Water purification, a process by which undesired chemical compounds, organic and inorganic materials, and biological contaminants are removed from water. One major purpose of water purification is to provide clean drinking water. The purification procedure reduces the concentration of contaminants such as suspended particles, parasites, bacteria etc. To avoid this contamination some people use RO filters, aqua-guards etc. to purify the water. RO filters remove most of the minerals from the water leaving it with an acidic pH. Also, during the purification process, up to 20 gal of water is flushed down the drain for every gallon of filtered water produced and requires electricity. Bhabha Atomic Research Center technology filter is the best option to remove bacterial contamination, turbidity and odour. This filter does not need electricity or addition of any chemical.
Ultraviolet water purification is the most effective method for disinfecting bacteria from the water. Ultraviolet (UV) rays penetrate harmful pathogens in your home's water and destroy illness-causing microorganisms by attacking their genetic core (DNA). This is extremely efficient in eliminating their ability to reproduce. Disinfecting your water with Ultraviolet light is exceptionally simple, effective and environmentally safe. UV systems destroy 99.99% of harmful microorganisms without adding chemicals or changing your water's taste or odor.UV systems are an effective means of water disinfection for residential point of entry use to help disinfect the entire home. UV systems are highly recommended to homeowners who may suspect any E.coli, cryptosporidium, giardia or any other types of bacteria and viruses in the water. It is not advised to use chlorine or other chemicals to disinfect water like private well owners, because of the toxic byproducts they create. It is important to avoid drinking any water that is potentially contaminated from bacteria to protect yourself from any water-borne bacterial diseases.
Objective[edit | edit source]
- To make affordable, portable, low cost and replicable water filter systems to get drinkable water.
- To get drinkable water by removing bacterial contaminants from water.
Background[edit | edit source]
- Today, 70% of villages in India depend on groundwater for drinking water. Clean water is essential for every human being, for drinking, cooking and other daily uses. Availability of potable drinking water remains a challenge in rural areas in several parts of the country. Commercially available water filters are costly, reverse osmosis (RO)-based purifiers waste a lot of water.
As per the research contaminated water leads to diseases like- diarrhea, cholera, dysentery, typhoid and is estimated to cause 502000 diarrhea deaths each year. Some 844 million people will lack basic drinking water and another 159 million will be dependent on untreated surface water sources. The regular tap water being supplied in your home might seem clear but possess various sorts of health-affecting bacteria and viruses such as fluorine compounds, chlorine, lead, pesticides and other types of waste particles. Clean and safe water is a fundamental human need. BARC filter is the best option to purify water. This filter based on ultra filtration membrane can physically remove bacteria, suspended solids and high molecular weight organics without the use of electricity, at tap water pressure, mainly by size-exclusion mechanism.
- UVC light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum that spans 100-400nm. It is divided into 3 types UVA, UVB and UVC. UVC which is an invisible light spanning the range of 100-280nm and has powerful germicidal properties so UVC light is used as disinfectant for water, surface, air etc. Ultra Violet disinfection usually involves a UV lamp. The UV lamp is used to provide pure and safe drinking water. The UV light used in this process is a high powered UV termed as UV-C or germicidal UV. UVC rays have the shortest wavelength, and therefore highest energy, they are capable of killing bacteria and viruses, also called pathogens. Water is disinfected as it runs through a stainless steel chamber containing a UV lamp. As water flows past the lamp, illness-causing microorganisms receive a lethal dose of UV light that attacks their DNA and eliminates their ability to reproduce. Harmful bacteria and viruses are deactivated, and your family is safe. Under no circumstances should you stare at a UV-C light source for any amount of time. When UV-C light shines on water or if the bulb is immersed in the water, some of the light penetrates the water and is absorbed by germs, such as bacteria and viruses, in the water. The average bacterium will be killed in ten seconds at a distance of six inches from the lamp in an American Ultraviolet Germicidal Fixture. UV light can have efficient inactivation of bacteria up to a distance of eight feet on either side and exposure time of 30 minutes is adequate. The medical profession was the first to endorse the germicidal effect of UV lamps and it has been used traditionally to disinfect operation theaters.
UV light is a natural process and does not produce harmful chemicals in water. It's a safe, effective and environmentally friendly disinfection method that is widely used for residential and industrial applications around the world.
Ultraviolet purification advantages[edit | edit source]
- Chemical Free: UV purification does not use any chemicals like chlorine or leave any harmful by products.
- Taste & Odor Free: UV does not add any chemical taste or odor to the water.
- Extremely Effective: One of the most effective ways to kill disease-causing microbes by destroying 99.99%.
- Requires very little energy: Uses about the same energy as it would to run a 60-Watt light bulb.
- Low Maintenance: Set and forget type of system, just change the UV bulb annually.
Limitations in UV water systems[edit | edit source]
- Ultraviolet purification itself is not enough to purify water down to drinking water purposes. This is because the UV radiation is only effective for treating bacteria and viruses. UV light does not work to eliminate contaminants such as chlorine, heavy metals and VOC's (Volatile Organic Compounds). UV systems are often paired with Reverse Osmosis Systems to provide a complete purification process for the safest drinking water.
Silent features of UV water systems[edit | edit source]
- Easy to handling, assemble
- Low cost, Long life
- Remove bacterial contaminant
- Low power consumption
- Portable, Small in size
Solar Designing for the UV water filter[edit | edit source]
|Sr. No.||Part of solar system||Quantity||Sizing/ capacity||Cost in rupees|
|Total cost of system||6750|
List of material for the prototype[edit | edit source]
|Sr. No.||Material||Quantity||Rate in rupees|
|6||Male-female connectors (AC supply)||1||30|
|7||Male-female connectors (DC supply)||1||20|
|10||LED 5W driver circuit||1||70|
References[edit | edit source]
- Wikipedia:Solar water disinfection
- Blog Link: http://vadic.vigyanashram.blog/2020/10/06/solar-water-filter-2/?preview_id=21237&preview_nonce=14117ffd38&preview=true&_thumbnail_id=22855
- PC DWQuality: http://inremfoundation.org/fluorosis/pdf/T1p10.pdf