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CCAT rainwater 2020

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Engr305 Appropriate Technology page in progress
This page is a project in progress by students in Engr305 Appropriate Technology. Please do not make edits unless you are a member of the team working on this page, but feel free to make comments on the discussion page. Check back for the finished version on May 23, 2020.



Background

This project will be taking place at The Center for Appropriate Technology (CCAT) on the Humboldt State University campus. The 3 seeds team will be working with CCAT members to retrofit the main water catchment system to increase its storage capacity. Other possible projects that may take precedence include retrofitting the CCAT toilets using rain water that has been caught and adding more water storage to the front of the CCAT house gutters that currently do not collect from the roof

first flush/main tank
Main Water Tank
Front side gutters can provide more water storage
Water Tank by Yurt

problem statement

The objective of this project is add more water storage for the excess amounts of rain water coming from the roof of the CCAT house. Retrofitting the current system to increase the amount of water collected and limiting any overflow and leaks.

The Team

Project Evaluation Criteria

The following Criteria will be used to assess the success of this project. These criteria were chosen based on the suggestions of the project coordinator as well as the diligent students who are working on the catchment system. The scale (1-10) represents the importance level of meeting the constraint of each listed criteria.

Criteria Constraints Weight
(1-10)
Community added water usage,filtered water
9
Maintainability Must be easy to clean the filter and remove debris,easy upkeep
8
Aesthetics Must be pleasing to the eye and look professional. Not sloppy
10
Size Increases capacity/storage to reduce amount of wasted overflow water. 1000 gallons minimum
10
Safety & Placement stable/flat area/easy to access
10
Simplicity easy to use
8
Opaque less light exposure the better/darker tank works best
10
Cost Must not exceed budget
10
Functionality Successfully stores more rainwater
10

Additional Information

For more information on water catchment systems, click the link below:

To find out more about Humboldt State University's Campus Center for Appropriate Technology (CCAT), click the link below:

Literature Review

This is a review of the available literature pertinent to the a specific project.

Rainwater Catchment System

From Lonny Grafman's "To Catch the Rain," rainwater harvesting is to catch water falling from the sky to use it with a more direct purpose before becoming dirtier from the ground. Rainwater catchment systems are created to catch that water and can be made several different ways because it is a technology that can be customized to fit where needed. Components to a rainwater catchment system usually entails a catchment surface, conveyance which include the gutters and downspout, screens, first flush, storage, purification, and end use. [1]

Overflow Concerns

Finding a solution for the excess water. Putting it to use or a way to drain it away from the area. Overflow for the front of CCAT is also a concern. Potential roof and gutters cleaned out and possible rain water catchment system. A biosand filter could be a good addition to provide more storage and clean water. More info on biosand filtration can be found here: https://www.cawst.org/services/expertise/biosand-filter/more-information [2]

System Types

There are four possible systems that can be the focus of the project. They include the following: Upgrade the main storage system with additional storage and or any fixes needed. An addition of a natural water filtration system can be attached with additional storage, and a irrigation system that utilizes the overflow from the main tank. [3]

Main Storage

Already a working system. Overflow concerns. More storage needed. Possible sand,gravel,charcoal filtration system which would include additional storage. [4]

Filtration + Storage

Best filter options for filtration from rain catchment are slow-sand filter or bioremediation. The problems that filtration could solve is the build up in the irrigation lines and make the water safer for watering edible plants. It’s important to choose a low cost and low maintenance filtration system given the constraints of the project[2].

Slow-sand filters need a large area and they are slow which would diminish the water pressure for the drip irrigation. On the other hand they are inexpensive and accessible[2].

Bioremediation uses living organisms to treat rainwater. This can be a form of mycoremediation or fungi that commonly live on certain aquatic plant roots. This filtration type is resilient and a great use of ecological processes. Unfortunately it is sensitive and less precise than other filtration methods[2].

Main Tank Irrigation system

Irrigation Pressure: From "To Catch The Rain" by Lonny Grafman we know water pressure is 62.4 lb/ft2 or .433 psi/. They also recommend 15-25 psi for typical drip irrigation and 4-10 psi for an efficient appropriate tech designed system. The current CCAT rainwater tank holds water 1ft-6ft above the irrigation line. This means .433 psi -5.2 psi. This is likely not enough pressure to utilize the CCAT irrigation as it exists now. CCAT employees also confirmed the Irrigation system is not functional[1].

Roof & Gutter Cleaning

Potential roof and gutter cleaning for greenhouse side of CCAT house and overflow. Potential new system for this side of the house

Designing interpretive materials

According to ______ interpretive materials for a rainwater catchment system and or filtration system should include....

Books on Water Catchment

  • Rainwater Harvesting for Drylands and Beyond, Volume 1, 2nd Edition: Guiding Principles to Welcome Rain into Your Life and Landscape by Brad Lancaster ISBN 978-0977246434
  • Lancaster ISBN 978-0977246410Rainwater Harvesting for Drylands and Beyond (Vol. 2): Water-Harvesting Earthworks by Brad
  • Water Storage: Tanks, Cisterns, Aquifers, and Ponds For Domestic Supply, Fire and Emergency Use by Art Ludwig ISBN 0-9643433-6-3
  • To Catch the Rain

Budget Proposal

Quantity Material Source Cost ($) Total ($)
4 275 Gall IBC's Local Container Seller 75.00 300.00
5 PVC Pipe ACE 10.00 50.00
2 ball valve ACE 5.00 10.00
4 90 deg pvc ACE 5.00 20.00
Total Cost $380.00
  • Estimated Initial Cost of Current Proposed Project

Proposed timeline

Dates Objective
2/3/2020 Opportunity Definition,Trello, Team contract
2/10/2020 Literature Review, Time sheet 1, Observation and Interview 1
2/17/2020 Criteria
2/24/2020 Timeline, Alternative solutions, Time sheet 2, Begin prototype process, Decide on slow sand filter/ Decide to enhance storage
3/2/2020 Tentative budget, Midterm Eval., Prototype for desire and function, Speak with CCAT to propose prototype and alternatives
3/9/2020 Time sheet 3, Project photos (1st day back), Make materials list and begin formulating building plans
3/22/2020 Timesheet 4, Most construction done, Start to check over criteria, Begin touch up
4/13/2020 Timesheet 5, Appropedia Draft, Finish touch up, Follow up with CCAT about there increased storage and new filter
4/27/2020 Final Appropedia Page, Construction completed
5/4/2020 Final Video, Reflection,Final timesheet, Evaluations

References

1.Gellatly, Jacob, Emily Klee, and Garrett McElroy. “CCAT Gravity Fed Drip Irrigation.” Appropedia, October 2014. https://www.appropedia.org/CCAT_gravity_fed_drip_irrigation.

2.Grafman, Lonny. To Catch the Rain: Inspiring Stories of Communities Coming Together to Catch Their Own Rain, and How You Can Do It Too. Arcata, CA: Humboldt State University Press, 2017.

3.Grafman, Lonny. To Catch the Rain:1.1 Rainwater Harvetsing (pg3-7)

4.Biosand Filter: https://www.cawst.org/services/expertise/biosand-filter/more-information

5.https://www.susana.org/en/knowledge-hub/resources-and-publications/library/details/394

6.https://www.cdc.gov/safewater/sand-filtration.html

7.https://escholarship.org/uc/item/8hx0s0mv

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