棉花植物,来自 www.organic-cotton.us [1]
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马铃薯保温材料是家庭建筑的重要组成部分。绝缘有助于减少热量的流动,并且是一种吸音器。棉绝缘材料是美国用于家庭建筑的多种绝缘材料之一。

棉绝缘材料最初是在 1990 年代由德克萨斯州 Post 的 Cotton Unlimited 公司从低档原生棉中开发出来的。回收的纺织废料被发现是一种更具成本效益的生产材料,因为牛仔裤制造过程中有大量的边角料。事实证明,高回收含量和安全处理是增加消费者吸引力的品质。[2]

产品原因

棉绝缘材料提供了玻璃纤维绝缘材料的替代品,安装时会刺激皮肤,但尚未发现会增加安装它的人患癌症的风险。[3]棉绝缘材料的制造不会像玻璃纤维生产那样对工人构成相同的风险,后者已被证明会导致接触内毒素、酚类化合物和甲醛。这些化学物质已被证明会导致呼吸系统问题,例如哮喘。[4]与其他绝缘体相比,使用棉进行绝缘还可以提供更好的隔音效果。[5]

工作原理

绝缘提供热流阻力。不同类型的绝缘材料根据其热阻或 R 值进行评级。R 值取决于绝缘类型,但每个家庭需要的数量因气候、加热和冷却系统的类型以及被绝缘的结构类型而异。[6]棉绝缘材料可根据棉絮的厚度提供不同的 R 值。市场上的大多数棉绝缘材料在 13-R 和 19-R 之间。[7]

Post-industrial recycled cotton textiles can be made into cotton insulation. Cotton mill waste and low-grade recycled cotton are formed into batts or packaged as loose fill.[8] Leftover pieces of cotton clothing, including denim jeans, are shredded, treated with boric acid, and formed into batts, like traditional fiberglass batts that are common in U.S. homes.[9] Cotton batts are bound with melted synthetic, noncellulosic polyolefin fibers that make up about 5% of the finished product (See table below). According to the EPA, VOC emissions are significantly lower in fibers made with a melt spinning process as polyolefin because the process does not use solvents.[10]硼酸是一种低毒、可生物降解的阻燃剂和驱虫剂。它非常安全,可用于处理婴儿衣物。[10]

棉花是一种可快速再生的资源,因为它可以每年收获一次。棉绝缘材料由工业后、消费前的废料制成。尽管棉绝缘材料的生产与农业无关,但棉花种植实践通常是农药密集型的。因此,除非从种植者处追踪来源,否则不能将棉绝缘材料归类为有机棉。[10]

Impacts

Cotton insulation uses resources that are both recyclable and renewable. Cotton that is formed into insulation is produced mainly from recycled pre-consumer clothing scraps with some agricultural cotton.[12] The production of cotton insulation uses less energy than fiberglass insulation production. With cotton insulation there is less concern about disposal after its usefulness because it can be recycled or composted.[5] From an economic standpoint cotton insulation costs twice as much to purchase than traditional fiber glass insulation.[13]

Product and DIY instructions

Traditional fiberglass insulation can be dangerous to install. Exposed skin can be irritated and the fibers are hazardous to lungs. Formaldehyde is commonly found in common fiberglass insulation and can leach into the home. Cotton insulation is soft and easy to work with. Cotton is considered a safer alternative, as it releases no fibers and is treated with boric acid for fire and pest protection.[12]

According to Bonded Logic, the manufacturers of a leading cotton insulation brand, UltraTouch, there are particular methods for installation. For ceiling applications, layering batts in alternate directions both makes the cotton fit best and achieves a higher R-value. To hold the insulation in place, batts should be secured to joists with wire or mesh until the drywall is installed. UltraTouch is "friction fit" product, meaning they are slightly oversized. Batts should be inserted and tucked between the studding in the wall cavity to ensure a tight fit. According to the manufacturer, approximately 30% of the UltraTouch batts in each bag are perforated to fit into "off-size" cavities.[14] According to the U.S. Department of Energy, consumers should always consult the manufacturer's published instructions when installing any insulation, to ensure accordance with fire and safety regulations and any applicable building.

Cotton insulationTraditional insulation
ManufacturersBonded Logic, Inno-Therm, Eco-BlueGuardian Fiberglass, Inc., Johns Mansville, CertainTeed
DescriptionMade of post-industrial recycled cotton[15]
  • Bonded Logic Ultra-Touch- 85% recycled denim and cotton fiber sourced from Mexico, 15% boric acid and olefin fiber
  • Inno-Therm- 95% post-industrial recycled fiber
  • Eco-Blue-75% cotton fiber sourced from China and Turkey, 15% polyester binding, 10% polyster sheet core
Made of fiberglass
  • Recycled glass and sand, naturally non-flammable[16]
Advantages
  • Safe to handle
  • High acoustic absorption properties
  • High recycled content
  • High loft rebound, naturally expands
  • Cheap
  • Widely used and available
Disadvantages
  • Low loft rebound, does not expand readily[17]
  • More expensive than traditional insulation
  • Hazardous to handle
  • Inferior acoustical properties
  • Potential hazards from leaching and formaldehyde off-gassing

References

  1. http://www.organic-cotton.us/
  2. http://web.archive.org/web/20060315094739/http://www.wconline.com/CDA/Archive/a8e721219b768010VgnVCM100000f932a8c0____
  3. Harley, Bruce. Insulate and Weatherize. Connecticut: The Taunton Press, 2002.
  4. Milton, Donald K, Walters, Michael D, Hammond, Katharine, Evans, John S. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Akron: Oct 1996. Vol. 57, Iss. 10; pg. 889
  5. 跳转至: 5.0 5.1 http://www.builditgreen.org/attachments/wysiwyg/3/Cotton-Insulation.pdf
  6. (http://web.archive.org/web/20120807105926/http://www.energysavers.gov:80/your_home/insulation_airsealing/index.cfm/mytopic=11340)
  7. Consumer Guide and Directory of Certified Insulation Material: Sorted by type and manufacturer. State of California, Department of Consumer Affairs, Bureau of Home Furnishings and Thermal Insulation.
  8. O'Connor, Nancy. "Living Green: The Missing Manual." Sebastopol: O'Reilly Media, Inc., August 2009.
  9. http://www.greenerbuilding.org/buying_advice.php?cid=39
  10. 跳转至: 10.0 10.1 10.2 (http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/ch06/final/c06s09.pdf)
  11. http://www.flickr.com/photos/52566512@N00/3560450177
  12. 跳转至: 12.0 12.1 (http://www.servicemagic.com/article.show.Cotton-Insulation-is-Safe-Green-and-Effective.15108.html)
  13. (http://www.ecorate.com/content/products.aspx?cid=28)
  14. (http://web.archive.org/web/20170916023437/http://cottoninsulation.net/)
  15. http://web.archive.org/web/20101218052314/http://healthybuilding.net/healthcare/ProductComp_BattInsul.pdf
  16. http://web.archive.org/web/20100613074803/http://naima.org/pages/resources/faq/faq_fiber.html
  17. http://web.archive.org/web/20060315094739/http://www.wconline.com/CDA/Archive/a8e721219b768010VgnVCM100000f932a8c0____
Page data
Part of Engr308 Technology and the Environment
Type Project
Keywords building elements, thermal insulation, energy efficiency, construction
SDG Sustainable Development GoalSDG07 Affordable and clean energy
Published 2010
License CC-BY-SA-4.0
Affiliations HBCSL, Cal Poly Humboldt
Impact Number of views to this page and its redirects. Updated once a month. Views by admins and bots are not counted. Multiple views during the same session are counted as one.12,736
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