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Authors Leslie Westerlund
Location Perth, Australia
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Papermaking is an ancient art and science. Some new research is rejuvenating the art and science of hand made paper (HMP) to a new and exciting level of quality. Leslie Westerlund (BSc.MEnvSc) is also researching a new smooth/textured LHMP that can go through photocopy and printing machines.

The research is carried out at the International Environmental Technology Centre IETC: Murdoch, a West Australian University near the city of Perth. Australia. It is part of his PhD project on Technology Transfer to promote eco-friendly craft cottage industry to developing countries. Email <>: Murdoch University - Environmental Technology Centre (ETC) - environmental technology for sustainable development.

This page will be more developed soon.

You will see how to:

Make eco-friendly Leslie's Hand Made Paper (LHMP)

  1. Sort the paper into colours and grades
  2. Soak 4kg in a bucket of hot water for a day to soften it
  3. Pulp it in Leslie's 200 litre hydropuler 50:1 water: paper wt ratio:
  4. Dilute 99:1 into Leslie's VAT; Screan through with special moulds and deckles (LAM)
  5. Transfer via Leslie's special new couching LTC
  6. Rransfer to L's stacking system (LSR); transfer to L's pulping Press (LPP); then hang to air dry
  7. Rhen peel; then dry press; then grade; then cut to sizes.

Save energy, water, inks, chemicals

  • Energy is saved by using solar energy: used to heat the water to make the pulp; solar drying is used to air dry the paper.
  • Water is recycled many times to make more pulp and save any residue chemicals for reuse.
  • Colours from inks are reused to make a pastel shade of that colour - mixed with white paper.
  • Chemicals and fillers from the original paper are repulped and used for bonding and filling.
  • Trees/forests/ecosystems can be saved by using recycled paper, lint, cotton, fibres to make paper.
  • Create beautiful books/poems/posters on the paper;: The paper is about 150 gsm (grams per square metre) and will go through most flat feed printing systems. The surface has one super-smooth side for high quality printing.

Leslie has also edited and published a dictionary on papermaking and handmade papermaking.

Leslie Westerlund's Dictionary of Papermaking (2005). ISBN 1876141-247. Australia.

External links[edit | edit source]
Alyssa Grassi examples her papermaking abilities and other ways of teaching science through art, such as a home made paper press, solar powered paper pulper, and a styrofoam-concrete oven.
Great photo tutorial on making paper.

great example of the Fijian papermaking project at Wainimakutu Village

References[edit | edit source]

"How to Make a Papermaking Couching L'Transfer Curve" by Leslie.C.Westerlund. Nov 2007:ISBN 1876141-492

"How to Make Smooth Papermaking Technology" by Leslie.C.Westerlund. May 2008. ISBN 1876141-557

"How to Make a Papermaking Press" by Leslie.C.Westerlund. Feb2007. ISBN 1876141-45X

"How to Make Papermaking Aluminium Moulds and Deckles" by Leslie.C.Westerlund. Oct2007. ISBN 1876141-468

"How to Make a Papermaking Vat" by Leslie.C.Westerlund. Aug 2008. ISBN 1876141-506; Westerlund Eco Services, Rockingham W.Australia.

Conference Papers[edit | edit source]

Westerlund L.C., Ho G., Anda M., Wood D., Koshy K.C., (2008) Case Study of Technology Transfer to a Fiji Rural Village using a Improved 'Sustainable Turnkey Approach'. Technologies and Strategic Management of Sustainable Biosystems; First International Conference. Murdoch University. W.Australia.6-9 July 2008.

ABSTRACT Historically a number of approaches to technology transfer to 'less developed countries' (LDCs) have been trialled and found to be limited. A classic example is the 'turnkey approach' which appears to answer an LDC's hope to gain better technologies and skills and yet has several flaws. It is not designed for local industry, conditions and production systems; it is too expensive; too technical; too prone to breakdowns; too tied up with intellectual property and patent issues; too remote for technical support; and finally not sensitive to local culture and heritage. Thus after a short time when something goes wrong with the equipment, it is not serviced or fixed properly and production stops and the local village goes back to their old ways of doing things. A modified appropriate 'sustainable turnkey approach' (STA) was developed, trialled and used to introduce new cottage papermaking technology to an existing papermaking village in a remote highland part of Fiji, a LDC. This part of the new research explored making a high technology piece of equipment in Suva, the nearest city to the Wainimakutu Village. The intellectual property was given under 'creative commons' by the inventor. The STA has empowered a local engineering business and the engineering department of the local university to be able to understand and transfer the 'hardware' (equipment) and 'software' (skills) of these technologies and actually make the machines. The business/university project empowered them to redesign it, to improve it, to trial it, to test it, and then network with a village to complete the ideals of using the 'best available technology' that is also sustainable, eco-friendly, appropriate and financially viable. The STA has proved a far superior process. When something goes wrong with the machine it can be adjusted, fixed or modified to work: first in the village; second, with local industry help; third with local university help; and fourth with contacting the inventor for advice and networking with all stakeholders. The village employment project does not stop and wait in limbo for weeks/months/years until expensive international experts can diagnose the faults, import the parts, manufacture components and fix the problems to get the machine working. The action research process, with its emphasis on inductively produced local knowledge, informs and supports this STA to pioneer better ways of technology transfer to assist developing countries. This was evaluated by a new objective survey using a new points system of 100 points to imply a 100% transfer of skills per phase to empower many stakeholders with the knowledge and wisdom of making papermaking equipment and processes. The use of 'creative commons' was trialled and proved successful to transfer the 'best available intellectual property' to a LDC. The technology transfer was successful using appropriate technologies, local skills and labour, being economically viable, sustainable using waste paper and local fibres, and finally complementary to cultural values of the native Fijian papermaking village.

FA info icon.svg Angle down icon.svg Page data
Keywords paper, papermaking, material reuse, green living, crafts
SDG SDG11 Sustainable cities and communities
Authors Leslie Westerlund
License CC-BY-SA-3.0
Organizations International Environmental Technology Centre (IETC), Murdoch University
Language English (en)
Related 0 subpages, 5 pages link here
Impact 537 page views
Created May 2, 2006 by "Les Westerlund"
Modified February 28, 2024 by Felipe Schenone
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