dependent on thickness, refractive index and extinction coefficient.
  • calculation of reflection, absorption and transmission should be calculated on every bounce of the light and should be combined all together to determine overall reflection, absorption and transmission.
  • three principle components to OPAL 2 are ray tracing, equivalent current calculations and thin film optics.
  • new morphology introduces hillocks and spherical caps.


High-efficiency photovoltaic technology including thermoelectric generation[edit]

Fisac, Miguel, Francesc X. Villasevil, and Antonio M. López. "High-efficiency photovoltaic technology including thermoelectric generation." Journal of Power Sources 252 (2014): 264-269.

Link[edit]

photovoltaic technology including thermoelectric generation

Keypoints[edit]

  • photovoltaic system are designed for applications which requires low power.
  • efficiency is quite low and further decreases as temperature increases.
  • temperature gradient in solar panel is used to supply thermoelectric cells which generates electricity, achieving the positive contribution to the total balance of the complete system.
  • system comprised of photovoltaic and thermal technology can be a good way of using residual heat for electricity generation and increasing the efficiency.
  • most important parameters of typical solar cell are open circuit voltage( Voc), short circuit current (Isc), reverse saturation current (Is), series resistance (Rs) and ideality factor (n).
  • combination of Photovoltaic technology and Thermal technology can be used to increase the global efficiency parameter of the complete system.

Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy; latest developments in the building integrated and hybrid PV systems[edit]

Zahedi, Ahmad. "Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy; latest developments in the building integrated and hybrid PV systems." Renewable Energy 31.5 (2006): 711-718.

Link[edit]

photovoltaic (PV) energy; latest developments in the building integrated and hybrid PV systems

Keypoints[edit]

  • use of solar photovoltaic energy system in off grid PV application in commercial as well as residential areas.
  • 4 major applications of photovoltaic power system: off grid domestic photovoltaic system, : off grid non-domestic photovoltaic system, grid connected distribute photovoltaic system, grid connected centralize photovoltaic system.
  • PV is often cost effective solution to energy service provision in developing coutries as well as developed coutries.
  • net zero-energy building concept.
  • research interests in new material, solar cell design improvements,product development etc.

References[edit]

  1. E.g. Plasma Physics Corp. v. Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd., (USDC ND Ill, No. 88 C 2274, Oct 25, 1988).