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Difference between revisions of "Water resource policy"

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[[File:WorldWaterAvailability.png]]This article is about water resource policy and the structure of its institutions. This has influence on the policy making processes but this article is restricted to a synchronic picuture of these structures and does not examine the dynamic diachronic process of decision making.<ref> The corresponding article on this topic at general-use websites such as wikipedia may address a broader scope.</ref>
 
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Abstract: This article seeks to delineate a focus on water resource policy, its institutions and policy making processes rather than implementation or hydrology, irrigation, geography, fisheries management, implementation, the management of specific water projects or the purchase, ownership and conveyance of water law|water rights. Water resource management is the implementation of policy and is usually carried out over smaller political, spatial, and geographical domains than policy. Policy is a cause of management practices, but best management practices are identified, evaluated, modified and disseminated by policy making bodies.  These policy issues may be subdivided by various means, but broadly concern either the identification, annexation, procurement, maintenance, protection, preservation, expansion of water supply and protection of its quantitative degradation through evaporative loss, water main breakage, waste or constraining qualitative degradation through direct pollution. "Supply isn't just about water production, it is also about distribution infrastructure" <ref> TakaDu p. 9 </ref> Technical issues of the world's aging water infrastructure also includes origination and dissemination of best practices to deal with metering, control systems, and pressure management.Much of policy discussion involves management of competing interests in supply and polluting uses by and between different user classes, with some commentators projecting resource wars as demand exceeds supply throughout most of the globe. <ref> Halcrow p. 27 & etc</ref> User classes of interest to policy making institutions and policy advocates include domestic, industrial, mining and agricultural facilities.<ref>http://www.ecolex.org/ecolex/ledge/view/RecordDetails;document_Law%20on%20Water%20Resources%20Development%20(Law%20No.%2011%20of%201974)..html?DIDPFDSIjsessionid=7DA28E1500FB24F295BD6F41E7070924?id=LEX-FAOC001336&index=documents</ref>
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[[Water resource management]] is the ''implementation'' of policy and is usually carried out over different, more subdivided political, spatial, and geographical domains than policy. It includes policy for "regions, catchments, shared or transboundary water resources, and inter-basin transfers,Policy is a cause of management practices, but best management practices are identified, evaluated, modified and disseminated by policy making bodies"<ref>http://www.gwptoolbox.org/index.php?option=com_tool&id=1</ref>.  These policy issues may be subdivided by various means, but broadly concern either the identification, annexation, procurement, maintenance, protection, preservation, expansion of water supply and protection of its quantitative degradation through evaporative loss, water main breakage, waste or constraining qualitative degradation through direct pollution. "Supply isn't just about water production, it is also about distribution infrastructure" <ref> TakaDu p. 9 </ref> Technical issues of the world's aging water infrastructure also includes origination and dissemination of best practices to deal with metering, control systems, and pressure management.Much of policy discussion involves management of competing interests in supply and polluting uses by and between different user classes, with some commentators projecting resource wars as demand exceeds supply throughout most of the globe. <ref> Halcrow p. 27 & etc</ref> User classes of interest to policy making institutions and policy advocates include domestic, industrial, mining and agricultural facilities.<ref>http://www.ecolex.org/ecolex/ledge/view/RecordDetails;document_Law%20on%20Water%20Resources%20Development%20(Law%20No.%2011%20of%201974)..html?DIDPFDSIjsessionid=7DA28E1500FB24F295BD6F41E7070924?id=LEX-FAOC001336&index=documents</ref>
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==Increasing interest in analysis of policy systems==
 
Water resource policy issues are receiving increasing attention. <ref> name= Halcrow http://www.futurewecreate.com/includes/0614Global%20Water%20Security%20PSC%2019%20Oct%20rev1.pdf</ref>It is widely believed that water policy is entering a period of more or less permanent crisis,<ref>http://www.gwp.org/Global/The%20Challenge/Resource%20material/IWRM%20at%20a%20glance.pdf</ref> at least in some regions, and the chilling spectre of worldwide crisis at some point in the future.<ref>http://www.voanews.com/english/news/usa/arts/Fight-for-Water-Hits-Crisis-Levels-Worldwide-118423974.html</ref>Given the complexity of international law, national sovereignty and forecasted water shortages, attention is increasingly focused on various approaches to this complex subject matter.<ref>http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/20023193561.html</ref> Organizations such as the Global Water Policy Project have sprung up to promote awareness and prod government and NGO's into heightened awareness of the problems.<ref>http://www.globalwaterpolicy.org</ref>
 
Water resource policy issues are receiving increasing attention. <ref> name= Halcrow http://www.futurewecreate.com/includes/0614Global%20Water%20Security%20PSC%2019%20Oct%20rev1.pdf</ref>It is widely believed that water policy is entering a period of more or less permanent crisis,<ref>http://www.gwp.org/Global/The%20Challenge/Resource%20material/IWRM%20at%20a%20glance.pdf</ref> at least in some regions, and the chilling spectre of worldwide crisis at some point in the future.<ref>http://www.voanews.com/english/news/usa/arts/Fight-for-Water-Hits-Crisis-Levels-Worldwide-118423974.html</ref>Given the complexity of international law, national sovereignty and forecasted water shortages, attention is increasingly focused on various approaches to this complex subject matter.<ref>http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/20023193561.html</ref> Organizations such as the Global Water Policy Project have sprung up to promote awareness and prod government and NGO's into heightened awareness of the problems.<ref>http://www.globalwaterpolicy.org</ref>
 
Various jurisdictions at all levels from international down to small water districts regulate water resources to protect drinkability and agricultural uses from water pollution. Advanced industrial countries typically develope stringent rules which are disseminated worldwide through aid agencies and international agencies such as various departments of the United Nations. Within the developed nations, some localities have more highly developed water regulatory policy analysis, making and implementation bodies in place, due either to general social and ideological concerns or familiarity with specific, often problematic water quality problems.
 
Various jurisdictions at all levels from international down to small water districts regulate water resources to protect drinkability and agricultural uses from water pollution. Advanced industrial countries typically develope stringent rules which are disseminated worldwide through aid agencies and international agencies such as various departments of the United Nations. Within the developed nations, some localities have more highly developed water regulatory policy analysis, making and implementation bodies in place, due either to general social and ideological concerns or familiarity with specific, often problematic water quality problems.
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===Water resource management in higher education===
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Oregon State University offers a degree program in Water Resources Policy and Management (WRPM) <ref>http://oregonstate.edu/gradwater/degreeprograms/wrpm.php</ref>
  
 
==Global water resource policy objectives (overview)==
 
==Global water resource policy objectives (overview)==
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==Institutional participants==
 
==Institutional participants==
  
=== Multilateral/UN ===
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=== United Nations water programs ===
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A few high points in multilateral initiatives are as follows:
 
A few high points in multilateral initiatives are as follows:
  
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<ref>http://www.unep.org/law/</ref>
 
<ref>http://www.unep.org/law/</ref>
  
At Earth Summit 2002 governments established targets for 2015 to improve access to safe drinking water. <ref>http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/monitoring/globalassess/en/ Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment 2000 Report </ref>  
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* At Earth Summit 2002 governments established targets for 2015 to improve access to safe drinking water. <ref>http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/monitoring/globalassess/en/ Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment 2000 Report </ref>
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* In 2007 the World Bank developed a report series on Environment and Development <ref>World Bank|Series on Environment and Development.|http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWAT/Resources/Env_Flows_Water_v1.pdf</ref>
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which thereafter (2009)reported on Environmental Flows in Water Resources Policies, Plans, and Projects<ref>Environmental Flows in Water Resources Policies, Plans, and Projects|World Bank|Series on Environment and Development.|http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWAT/Resources/Env_Flows_Water_v1.pdf</ref>
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=== Bilateral ===
 
=== Bilateral ===
 
Treaties between nations may enumerate rights and responsibilities. For instance, a treaty between Poland and Germany, "An Agreement to establish cooperation on water resources management" provides:
 
Treaties between nations may enumerate rights and responsibilities. For instance, a treaty between Poland and Germany, "An Agreement to establish cooperation on water resources management" provides:
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<ref>http://www.ecolex.org/ecolex/ledge/view/SearchResults;DIDPFDSIjsessionid=7DA28E1500FB24F295BD6F41E7070924?index=courtdecisions&indexHitsParam=treaties%3A406&indexHitsParam=documents%3A9769&indexHitsParam=courtdecisions%3A256&indexHitsParam=literature%3A2486&query=water&sortField=score</ref>
 
<ref>http://www.ecolex.org/ecolex/ledge/view/SearchResults;DIDPFDSIjsessionid=7DA28E1500FB24F295BD6F41E7070924?index=courtdecisions&indexHitsParam=treaties%3A406&indexHitsParam=documents%3A9769&indexHitsParam=courtdecisions%3A256&indexHitsParam=literature%3A2486&query=water&sortField=score</ref>
  
=== Non-profit NGO policy advocacy organizations ===
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=== UN-consultative NGO policy advocacy organizations ===
 
Non governmental organizations may have consultative status at the UN. One such NGO is the World Water Council, an "international multi-stakeholder platform" established in 1996 to act "at all levels, including the highest decision-making level...[in] protection, development, planning, management and use of water in all its dimensions...for the benefit of all life on earth." It was an outgrowth of the 1992 at the UN's International Conference on Environment and Development in Dublin and at the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit. The Council itself is mow based in the City of Marseilles.<ref name="worldwatercouncil"/> Their website explains its' multi-stakeholder basis as due to the fact that "authority for managing the world's fresh water resources is fragmented amongst the world's nations, hundreds of thousands of local governments, and countless non-governmental and private organizations, as well as a large number of international bodies."  
 
Non governmental organizations may have consultative status at the UN. One such NGO is the World Water Council, an "international multi-stakeholder platform" established in 1996 to act "at all levels, including the highest decision-making level...[in] protection, development, planning, management and use of water in all its dimensions...for the benefit of all life on earth." It was an outgrowth of the 1992 at the UN's International Conference on Environment and Development in Dublin and at the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit. The Council itself is mow based in the City of Marseilles.<ref name="worldwatercouncil"/> Their website explains its' multi-stakeholder basis as due to the fact that "authority for managing the world's fresh water resources is fragmented amongst the world's nations, hundreds of thousands of local governments, and countless non-governmental and private organizations, as well as a large number of international bodies."  
 
Subsequently, in 1994, the International Water Resources Association (IWRA) organized a special session on the topic in its Eighth World Water Congress held in Cairo in November 1994, leading to creation of the World Water Council. <ref>Ibid</ref>
 
Subsequently, in 1994, the International Water Resources Association (IWRA) organized a special session on the topic in its Eighth World Water Congress held in Cairo in November 1994, leading to creation of the World Water Council. <ref>Ibid</ref>
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===Independent multi-lateral NGO===
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====Global Water Partnership====
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The Global Water Partnership (GWP) is a network of Country and Regional Water Partnerships with a Secretariat in Stockholm. It was established "to support countries in the sustainable management and development of their water resources" but in practice is helping to formulate national policies to direct that management.Their mandate includes poverty reduction consistent with Millennium Development Goals. <ref>http://www.gwptoolbox.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=7&Itemid=5</ref>
  
 
=== Business water resource policy initiatives ===
 
=== Business water resource policy initiatives ===
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* need to harmonize public/private sectors<ref> Halcrow p 28</ref>
 
* need to harmonize public/private sectors<ref> Halcrow p 28</ref>
  
== Issues of concern to policy makers ==
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==Structural constraints on policy makers ==
  
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Operational water management implements policy. These policies are implemented by organizational entities created by government exercise of the police power of the state. However, all such entities are subject to constraints upon their autonomy.<ref>Poulantzas, Nicos. Political Power and Social Classes. NLB, 1973 (orig. 1968).</ref> These constraints originate in the legitimacy demands of their constituents and also the conflicting constraints originating from  global and regional international entities, national government and state or provincial policy instruments such as treaties, laws, regulations and contracts.<ref>^ Habermas, J. and Derrida, J. “February 15, Or What Binds Europeans Together: A Plea for a Common Foreign Policy, beginning in the Core of Europe” in ‘’The Derrida-Habermas Reader’’ ed. Thomassen L. The University of Chicago Press: Chicago Ill. Pp. 270-277. P.302</ref> These factors affect ownership and control of water resources all the way down to the level of municipalities and special districts for flood control and allocation of water rights in accordance with local water law.  In many localities, structural limitations on policy making and resulting implementation snarls lead to failed policies.  <ref>Collapse of an Industry: Nuclear Power and the Contradictions of U.S. Policy (Cornell Studies in Political Economy)
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John L. Campbell</ref>
  
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===Jurisdictional limitations===
  
====Freshwater====
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Subject matter and geographic jurisdiction are distinguishable.<ref>Black's Law Dictionary</ref> Jurisdiction is limited by geographic political boundaries as well the limits imposed by enabling legislation.
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In some cases, legislation targets specific types of land uses (wilderness,agricultural,urban-residential, urban-commercial, etc.) A second level of jurisdictional limitation exists in terms of the subject matter which any given agency is authorized to control such as flood control, water supply and sanitation, etc. This creates a situation where regulatory authority is fragmented and thus policy analysis at a higher level is in demand in order to coordinate and identify gaps.
  
=====Water supply=====
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===== Policy consistency requirements =====
 
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* Drinking water
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* Agriculture. "Many rural people practice subsistence rain fed agriculture as a basic livelihood strategy, and as such are vulnerable to the impacts of drought or flood that can diminish or destroy a harvest. "<ref>16th Conference on Climate Variability and Change|2.7|Evaluation of the Use of Forecast Interpretations information|Diego H. Pedreros, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA; and A. Bonilla, P. Ramirez, C. Funk, G. Husak, J. Michaelsen, and L. Aguilar|Session 2, Climate Predictions on Seasonal and Interannual Time Scales: 1(parallel with Session 1)
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Monday, 10 January 2005, 1:30 PM-5:30 PM|http://ams.confex.com/ams/Annual2005/techprogram/paper_87610.htm</ref>
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===== Surface and groundwater =====
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Surface water and groundwater have often been studied and managed as separate resources, although they are interrelated.<ref name="circ1139">United States Geological Survey (USGS). Denver, CO. [http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/circ1139/ "Ground Water and Surface Water: A Single Resource."] USGS Circular 1139. 1998.</ref> There are three recognized classifications of groundwater which jurisdictions may distinguish: subterranean streams, underflow of surface waters, and percolating groundwater.<ref>http://www.blm.gov/nstc/WaterLaws/california.html</ref>
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===== Policy maker's freshwater constituencies=====
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Classification of sites of policy makers' concern include:
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*residential
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*construction,
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*industrial,
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*municipal activities,
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*discharges from irrigated agriculture;
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* dredge and fill activities;
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* Consistency with national regulations
 
* Consistency with national regulations
* and several other activities with practices that could degrade water quality.
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* Consistency with the interests of other lawful authorized users who engage in permitted or unpermitted practices which may utilize excessive water or degrade water quality.
  
===Saltwater ===
 
  
Ballast water, fuel/oil leaks and trash originating from ships is a growing concern in terms of water pollution in addition to other concerns. Of special concern are:
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===Overlapping jurisdictions and conflict of laws===
* cruise ships
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In typically water challenged province in a developed nation, the number of water regulatory agencies at the provincial level alone is substantial, not counting  county, city and special districts:
* tankers
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* Environmental Protection Agency (State/EPA)
* bulk cargo carriers
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Ballast water may contain toxins, invasive plants, animals, viruses, and bacteria.
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==Structural constraints on policy makers ==
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===== Jurisidictional problems =====
  
Operational water management implements policy. These policies are implemented by organizational entities created by government exercise of the police power of the state. However, all such entities are subject to constraints upon their autonomy.<ref>Poulantzas, Nicos. Political Power and Social Classes. NLB, 1973 (orig. 1968).</ref> These constraints originate in the legitimacy demands of their constituents and also the conflicting constraints originating from  global and regional international entities, national government and state or provincial policy instruments such as treaties, laws, regulations and contracts.<ref>^ Habermas, J. and Derrida, J. “February 15, Or What Binds Europeans Together: A Plea for a Common Foreign Policy, beginning in the Core of Europe” in ‘’The Derrida-Habermas Reader’’ ed. Thomassen L. The University of Chicago Press: Chicago Ill. Pp. 270-277. P.302</ref> These factors affect ownership and control of water resources all the way down to the level of municipalities and special districts for flood control and allocation of water rights in accordance with local water law.  In many localities, structural limitations on policy making and resulting implementation snarls lead to failed policies. <ref>Collapse of an Industry: Nuclear Power and the Contradictions of U.S. Policy (Cornell Studies in Political Economy)
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Overlapping jurisdictions may pass legislation which creates conflict of laws. For interest, recent changes in California law intended to reduce air quality problems from shipping has been interfered with by Federal legal changes intended to reduce the cost of shipping. <ref> www.santabarbaraindependent.com|July 2, 2011</ref>
John L. Campbell</ref>
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===Jurisdiction===
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===== Example of various overlapping water agencies=====
  
Subject matter and geographic jurisdiction are distinguishable.<ref>Black's Law Dictionary</ref> Jurisdiction may be conceptualized geographically (wilderness,agricultural, urban) or in terms of subject matter such as flood control, water supply and sanitation.
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* Coastal Commission
  
===Overlapping jurisdictions===
 
In typically water challenged province in a developed nation, the number of water regulatory agencies at the provincial level alone is substantial, not counting  county, city and special districts:
 
* Environmental Protection Agency (State/EPA)
 
* Coastal Commission
 
 
* Coastal Conservancy  
 
* Coastal Conservancy  
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* Department of Fish & Game  
 
* Department of Fish & Game  
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* Department of Water Resources  
 
* Department of Water Resources  
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* Environmental Resources Evaluation System (CERES)  
 
* Environmental Resources Evaluation System (CERES)  
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* Ocean and Coastal Environmental Access Network (OCEAN)  
 
* Ocean and Coastal Environmental Access Network (OCEAN)  
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* Resources Agency Wetlands Information System  
 
* Resources Agency Wetlands Information System  
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*State Water Resources Control Board  
 
*State Water Resources Control Board  
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<ref>http://www.megalaw.com/ca/top/cawater.php</ref>
 
<ref>http://www.megalaw.com/ca/top/cawater.php</ref>
Additionally,
 
* Public Health Departments conduct water sampling for bacterial and viral contaminants
 
* Water districts control service to residential, commercial, industrial and institutional water consumers
 
  
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<ref>The '''Water Quality Control Policy for the Enclosed Bays and Estuaries of California''' is published by the California State Water Resources Control Board as guidelines to prevent water quality degradation. </ref><ref name="swrcb">State Water Resources Control Board ''Water Quality Control Policy for the Enclosed Bays and Estuaries of California'' (1974) State of California</ref>
  
===Flood and contamination control===
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* Public Health Departments conduct water sampling for bacterial and viral contaminants
  
Water can become a natural disaster in the form of coastal or inland manifestions. These include tsunami, hurricane,cyclone, rogue wave and storm surge or floods originating from terrestrial water - bursting dams, rivers overflowing their banks. Planning and prevention of floods is a part of water resource policy which is separated from ordinary water resource management designed to allocate supply and provide for sanitation.
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* Water districts control service to residential, commercial, industrial and institutional water consumers
One jurisdiction's projects may cause problems in other jurisdictions, causing untold grief to all concerned. For instance, Monterey County California controls a body of water which acts as a reservoir for San Luis Obispo County. Who pays for measures to restrict growth of Quaaga Mussels? The down stream jurisdiction will face expensive damage to their piping systems if things get out of control, but boaters in the upstream jurisdiction will infect the lake if they are not subject to education and enforcement programs, which cost money. Similar examples abount.
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== Subject matter jurisdiction: water quality issues ==
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==== NGO to government difficulties ====
  
===Surface water (runoff)  and wastewater discharge ===
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Government secrecy is an ongoing problem as bureacratic ineptitude and illicit, privately profitable arrangements are shielded from public view. In some nations there are provisions for press and other NGO access but costly lawsuits may be required to exercise these rights.
  
Such regulatory bodies as exist cover designated regions <ref>http://www.swrcb.ca.gov/waterboards_map.shtml</ref> and regulate piped waste water discharges to surface water which include riparian and ocean ecosystems. These systems of review bodies are charged with maintenance maintaining a healthy aquifer for purposes of wilderness ecology (wildlife habitat,drinking water, agricultural irrigation and fisheries. Another area of regulatory attention, which may or may not be housed within the same regulatory structure, includes storm water discharge which tend to carry fertilizer residue and bacterial contamination from domestic and wild animals. <ref>http://www.swrcb.ca.gov/water_issues/programs/ciwqs/who_is_regulated.shtml</ref> They have the authority to make orders which are binding upon private actors such as international corporations <ref>http://www.dailybreeze.com/news/ci_17612147</ref> and do not hesitate to exercise the police powers of the state.  Water agencies have statutory mandate which in many hurisdictions is resilient to pressure from constituents and lawmakers in which they on occasion stand their ground despite heated opposition from agricultural interests<ref>http://www.montereyherald.com/local/ci_18314090?nclick_check=1</ref>
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=====Typical information access issue =====
On the other hand, the Boards enjoy strong support from environmental concerns such as Greenpeace,Heal the Ocean and Channelkeepers.<ref>http://www.facebook.com/notes/heal-the-ocean/hilary-spoke-to-regional-water-quality-control-board-today/10150089482817928</ref>
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As reported on the non partisan Civil Society Institute website, a  2005 Congressional study on water supply impact of American production is apparently being suppressed as it has become the target of a Freedom of Information Action (FOIA) litigation filed by the Civil Society Institute (CSI) vs the Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu.
  
Water quality issues or sanitation concerns reuse or water recycling and pollution control which in turn breaks out into stormwater and wastewater.
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<ref>Website of the Civil Society Institute|June 23, 2011|http://www.civilsocietyinstitute.org/media/062311release.cfm</ref>
  
=== Stormwater runoff control policy ===
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==See also==
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[[International Rivers]]
  
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[[Organizations]]
  
 
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==References==
'''Surface runoff''' is water that flows when heavy rains do not soak (infiltrate) soil; excess water from rain, meltwater, or other sources flowing over the land.  This is a major component of the water cycle.<ref>Robert E. Horton, ''The Horton Papers'' (1933)</ref><ref>Keith Beven, ''Robert E. Horton's perceptual model of infiltration processes'', Hydrological Processes, Wiley Intersciences DOI 10:1002 hyp 5740 (2004)</ref> Runoff that occurs on surfaces before reaching a Channel (geography)|channel is also called a Nonpoint source pollution|nonpoint source. Such sources often contain man-made contaminants, the runoff is called nonpoint source pollution.  When runoff flows along the ground, it can pick up Soil contamination|soil contaminants including, but not limited to petroleum, pesticides, or fertilizers that become discharge (hydrology)|discharge or nonpoint source pollution.<ref>L. Davis Mackenzie and Susan J. Masten, ''Principles of Environmental Engineering and Science'' ISBN 0-07-235053-9</ref><ref> Adapted for this section, including citations herein, from open source CCL 2.0 main article at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stormwater</ref> At a policy level, political groups aggregate at such policy making entities as will hear their claims. Thus, in democratic jurisdictions with relatively open access to citizen participation, agricultural interests, developers, fish and wildlife groups, and environmentalists will compete for policy maker attention and for implementation of their preferred policy options. <ref>http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/waterrights/water_issues/programs/instream_flows/docs/not_wdm070111.pdf</ref>
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=== Wastewater ===
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{{Main|Wastewater}}
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Wastewater is water which has been discharged from human use; "water that has been adversely affected" by anthropogenic influence. <ref> Section adapted from main topic Wikipedia article at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wastewater CCL 2.0 Originating editor TakuyaMurata</ref> The primary sources are discharge from the following sources:
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* domestic residences,
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* commercial properties,
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* industry,
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* agriculture
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Potential contaminants exist in varying concentrations and new ones are found on an ongoing basis}. Sewage is technically wastewater contaminated with fecal and similar animal waste byproducts, but is frequently used as a synonym for waste water. Origination includes cesspool and sewage outfall pipes, some of which are unpermitted .
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=== Water treatment policy ===
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Water treatment is usually a matter of implementation however it is subject to multiple overlapping jurisdictional constraints which limit the governmental autonomy <ref> Poulantzas, Nicos. Political Power and Social Classes. London:New Left Books></ref>exercised by these bodies. For instance, levels of chloramines with their resulting toxic trihalomethane by product are subject to Federal guidelines even though water management implementing those policy constraints are carried out by local water boards. <ref>http://www.ccwa.com/chloramines.htm</ref>
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==Appendix: Water resource legislation==
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* In US Recovery Act <ref>http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/assets/crs/R40216.pdf</ref>
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* England Wales
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* Australia
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* North Caroline (US)
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== References ==
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{{Reflist}}
 
{{Reflist}}
 
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[[Category:Organizations]] [[Category:Water]] {{Under construction}}
== External links ==
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* [http://www.blm.gov/nstc/WaterLaws/california.html]
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* [http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/drinking/public/water_quality.html U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Healthy Water - Water Quality] - Information on water quality, water testing, and understanding consumer confidence reports on water contaminants
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* [http://acwi.gov/monitoring/ U.S. National Water Quality Monitoring Council (NWQMC)] - Partnership of federal and state agencies
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* [http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa U.S. Geological Survey] - National Water Quality Assessment Program
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* [http://www.epa.gov/owow/monitoring U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - Water Quality Monitoring]
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* [http://www.nal.usda.gov/wqic U.S. National Agricultural Library]
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* [http://www.awra.org/ American Water Resources Association]
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* [http://www.gemstat.org Global Water Quality online database]
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* [http://www.beaches911.org/ Beaches 911 - U.S. Beach Water Quality Monitoring ]
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* New Trends in Water and Environmental Engineering for Safety and Life [http://books.google.com/books?id=rsf1ScQZGHQC&pg=PA104&dq=wet+infrastructure&hl=en&ei=m1_oS9y6DpeONcnEtcYE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=wet%20infrastructure&f=false]
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* The Scarcity of Water: Emerging Legal and Policy Responses [http://books.google.com/books?id=hHaJYSGVbJ0C&pg=PA17&dq=wet+infrastructure&hl=en&ei=m1_oS9y6DpeONcnEtcYE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CE0Q6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=wet%20infrastructure&f=false]
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* Governance and Complexity in Water Management [http://books.google.com/books?id=jScUexgfiekC&pg=PA100&dq=%22wet+infrastructure%22&hl=en&ei=zWLoS-yeJIziNcHspfAE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CEAQ6AEwBDgK#v=onepage&q=%22wet%20infrastructure%22&f=false]
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<!---Water resource policy--->
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[{{Under construction}}
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[[Category:Water quality]]
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[[Category:Water supply]]
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Latest revision as of 00:30, 6 July 2011

WorldWaterAvailability.pngThis article is about water resource policy and the structure of its institutions. This has influence on the policy making processes but this article is restricted to a synchronic picuture of these structures and does not examine the dynamic diachronic process of decision making.[1]

Water resource management is the implementation of policy and is usually carried out over different, more subdivided political, spatial, and geographical domains than policy. It includes policy for "regions, catchments, shared or transboundary water resources, and inter-basin transfers,Policy is a cause of management practices, but best management practices are identified, evaluated, modified and disseminated by policy making bodies"[2]. These policy issues may be subdivided by various means, but broadly concern either the identification, annexation, procurement, maintenance, protection, preservation, expansion of water supply and protection of its quantitative degradation through evaporative loss, water main breakage, waste or constraining qualitative degradation through direct pollution. "Supply isn't just about water production, it is also about distribution infrastructure" [3] Technical issues of the world's aging water infrastructure also includes origination and dissemination of best practices to deal with metering, control systems, and pressure management.Much of policy discussion involves management of competing interests in supply and polluting uses by and between different user classes, with some commentators projecting resource wars as demand exceeds supply throughout most of the globe. [4] User classes of interest to policy making institutions and policy advocates include domestic, industrial, mining and agricultural facilities.[5]

Increasing interest in analysis of policy systems[edit]

Water resource policy issues are receiving increasing attention. [6]It is widely believed that water policy is entering a period of more or less permanent crisis,[7] at least in some regions, and the chilling spectre of worldwide crisis at some point in the future.[8]Given the complexity of international law, national sovereignty and forecasted water shortages, attention is increasingly focused on various approaches to this complex subject matter.[9] Organizations such as the Global Water Policy Project have sprung up to promote awareness and prod government and NGO's into heightened awareness of the problems.[10] Various jurisdictions at all levels from international down to small water districts regulate water resources to protect drinkability and agricultural uses from water pollution. Advanced industrial countries typically develope stringent rules which are disseminated worldwide through aid agencies and international agencies such as various departments of the United Nations. Within the developed nations, some localities have more highly developed water regulatory policy analysis, making and implementation bodies in place, due either to general social and ideological concerns or familiarity with specific, often problematic water quality problems.

Water resource management in higher education[edit]

Oregon State University offers a degree program in Water Resources Policy and Management (WRPM) [11]

Global water resource policy objectives (overview)[edit]

Planning is viewed as a means to

  • to address the raw need for water quantitatively
  • to protect water supply quantity
  • to regulate conflicts about water access and quality particularly to prevent possible political or military conflict.

[12] [13]

  • to protect vulnerable populations from threats such as flooding and mosquito vector activity.
  • navigable water policy
  • use of waters as dwelling space (houseboats)
  • conversion of water resources into energy (hydro-electric)
  • extraction of food from water resources (fishing, aquafarming)
  • extraction of minerals including petroleum

Institutional participants[edit]

United Nations water programs[edit]

A few high points in multilateral initiatives are as follows:

The 1977 Mar del Plata United Nations Conference on Water was the first intergovernmental water conference, leading to the 1980 Declaration of the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade by the UN General Assembly.[14]

The United Nations Environmental Program is a key institution housing water resource policy making agencies and disseminating best practices worldwide. This activity occurs at global, regional and national levels. This role has been enhanced by landmark policy directives:

  • UN General Assembly Resolution 3436 (XXX) Agenda 21
  • 1997 Nairobi Declaration on the Role and Mandate of UNEP and
  • 2000 Malmö Ministerial Declaration adopted at the First Global Ministerial Environment Forum.

[15]

  • At Earth Summit 2002 governments established targets for 2015 to improve access to safe drinking water. [16]
  • In 2007 the World Bank developed a report series on Environment and Development [17]

which thereafter (2009)reported on Environmental Flows in Water Resources Policies, Plans, and Projects[18]

Bilateral[edit]

Treaties between nations may enumerate rights and responsibilities. For instance, a treaty between Poland and Germany, "An Agreement to establish cooperation on water resources management" provides:

  • supply of drinking water of good quality,
  • protection of surface water,
  • supply of water to agriculture,
  • fight against water pollution. [19]

The Permanent Court of International Justice adjudicates disputes between nations including water rights litigation. [20]

UN-consultative NGO policy advocacy organizations[edit]

Non governmental organizations may have consultative status at the UN. One such NGO is the World Water Council, an "international multi-stakeholder platform" established in 1996 to act "at all levels, including the highest decision-making level...[in] protection, development, planning, management and use of water in all its dimensions...for the benefit of all life on earth." It was an outgrowth of the 1992 at the UN's International Conference on Environment and Development in Dublin and at the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit. The Council itself is mow based in the City of Marseilles.[14] Their website explains its' multi-stakeholder basis as due to the fact that "authority for managing the world's fresh water resources is fragmented amongst the world's nations, hundreds of thousands of local governments, and countless non-governmental and private organizations, as well as a large number of international bodies." Subsequently, in 1994, the International Water Resources Association (IWRA) organized a special session on the topic in its Eighth World Water Congress held in Cairo in November 1994, leading to creation of the World Water Council. [21]

Independent multi-lateral NGO[edit]

Global Water Partnership[edit]

The Global Water Partnership (GWP) is a network of Country and Regional Water Partnerships with a Secretariat in Stockholm. It was established "to support countries in the sustainable management and development of their water resources" but in practice is helping to formulate national policies to direct that management.Their mandate includes poverty reduction consistent with Millennium Development Goals. [22]

Business water resource policy initiatives[edit]

The World Business Council for Sustainable Development has engaged stakeholders in a process it refers to as in its H2OScenarios engaged in a scenario building. In June 2011 in Geneva, the Future of Water Virtual Conference, "hosted by" Dow Chemical, exchanged view on sustainable water issues. Notable presented included Peter Bell of Harvard's Hauser Center for Nonprofit Organizations and David Abraham, CEO of ClearWater Initiative. Other sponsorships included Scientific American and Fast Company (magazine)|Fast Company, a media firm. Issues raised included

  • water infrastructure monitoring,[23] global water security, potential resource wars, [24] interaction between water, energy, food and economic activity, the "true value" of "distribution portions of available water" and a putative "investment gap" in water infrastructure. [25][26] It was asserted that climate change will impact scarcity of water but the water security presentation emphasized that a combined effect with population growth "could be devastating".[27] Identified corporate water related risks include physical supply, regulatory and product reputation. [28]

This forum indicated policy concerns with

  • trade barriers
  • price supports
  • other subsidies
    • treatement of water as a free good creates underpricing of 98% of water [29]
  • need to intensify debate
  • need to harmonize public/private sectors[30]

Structural constraints on policy makers[edit]

Operational water management implements policy. These policies are implemented by organizational entities created by government exercise of the police power of the state. However, all such entities are subject to constraints upon their autonomy.[31] These constraints originate in the legitimacy demands of their constituents and also the conflicting constraints originating from global and regional international entities, national government and state or provincial policy instruments such as treaties, laws, regulations and contracts.[32] These factors affect ownership and control of water resources all the way down to the level of municipalities and special districts for flood control and allocation of water rights in accordance with local water law. In many localities, structural limitations on policy making and resulting implementation snarls lead to failed policies. [33]

Jurisdictional limitations[edit]

Subject matter and geographic jurisdiction are distinguishable.[34] Jurisdiction is limited by geographic political boundaries as well the limits imposed by enabling legislation. In some cases, legislation targets specific types of land uses (wilderness,agricultural,urban-residential, urban-commercial, etc.) A second level of jurisdictional limitation exists in terms of the subject matter which any given agency is authorized to control such as flood control, water supply and sanitation, etc. This creates a situation where regulatory authority is fragmented and thus policy analysis at a higher level is in demand in order to coordinate and identify gaps.

Policy consistency requirements[edit]
  • Consistency with national regulations
  • Consistency with the interests of other lawful authorized users who engage in permitted or unpermitted practices which may utilize excessive water or degrade water quality.


Overlapping jurisdictions and conflict of laws[edit]

In typically water challenged province in a developed nation, the number of water regulatory agencies at the provincial level alone is substantial, not counting county, city and special districts:

  • Environmental Protection Agency (State/EPA)
Jurisidictional problems[edit]

Overlapping jurisdictions may pass legislation which creates conflict of laws. For interest, recent changes in California law intended to reduce air quality problems from shipping has been interfered with by Federal legal changes intended to reduce the cost of shipping. [35]

Example of various overlapping water agencies[edit]
  • Coastal Commission
  • Coastal Conservancy
  • Department of Fish & Game
  • Department of Water Resources
  • Environmental Resources Evaluation System (CERES)
  • Ocean and Coastal Environmental Access Network (OCEAN)
  • Resources Agency Wetlands Information System
  • State Water Resources Control Board

[36]

[37][38]

  • Public Health Departments conduct water sampling for bacterial and viral contaminants
  • Water districts control service to residential, commercial, industrial and institutional water consumers

NGO to government difficulties[edit]

Government secrecy is an ongoing problem as bureacratic ineptitude and illicit, privately profitable arrangements are shielded from public view. In some nations there are provisions for press and other NGO access but costly lawsuits may be required to exercise these rights.

Typical information access issue[edit]

As reported on the non partisan Civil Society Institute website, a 2005 Congressional study on water supply impact of American production is apparently being suppressed as it has become the target of a Freedom of Information Action (FOIA) litigation filed by the Civil Society Institute (CSI) vs the Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu.

[39]

See also[edit]

International Rivers

Organizations

References[edit]

  1. The corresponding article on this topic at general-use websites such as wikipedia may address a broader scope.
  2. http://www.gwptoolbox.org/index.php?option=com_tool&id=1
  3. TakaDu p. 9
  4. Halcrow p. 27 & etc
  5. http://www.ecolex.org/ecolex/ledge/view/RecordDetails;document_Law%20on%20Water%20Resources%20Development%20(Law%20No.%2011%20of%201974)..html?DIDPFDSIjsessionid=7DA28E1500FB24F295BD6F41E7070924?id=LEX-FAOC001336&index=documents
  6. name= Halcrow http://www.futurewecreate.com/includes/0614Global%20Water%20Security%20PSC%2019%20Oct%20rev1.pdf
  7. http://www.gwp.org/Global/The%20Challenge/Resource%20material/IWRM%20at%20a%20glance.pdf
  8. http://www.voanews.com/english/news/usa/arts/Fight-for-Water-Hits-Crisis-Levels-Worldwide-118423974.html
  9. http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/20023193561.html
  10. http://www.globalwaterpolicy.org
  11. http://oregonstate.edu/gradwater/degreeprograms/wrpm.php
  12. In nations of all classes, conflict between urban and agricultural uses are expected to intensify, creating policy making challenges of increasing complexity.
  13. Dehydrating Conflict by Sandra L. Postel and Aaron T. Wolf, September 18, 2001. From Global Policy Forum
  14. 14.0 14.1 http://www.worldwatercouncil.org/index.php?id=92
  15. http://www.unep.org/law/
  16. http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/monitoring/globalassess/en/ Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment 2000 Report
  17. World Bank|Series on Environment and Development.|http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWAT/Resources/Env_Flows_Water_v1.pdf
  18. Environmental Flows in Water Resources Policies, Plans, and Projects|World Bank|Series on Environment and Development.|http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWAT/Resources/Env_Flows_Water_v1.pdf
  19. http://www.ecolex.org/ecolex/ledge/view/RecordDetails;document_Agreement%20between%20the%20Federal%20Republic%20of%20Germany%20and%20the%20Republic%20of%20Poland%20on%20cooperation%20on%20water%20resource%20management.html?DIDPFDSIjsessionid=7DA28E1500FB24F295BD6F41E7070924?id=TRE-151959&index=treaties
  20. http://www.ecolex.org/ecolex/ledge/view/SearchResults;DIDPFDSIjsessionid=7DA28E1500FB24F295BD6F41E7070924?index=courtdecisions&indexHitsParam=treaties%3A406&indexHitsParam=documents%3A9769&indexHitsParam=courtdecisions%3A256&indexHitsParam=literature%3A2486&query=water&sortField=score
  21. Ibid
  22. http://www.gwptoolbox.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=7&Itemid=5
  23. name= Takadu http://www.futurewecreate.com/includes/0615Water_Price_Innovation_Scarcity_TaKaDu.pdf
  24. http://www.futurewecreate.com/includes/0614Global%20Water%20Security%20PSC%2019%20Oct%20rev1.pdf
  25. name= Halcrow
  26. http://www.futurewecreate.com/
  27. Halcrow
  28. Halcrow p 23
  29. Takadu p.2
  30. Halcrow p 28
  31. Poulantzas, Nicos. Political Power and Social Classes. NLB, 1973 (orig. 1968).
  32. ^ Habermas, J. and Derrida, J. “February 15, Or What Binds Europeans Together: A Plea for a Common Foreign Policy, beginning in the Core of Europe” in ‘’The Derrida-Habermas Reader’’ ed. Thomassen L. The University of Chicago Press: Chicago Ill. Pp. 270-277. P.302
  33. Collapse of an Industry: Nuclear Power and the Contradictions of U.S. Policy (Cornell Studies in Political Economy) John L. Campbell
  34. Black's Law Dictionary
  35. www.santabarbaraindependent.com|July 2, 2011
  36. http://www.megalaw.com/ca/top/cawater.php
  37. The Water Quality Control Policy for the Enclosed Bays and Estuaries of California is published by the California State Water Resources Control Board as guidelines to prevent water quality degradation.
  38. State Water Resources Control Board Water Quality Control Policy for the Enclosed Bays and Estuaries of California (1974) State of California
  39. Website of the Civil Society Institute|June 23, 2011|http://www.civilsocietyinstitute.org/media/062311release.cfm
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