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A root cellar is a type of food storage room. A root cellar is a completely dark, very humid, unheated room designed for the storage of food. The temperature needs to be constant, between 0 and 4,5°C. It is mostly intented to store tuberous roots (hence the name). Root cellars are also used for the storage of other "living" food (ie apples, ...). It needs to have good ventilation so as to remove any ethylene gas which forms from this food.
The design is rather simple. Basically, large buildings are earth bermed (-similar to earthships- and have an air inlet at the front, and an air outlet at the top. This air outlet has a adjustable vent which may or may not be operated by a PCB. This way the food can be maintained on a constant, cool temperature (above freezing point). Also, a double door is needed to prevent any heat from coming into the room when people wish to enter it.
The high humidity is generally achieved by simply pooring water on the floor and allowing it to evaporate. Alternatively, it is possible to attain this using a humidifier, hooked up to a water source. This latter method should allow keeping the humidity at a set level.