Cover

Traditional Cheesemaking (SKAT, 1989, 74 p.)[edit | edit source]

Appendices[edit | edit source]

Cheese formulae[edit | edit source]

Fresh cheese

Andean cheese

Tilsit&Danbo cheese

Parmesan

Gruyere

Quantity of milk

100 litre

100 litre

100 litre

100 litre

330 litre

Coagulation temperature

36 C

33-35 C

32-34 C

31-32 C

32 C

Lactic ferment

0.3 litre

1 litre

1 litre

0.5-1 litre yoghurt

1.5 litre Emmental mix/yoghurt

Coagulation time

30-40 min

30-40 min

30-40 min

30 min

30 min

Cutting and Stirring

10 min

15-25 min

30 min

45 min

30 min

Grain sizes: diameter

2 cm

1 1/2 cm

1 cm

1/2 cm

1/2 cm

Repose

3 min

5 min

5 min

5 min

5 min

Whey removed

35 litre

35 litre

35 litre

35 litre

no

Hot water

20 litre

20 litre

20-30 litre

10 litre

no

Water temperature

35 C

50-55 C

65-75 C

80 C


Whey temperature

35 C

37 C

39 C

55 C

52-55 C

Water and Stirring

5 min

10 min

25 min

60-80 min

50-60 min

Total time

50 min

70 min

90 min

140-160 min


Mould: diameter

10 cm

15 cm

25 x25 cm

25 cm

38 cm

height

25 cm

25 cm

15 cm

155 cm

15 cm

First turn

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

Pressing

no

no

6 kg

66 kg

20 kg

Second turn

after 30 min

30 min

30 min

after 30 min

after 30 min Pressing


no

4 kg

6 kg

6 kg

200 kg

Third turn

after 45 min

60 min

60 min

after 60 min

after 2 hours Pressing

no

cut the cheese in two

no

6 kg

12 hours with 200 kg


Fourth turn

after 80 mins cut each cheese in half and put them quickly into brine

10 hours without weight in moulds(20 C)

10 hours without weight in moulds(20 C)

10 hours without weight

after 2 hours

Brining time

1-2 hrs

8-10 hrs

20-25 hrs

3 weeks

48 hours

Ripening time

0

14 days

4-8 weeks

6-10 months

3-8 months

Yield (litres of milk required per kg of cheese)

7.5 litre

8.5 litre

9.5 litre

12 litre

11 litre

Weight

0.420 kg

1 kg

8.5 kg

55 kg

30 kg



Types of dairy cultures[edit | edit source]

Name

Optimum incubation temperature ( C)

Used for

Characteristics

Emmental-mix

37-42

Emmental, Gruy�re, Italian hard cheese

Mixed cultures of Lactobacillus helveticus and Streptococcus thermophilus

Lactic cultures with aromatizers

20-23

Butter, acidified milk products, cheese

Mixed cultures containing betacoccus and




streptococcus acidifers and aromatizers

Lactic cultures

20-23

Soft cheese and cheese

Mixed cultures containing only streptococcus

without aromatizers

with firm structure

acidifiers (lactis and cremoris)


Leuconostoc citrovorum Leuconostoc dextranicum

20-23

Buttermilk, sour cream, cottage cheese, ripened cream butter

Produce only flavour; have to be used together with lactic ferments (Streptococcus lactis and/ or Streptococcus cremonis)

Penicillium camemberti

15

Camembert cheese

Surface growth with a white mat surface

Penicillium candidum



producing a nutty flavour and a creamy texture; it is added directly to the milk

Penicillium roqueforti

10

Blue cheese (Gorgonzola, Roquefort, etc.)

The air induces the mould spores to grow vegetatively with a resulting spread of their greenish-bblue mycela, effecting the flavour and texture of the cheese; it is added directly to the milk

Propionibacterium shermanii

28-32

Cheese with eye formation

Grows with difficulty in ordinary milk; added just before the rennet for flavour and eye formation in hard cheese, in addition to Emmental-mix

Streptococcus diacetylactis

30-37

Buttermilk, sour cream, cottage cheese, ripened cream butter

Produces acid and flavour

Streptococcus durans

37-40

Soft Italian cheese,

A species of bacteria resistant to salt and

Streptococcus faecalis


Cheddar and some Swiss cheese

heat which imparts a characteristic flavour

Yoghurt

37-42

Yoghurt, hard cheese

Mixed cultures of Lactobacilus bulgaricus and Streptococccus thermophilus

These starters can be ordered from different laboratories in lyophilized form in small bags or bottles and can be conserved in the refrigerator for about three months. They cost approximately US each.