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Low Temperature High Strength Bainite Literature Review

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This page describes selected literature available on low temperature high strength baintite for steel strength and energy opitmization.

Very strong low temperature baintite[1]

Abstract: Bainite has been obtained by heat treatment at temperatures as low as 125°C in a high carbon, high silicon steel. This has had the effect of greatly refining the microstructure, which is found to have a strength in excess of 2.5 GPa together with an ability to flow plastically before fracture. Such properties have never before been achieved with bainite. In this paper metallographic details are reported of the very fine bainitic microstructure associated with the incredibly low transformation temperature, where during the time scale of the experiments, an iron atom cannot diffuse over a distance greater than ~ 10-17 m. Yet, the microstructure has a scale in the micrometre range, consistent only with a displacive mechanism of transformation.

Large chunks of very strong steel[2]

52nd Hatfield Memorial Lecture: Large chunks of very strong steel[3]

Abstract:Most new materials are introduced by selectively comparing their properties against those of steels. Steels set this standard because iron and its alloys have so much potential that new concepts are discovered and implemented with notorious regularity. In this 52nd Hatfield Memorial Lecture, I describe a remarkably beautiful microstructure consisting of slender crystals of ferrite, whose controlling scale compares well with that of carbon nanotubes. The crystals are generated by the partial transformation of austenite, resulting in an extraordinary combination of strength, hardness and toughness. All this is in bulk steel without the use of expensive alloying elements. We now have a strong alloy of iron, which can be used for making items that are large in all three dimensions, which can be made without the need for mechanical processing or rapid cooling and is cheap to produce and apply.


  1. F.G. Caballero, H.K.D.H Bhadeshia, K.J.A. Mawella, D.G.Jones, and P. Brown, "Very strong low temperature baintite", Materials Science and Technology, Vol(18), pg 279-284, 2002
  2. H. Bhadeshia, "Large chunks of very strong steel", Millennium Steel, pg 25-28, 2004
  3. H. Bhadeshia, "52nd Hatfield Memorial Lecture: Large chunks of very strong steel", Materials Science and Technology,Vol 21, No 11, pg 1293-1302, 2005