9. PV system monitoring and performance of a grid connected PV power station located in Manchester-UK
E. M. Natsheh, E. J. Blackhurs, A. Albarbar, Manchester Metropolitan University, School of Enginerring, Manchester M1 5GD, UK, ate of Conference: 6-8 Sept. 2011 Date Added to IEEE Xplore: 23 January 2012, Electronic ISBN: 978-1-84919-536-2, INSPEC Accession Number: 12328415, DOI: 10.1049/cp.2011.0121. 
- The developed monitoring system enables system degradation to be identified via the calculation of the residual difference in power generation between the computer model and the actual PV power plant. and irradiance, temperature and system output power are gathered from a 28.8kW grid connected solar power system.
- Mathematical model consists of a photo current, diode, series resistor and a parallel resistor.
- The photocurrent is directly proportional to the light falling on the cell. During darkness, the solar cell is not active; it works as a diode. It produces either voltage or current.
- The major inputs for the proposed PV model were solar irradiation, PV panel temperature and PV manufactures data sheet information. In this study, the Astronergy HSM6610P225 PV module is taken as example.
- With increased solar irradiance there is an increase in maximum power output and short circuit current.
- with an increase in the cell temperature, maximum power output decreases whilst the short circuit current increases.
10. Grid-connected versus stand-alone energy systems for decentralized power—A review of literature
Deepak Paramashivan, Kaundinya P. Balachandra, N. H. Ravindranath, Centre for Sustainable Technologies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India Received 30 September 2008, Revised 13 January 2009, Accepted 12 February 2009, Available online 6 March 2009. 
- Explains the differences between Grid connected (GC) and stand alone (SA) energy systems
- Technological feasibility of GC and SA.
- Environmental and economic feasibility of GC and SA.
- Designing of GC and SA system.
- Policy measures and barriers for implementation of GC and SA energy systems