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Street lighting Analysis
The Purpose of this of our research and spreadsheet analysis was to compare (LED'S) Light Emitting diodes vs Induction lights. These results will be given to the Redwood Coast Authority so they they can make an informed decision as to whether it would be feasible to switch to either Induction or Led lighting. The key areas to be examined are cost upfront and maintenance. Total, embedded energy, missions from transport and production and safety concerns and durability.
The city of Arcata and Fortuna are looking into replacing existing street lighting with a more efficient type of lighting. David Boyd at Redwood Coast Energy Authority (RCEA) is the client interested in the street lighting conversion. Some information was provided by Lou Jacobson at RCEA in lieu of David Boyd’s absence. Street lighting analysis was done by Scott, Martin and Cody in ENGR 308 at HSU. Climate change is becoming more of an issue every year. The EPA has currently introduced a bill proposing that green house gases are pollutants and detrimental to human health. California state entities are interested in ways of reducing carbon emissions by replacing old and inefficient technology with new more efficient technology. Street lighting is found in most cities. Street lamps operate every day of the year for approximately 10 hours¹. The city of Arcata has 760 street lamp fixtures. By replacing existing technology with new more efficient technology, RCEA is interested in reducing in use and replacement costs and curbing CO2 emissions.
The project is based on replacing existing high pressure sodium (HPS) street lamps with a more efficient lighting system. The two systems compared are LED and Induction street lighting. The particular lighting lamp we used for LED is the KimWarp 9 Cobra Type III and Everlast Type III Cobra Head Smart Light. These lights are similar in wattage and street lamp type. The efficiencies of the street lamp were compared; as well as the carbon footprint from the lamps life cycle. Costs include upfront price, maintenance costs, lifetime of the bulbs, efficiency in use and carbon footprint from production, distribution and in use. This spreadsheet provides a base cost and carbon footprint analysis of efficient lighting systems for city street lights.
1. Open the StreetLight.xlsx document.
2. From User Inputs Sheet: Cell B3: Specify number of lights to install.
3. Cell B4, D4: Specify the current price of energy per kWh.
4. Cell B5, D5: Estimate the current hours per day needed for operation.
5. Cell B11, D11: Specify the purchase price per lamp.
6. Cell B13, D13: Specify the lamp lifetime in hours.
7. Cell B14, D14: Estimate the number of annual failures due to vandalism or weather.
8. Cell B17, D17: Estimate the lamp wattage in watts.
9. Cell B19, D19: Estimate the lamp spacing in feet (not required for total cost calculation).
10. The Specifications sheet list the design and operating characteristics of the lamps as well as C02 footprint, warranty information, and mercury content.
11. The Carbon-Energy Footprint sheet contains an extended analysis of the CO2 footprint and embedded energy for production and distribution. The quantity and gas mileage for the modes of transportation can be adjusted in cells B4-5, C4-5.
12. The Maintenance sheet includes labor costs, equipment costs, and warranty information. The hours of labor and rental rates in cell C4-6, E4-6, H4-6 are user inputs that can be specified according to current local conditions.
13. Results are shown in green on User Inputs Sheet:
a. Maintenance Cost per lamp (B12, D12).
b. Total Annual Maintenance Cost for all lamps (B15, D15).
c. Estimated Lifetime (B16, D16).
d. Lifetime Energy Consumption per bulb (B18, D18).
e. Total Lifetime Energy Cost for all lamps (B19, D19).
f. Lamps per linear foot (B22, D22).
g. Total Lifetime Cost for all lamps (B24, D24).
h. Total Energy required for all lamps before operation (B34, D34).
i. Total Lifetime C02 Emissions for all lamps (B35, D35).
Justification of assumptions
The lifetime of the newer bulbs is expected to be much longer than existing bulbs for street lighting, and the newer ballasts are robust. Depending on the number of failure issues that arise due to reasons other than the natural deterioration of the lamps over time, such as the effects of extreme weather (extreme temperatures), accidents, and vandalism, the maintenance costs for the Warp 9 LED or Everlast Induction lamps will be significantly lower than the maintenance costs for existing HPS or metal-halide lamps. Existing street lamps often fail due to shortages caused by condensation of cobwebs and dirt inside of the ballast and bulb housing. The Warp 9 LED lamps are fully sealed, solid-state systems with circuits that will not become contaminated under normal conditions. The Induction lamps have a sealed, compact, and contained ballast and will not present as much of a short hazard as compared to magnetic ballasts. Therefore, the number of replacements is expected to be very minimal and primarily due to vandalism, accidents, or extreme weather. It has been shown that group replacement is more costly than spot replacement. It has also been shown that an LED bulb will likely fail due to heat buildup, and so the primary issue with the LED fixture as a street lamp is exterior cleanliness. This will not be a problem with the current air quality in Arcata, but it should be taken into consideration. The primary issue with the induction fixture is the glass bulb, which although shielded is still prone to breakage and can release it's mercury (Mg) capsule (disposable by hand, but it's still mercury). Induction lamps are more prone to vandalism because of this issue. As stated, the primary issues involved with most lamps will not be associated with the natural life cycle of the fixture, but mostly from extreme weather, accidents, vandalism, and possibly theft. Induction lamps are prone to vandalism as much as LED lamps are prone to theft. The other maintenance involved (but not necessarily required) will be consistent with existing procedures for annual monitoring of lamp status. Avoiding the use of larger bucket utility trucks to check or adjust lamps will decrease costs.
Cost:Based on our results it is clear that the upfront cost of the Warp 9 Led will be more at $500 vs $390 for the Everlast Type III Cobra Head.The Led light will also be a little more expensive to maintain than the Induction light. We calculated it to be $201 for routine maintenance for the LED vs $158 for routine maintenance of Based on our results it is clear that the upfront cost of the Warp 9 Led will be more at $500 vs $390 for the Everlast Type III Cobra Head.The Led light will also be a little more expensive to maintain than the Induction light. We calculated it to be $201 for routine maintenance for the LED vs $158 for routine maintenance of the Induction light. In the city of Arcata there are only two places where vandalism occurs according to P.E Marc Early. It occurs very rarely though and it won't result in a significant difference in cost. As you factor in more lamps the difference in maintenance cost between the two fixtures only increases. However since Induction bulbs last longer it correlates to a compelling gap in energy cost. This ultimately brings the overall lifetime cost of the Warp 9 below that of the Cobra III Induction light. This is illustrated in the graph above. In terms of distribution costs according to a representative from Campton electric in Eureka if the order is under $5000 than the manufacturing company will pick up the distribution cost. If the buyer is required to pay freight than it ranges anywhere between 10-15% of total costs.
CO2 Emissions: The Graph above shows the net C02 emissions for the distribution lamp; production of both LED and Induction lamps. Also it shows that the total lifetime C02 output is more in the induction bulb than it is in the Led bulb. The materials within each bulb the percent composition of those materials and the amount of materials that comprise the lamp dictate the total co2 content. I will go into it more details in the Discussion section. Also you have your Co2 So2, Nox and Voc emissions from trucking distribution. In the case of the Led since they are being shipped from China you have your Co2 emissions from the barge in addition to what is released from the truck. This adds up as there is clearly a direct correlation between distance traveled and co2 released into the air. There are some variable though that might alter the calculations. For our analysis we assumed the the lights would be traveling in a standard size barge and truck. Smaller or larger size barges and or trucks will of course affect the overall output. Also in the case of a large city two or even three trucks might be needed. Some manufacturing companies package their lights up in larger boxes so they can pack more Styrofoam or bubble wrap which could affect the amount of boxes contained in a truck.
Embedded Energy: We looked at embedded energy in distribution and production. It was determined from (ICE) Inventory of Carbon & Energy that Silicon took the most energy to make. However since the LED is comprised of such a low amount of silicon it's total energy ends up being being lower than aluminum a component of both the Led and Induction Light.In the case of the Induction lamp since it is mostly comprised of Polycarbonate which yield the highest total energy. However like in the case of the Led light another material aluminum actually takes more energy to produce a kg of. For the distribution we looked at the amount of energy released from fossil fuel for the duration of the trip from manufacture to buyer. This value will vary depending on the amount of fuel the barge or truck can hold and the distance required from manufacturer to buyer.
Safety; Waste disposal: Led contain no mercury however the Induction bulbs contain 3.8 mg of mercury. This is a concern for potential buyers since a majority of the Induction lamps contain glass and could break during use, transport, and disposal. This is one key area that has been a deterrent for buyers considering induction bulbs.It is important to note though that there are many alternative measures that one can take that will reduce the likelihood of mercury exposure. In term of recycling there are several numbers you can to find out more information about how to recycle or safely dispose of the bulbs. Some examples are 800 Clean-UP or The California Department of Toxic Substances Control. For Northern California you would call the Sacramento Office. In the case of LEDs they contain circuit boards that can be difficult to recycle. In terms of Pedestrian safety we found mixed reactions as to whether there was a correlation between the amount of light distributed and crime.
What assumptions change the results the most? What are you surprised by? Whereas conclusions are concrete and quantitative, discussion is more qualitative. Cost: The results and conclusions have clearly indicated that the LEDs will cost more and they don't last as long as the Induction Bulb. So over a 25 year period while you will have to replace the LED's you will still be on your first Induction Bulb. So with that in mind from an economic standpoint it is better to go with the Induction Light. In terms of annual maintenance the Led will require slightly more maintenance. It is the labor cost that really makes the difference. Since th labor rate is almost $100 an hour even a slight variation in time can add up. It is important to note also that many states offer government incentives which will help offset the cost. Global green energy is a good source for details on specific programs available near your area. In terms of CO2 emissions we took the volume of the Induction and Led bulb. Then we took the average truck and barge capacity. From that we were able to determine how many Led bulbs could fit on the barge and truck. In the case of the Induction Lights we were able to determine the amount for just the truck since they are being shipped from Michigan. Factoring in average mile per gallon, fuel required for trip & distance from source to buyer allowed us to get a accurate assessment of co2 being released. This will be interchangeable based on user input of course. Some cleaner fuels might not release as much co2. We then looked at the materials required to make the each bulb. Unfortunately the manufacturers or their websites didn't shed much light into what percentage of a particular material is in a specific bulb. So we had to estimate their values. Due to the fact that led contain more materials than the induction bulb there Co2 output and the energy required to make them of course will be greater. For safety the idea is that improved lighting will lead to increased surveillance and signals a community investment in area. It shows a sense of pride. The lighting in the area should be based on pedestrian activity. According (IESNA)International Engineering Society of North America a high level would be 100 or more, medium 11-99 and low less than 10. One positive thing we discovered in our research is that induction lamps are good at maintaining there lumen output in cold temperature. The Induction bulbs are also more efficient over their lifetime at 57% for Induction vs 37% for Led lights. So with what we have discovered induction seems to be the way to go. They last longer, have a lower carbon footprint and end up costing less over a 25 year span.
Our spreadsheet could be expanded in a few different ways. First off we could include disposal costs for the bulbs. Also since the client is switching from (HPS) High Pressure sodium we could include in our spreadsheet data from a HPS Bulb so a user can how it matches up with the LED Induction Bulb in a number of different areas which would allow the user to make a more educated decision about what lighting fixture to go with. Also we could add some bell and whistles such as a drop down menus.
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"Light-emitting diode -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 12 Dec. 2009. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light-emitting_diode>. Description of LED Technology
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http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/publications/pdfs/alliances/outdoor_area_lighting.pdf a.)Applications for street lighting b.)useful life = time it takes Led to depreciate to 70% of initial lumens c.)Skyglow angle help eliminate d.) light distribution dependent on one of five types.
http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/publications/pdfs/ssl/gordon_chicago09.pdf a.) street assessment for Oakland. Shows power savings from Hps
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http://www.lightcorp.com/PDFs/industrial/learn/InformHgReduction_DD1A4.pdf A.) Comparison of Mercury usage of Induction vs. Metal Halide b.) Energy efficiency vs. metal halide
"State & Federal Incentives for Lighting." GlobalGreen Energy offers Energy Efficient, long lasting LED, Induction & Solar Street. Global Green Corp, 2009. Web. a.) Government Incentives & Rebates discussed
http://engineering.dartmouth.edu/~cushman/courses/engs171/UsefulNumbers.pdf a.) useful conversions such as mpg of truck
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Barges and Tugboats." Welcome to the Coosa-Alabama River Improvement Association, Inc. Web. 12 Dec. 2009. <http://www.caria.org/barges_tugboats.html>. a.)Barge information
http:www.kimlighting.com/warp9led catalog.pdf a.)Dimension, Materials, weight
Greene, Kathy. "Lighting the way." Public Works June 2009: 22-23. Hw Wilson. Web. 8 Nov. 2009. <http://http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com/hww/results/external_link_maincontentframe.jhtml;hwwilsonid=QVCQ5MRRPKFRTQA3DIMCFGGADUNGIIV0>.
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Morante, Peter. Mesopic Street Lighting Demonstration and Evaluation Final Report. Rep. Troy, New York: Lighting Research Center Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 2008. Print. (Safety of Devices) a.)Safety of devices. Pedestrian Safety
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Armand Mulin, Redwood Coast Energy Authority Armand Mullin works for RCEA and has helped to change many residential light bulbs to CFL. When asked about induction lighting and LED’s being considered at RCEA, he said there were none. He said currently CFL’s are the accepted lighting technology being implemented at RCEA. He mentioned the mercury contained in CFL’s is a problem, especially when they break and are hard to clean up, and this would also be true with induction lighting.
Branden Marken, Everlast Induction Lighting General information: comparison table between two specific LED and Induction street lamps
Christian Suvagau BC Hydro Talked with a colleague Roy just recently retired. Talked about different adaptive lighting pilots such as static vs. dynamic. Also mentioned that he had lower wattage bulbs in areas of low pedestrian activity. Had sensor in some areas to preserve light.