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Solar powered airport lit. review

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Open-pv.png This page is part of an MTU graduate course MY5490/EE5490: Solar Photovoltaic Science and Engineering. Both the course documentation and the course generated content is open source. However, the course runs over Spring semesters during this time it is not open edit. Please leave comments using the discussion tab.




Contents

Google Scholar search history[edit]

  • solar cell powered airport
  • "solar cell" visible spectrum absorbance
  • solar cell to power grid
  • solar cell anti-glare

Lit. reivew[edit]

*******************************Jiemin*********************************[edit]

1.Chen, D. Anti-reflection (AR) coatings made by sol–gel processes: A review. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 68, 313–336 (2001).[edit]

Traditionally, various vacuum-based processes, depending on material systems and properties, and chemical etching process have been used for producing different types of anti-reflection (AR) coating on different substrate materials. In this paper, the development of sol–gel derived AR coating on different substrates for various applications in the past 40 years are reviewed. These coatings possess good uniformity in thickness and properties which have met requirements for various applications. The major approaches to fabricate AR coating and their characteristics have been discussed. This paper outlines the major solution coating processes and design principles of AR coatings. Major fabrication processes used in AR coating technologies have been compared. Different solution chemistries developed for producing different materials for AR coating preparation have been extensively reviewed. The optical performance of different types of sol–gel-derived AR coatings have been summarized and comparison to the commercial AR coating produced by traditional technologies have been discussed. The sol–gel AR coating has been shown to possess comparable or superior performance to those produced by vacuum-based processes.

Notes:

  1. Described how to use sol-gel technology to derive AR coating
  2. Compared sol-gel derived AR coating to other commercial coating
  3. Sol-gel derived AR coating fabrication methods, include dip coating, spin coating and meniscus coating.
  4. Described coating on different substrates, like glass or plastic.

Potential contribution to project: Focused on low-cost AR coating may could apply on solar cells in airport to prevent glare.

2.Raut, H. K., Ganesh, V. A., Nair, A. S. & Ramakrishna, S. Anti-reflective coatings: A critical, in-depth review. Energy & Environmental Science 4, 3779 (2011).[edit]

Anti-reflective coatings (ARCs) have evolved into highly effective reflectance and glare reducing components for various optical and opto-electrical equipments. Extensive research in optical and biological reflectance minimization as well as the emergence of nanotechnology over the years has contributed to the enhancement of ARCs in a major way. In this study the prime objective is to give a comprehensive idea of the ARCs right from their inception, as they were originally conceptualized by the pioneers and lay down the basic concepts and strategies adopted to minimize reflectance. The different types of ARCs are also described in greater detail and the state-of-the-art fabrication techniques have been fully illustrated. The inspiration that ARCs derive from nature (‘biomimetics’) has been an area of major research and is discussed at length. The various materials that have been reportedly used in fabricating the ARCs have also been brought into sharp focus. An account of application of ARCs on solar cells and modules, contemporary research and associated challenges are presented in the end to facilitate a universal understanding of the ARCs and encourage future research.

Notes:

  1. Described how the AR coating works.
  2. State-of-the-art fabrication of AR coating.

Potential contribution to project: develop a suitable AR coating which could apply on solar cells in airport to prevent glare.

3.Park, S. H. et al. Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%. Nat Photon 3, 297–302 (2009).[edit]

We report the fabrication and measurement of solar cells with 6% power conversion efficiency using the alternating co-polymer, poly[N-9-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole) (PCDTBT) in bulk heterojunction composites with the fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl C70-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM). The PCDTBT/PC70BM solar cells exhibit the best performance of any bulk heterojunction system studied to date, with JSC = 10.6 mA cm-2, VOC = 0.88 V, FF = 0.66 and e = 6.1% under air mass 1.5 global (AM 1.5 G) irradiation of 100 mW cm-2. The internal quantum efficiency is close to 100%, implying that essentially every absorbed photon results in a separated pair of charge carriers and that all photogenerated carriers are collected at the electrodes.

Notes:

  1. A successful demonstration that using certain co-polymer could achieve close to 100% internal quantum efficiency in heterojunction solar cells

Potential contribution to project: a better design to solar cell which could apply to the airport.

4.Liu, K. & Makaran, J. Design of a solar powered battery charger. in 2009 IEEE Electrical Power Energy Conference (EPEC) 1–5 (2009). doi:10.1109/EPEC.2009.5420817[edit]

A solar powered battery charger is presented, where a photovoltaic (PV) panel is used to convert solar power into electricity and a DC/DC converter is used to control the output power of the PV panel and the charging current for the battery. In the software, an optimal control algorithm is applied to obtain the maximum available power from the sunshine. The simulation and experimental results are presented and compared. The applications of this technique can be light electrical vehicles such as golf carts, scooters, airport utility vehicles, as well as other renewable power stations where batteries are used for energy storage.

Notes

  1. Presented how the energy stored from solar cell could be transferred to battery.
  2. Shown that how the control and conversion works.

Potential contribution to project: give idea that how to convert energy from solar cell to battery, and provide energy to utilities in airport.

5.Raturi, A., Singh, A. & Prasad, R. D. Grid-connected PV systems in the Pacific Island Countries. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 58, 419–428 (2016).[edit]

Grid connected solar photovoltaic (GCPV) systems are fast becoming a regular feature of electricity power networks in urban and peri-urban areas within most Pacific Island Countries. A number of systems have been installed with many in the pipeline. This relatively new technology, utilizing the intermittent solar energy resource has presented new challenges to small island utilities that were hitherto almost completely dependent on diesel generators and hydropower. The present paper describes the current status of GCPV systems in the Pacific region and reviews some of the issues that arise in the deployment of this technology. It also reports a case study involving a 45 kWp GCPV system located at the University of the South Pacific (USP) marine campus in Fiji. One of the first two GCPV systems established in Fiji, this system has an annual production of ~54,000 kW h and supplies about 10% of the electricity requirements of the campus. The actual system performance agreed well with the simulated results. This system also reduces USP׳s annual carbon footprint by more than 27,000 kg CO2e.

Notes:

  1. Described how the energy stored by solar cell converted to grid power system

Potential contribution to project: overcome the technical issue and give the idea how to power the airport by solar panels

6.Kim, I.-S., Kim, M.-B. & Youn, M.-J. New Maximum Power Point Tracker Using Sliding-Mode Observer for Estimation of Solar Array Current in the Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 53, 1027–1035 (2006).[edit]

A new maximum power point tracker (MPPT) for a grid-connected photovoltaic system without solar array current sensor is proposed. The solar array current information is obtained from the sliding-mode observer and fed into the MPPT to generate the reference voltage. The parameter values such as capacitances can be changed up to 50% from their nominal values, and the linear observer cannot estimate the correct state values under the parameter variations and noisy environments. The structure of a sliding-mode observer is simple, but it shows the robust tracking property against modeling uncertainties and parameter variations. In this paper, the sliding-mode observer for the solar array current has been proposed to compensate for the parameter variations. The mathematical modeling and the experimental results verify the validity of the proposed method.

Notes:

  1. Using sliding-mode observer to obtain the current information from solar system
  2. Replacing the more expensive sensors by the proposed observers

Potential contribution to project: Lower the budget, makes the whole project easier to be achieve

7.Borowy, B. S. & Salameh, Z. M. Optimum photovoltaic array size for a hybrid wind/PV system. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion 9, 482–488 (1994).[edit]

A methodology for calculation of the optimum size of a PV array for a stand-alone hybrid wind/PV power system is developed. Long term data of wind speed and irradiance recorded for every hour of the day for 30 years were used. These data were used to calculate the probability density functions of the wind speed and the irradiance for each hour of a typical day in a month. The wind speed and irradiance probability density functions and manufacturer's specification on a wind turbine and a PV module were used to calculate the average power generated by the wind turbine and the PV module for each hour of a typical day in a month. The least square method is used to determine the best fit of the PV array and wind turbine to a given load. On the basis of the energy concept an algorithm was developed to find the optimum size of the PV array in the system.

Notes:

  1. Proposed a methodology which is how to calculate the optimized size of wind/PV hybrid system

Potential contribution to project: Use similar methodology to find the size we needed in airport project

8.Sharma, S. K., Samuel, K. B., Srinivasamurthy, N. & Agrawal, B. L. Overcoming the problems in determination of solar cell series resistance and diode factor. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 23, 1256 (1990).[edit]

A theory has been developed to determine solar cell design parameters in the conventional solar cell equation using measured cell I sc , I mp , V mp and V oc . The theory overcomes the problem of series resistance becoming negative. It is shown that the diode factor a indeed depends upon cell temperature. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with experimental observations.

Notes:

  1. Proposed the theory to determine the resistance and diode factor in solar cell series
  2. Demonstrated by experimental data

Potential contribution to project: Determine the properties of the system we designed for airport

9.Green, M. A., Emery, K., Hishikawa, Y., Warta, W. & Dunlop, E. D. Solar cell efficiency tables (Version 45). Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 23, 1–9 (2015).[edit]

Consolidated tables showing an extensive listing of the highest independently confirmed efficiencies for solar cells and modules are presented. Guidelines for inclusion of results into these tables are outlined and new entries since July 2014 are reviewed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Notes:

  1. Collected data for solar cell efficiency table

Potential contribution to project: Have a reference to suitable solar cell we choose for airport

10.Nann, S. & Riordan, C. Solar spectral irradiance under overcast skies [solar cell performance effects]. in , Conference Record of the Twenty First IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 1990 1110–1115 vol.2 (1990). doi:10.1109/PVSC.1990.111789[edit]

The authors examine a particular aspect of cloudy-sky conditions that affects PV (photovoltaic) device performance, i.e. the solar spectral distribution under an overcast sky with respect to the spectral response of PV devices. The approach is to analyze several thousand measured spectral irradiance data that illustrate spectral shifts under cloud cover. The questions raised are how the transmission of clouds deviates from an assumed neutral density filter and whether the standard reference spectrum applied by the PV community to design and performance prediction is applicable for cloudy climates. Comparing the measurements with clear-sky simulations, the authors established a correlation between cloud thickness and alterations in the relative spectral transmission. Because of the approach used, these observed effects are true only for the statistical mean of a sufficiently large number of measurements.

Notes:

  1. Provided how the solar cell will be effected by the relatively cloudy sky
  2. Comparison the data under cloudy sky with the clear sky

Potential contribution to project: Give a better felling to the solar panel selection based on the location of the airport

11.Ro, K. & Rahman, S. Two-loop controller for maximizing performance of a grid-connected photovoltaic-fuel cell hybrid power plant. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion 13, 276–281 (1998).[edit]

Maximizing performance of a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV)-fuel cell hybrid system by use of a two-loop controller is discussed. One loop is a neural network controller for maximum power point tracking, which extracts maximum available solar power from PV arrays under varying conditions of insolation, temperature, and system load. A real/reactive power controller (RRPC) is the other loop. The RRPC achieves the system's requirements for real and reactive powers by controlling incoming fuel to fuel cell stacks as well as switching control signals to a power conditioning subsystem. Results of time-domain simulations prove not only the effectiveness of the proposed computer models of the two-loop controller but also its applicability for use in stability analysis of the hybrid power plant.

Notes:

  1. Two-loop controller is proposed, one loop for controlling solar panel side and extracting maximum available solar power, other is for fuel.

Potential contribution to project: We could use the similar idea to have a tracker for solar cell system in airport

12.Broderick, L. Z., Albert, B. R., Pearson, B. S., Kimerling, L. C. & Michel, J. Design for energy: Modeling of spectrum, temperature and device structure dependences of solar cell energy production. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 136, 48–63 (2015).[edit]

Solar photovoltaic energy generation can benefit from high efficiency, environment specific design. In this work, a model is developed to assess the electrical energy produced by concentrator solar cells during specific time frames with varying realistic weather conditions and cell temperatures. The model is applied to a comparative study of the spectral and temperature sensitivities of efficiency and energy production for tandem junction and spectrally split parallel junction solar cell structures. Direct normal solar spectra in a representative sunny site, Tucson, Arizona are calculated using the SPCTRAL2 model at 15-minute intervals throughout a year with real-time meteorological data input. The corresponding efficiencies of the two devices under 500 times concentration at cell temperatures deduced from thermal modeling with real-time ambient temperatures are computed. Both device structures comprise the same materials, InGaP, GaAs and Ge, and each device design is optimized to standard operating conditions (AM1.5D spectrum and a cell temperature of 25 °C). The two devices are compared for their efficiencies and power/energy output at (i) 15 min intervals (instantaneous values), (ii) daily and (iii) yearly time spans. Despite efficiency loss due to series resistance that is three times as high as that for the tandem junction, the parallel junction has a higher daily averaged efficiency every single day, and its yearly averaged efficiency is 1.2% absolute higher, meaning an additional annual energy production of 19.2 MWh per m2 cell area. Besides energy forecast and assessment, the developed method can be used to obtain optimum solar cell designs for maximum energy production under varying geographical and climatic conditions.

Potential contribution to project: We could figure out how the weather will affect efficiency of solar cell based on the location of airport.

13.Spitzer, M. B. Development of a large area space solar cell assembly. (1982). at <http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820022830>[edit]

The development of a large area high efficiency solar cell assembly is described. The assembly consists of an ion implanted silicon solar cell and glass cover. The important attributes of fabrication are the use of a back surface field which is compatible with a back surface reflector, and integration of coverglass application and cell fabrications. Cell development experiments concerned optimization of ion implantation processing of 2 ohm-cm boron-doped silicon. Process parameters were selected based on these experiments and cells with area of 34.3 sq cm wre fabricated. The average AMO efficiency of the twenty-five best cells was 13.9% and the best bell had an efficiency of 14.4%. An important innovation in cell encapsulation was also developed. In this technique, the coverglass is applied before the cell is sawed to final size. The coverglass and cell are then sawed as a unit. In this way, the cost of the coverglass is reduced, since the tolerance on glass size is relaxed, and costly coverglass/cell alignment procedures are eliminated. Adhesive investigated were EVA, FEP-Teflon sheet and DC 93-500. Details of processing and results are reported.

Potential contribution to project: Get some idea from large area space solar cell assembly and apply them to the airport.

14.Taguchi, M. et al. 24.7 #x0025; Record Efficiency HIT Solar Cell on Thin Silicon Wafer. IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics 4, 96–99 (2014).[edit]

A new record conversion efficiency of 24.7% was attained at the research level by using a heterojunction with intrinsic thin-layer structure of practical size (101.8 cm2, total area) at a 98-μm thickness. This is a world height record for any crystalline silicon-based solar cell of practical size (100 cm2 and above). Since we announced our former record of 23.7%, we have continued to reduce recombination losses at the hetero interface between a-Si and c-Si along with cutting down resistive losses by improving the silver paste with lower resistivity and optimization of the thicknesses in a-Si layers. Using a new technology that enables the formation of a-Si layer of even higher quality on the c-Si substrate, while limiting damage to the surface of the substrate, the Voc has been improved from 0.745 to 0.750 V. We also succeeded in improving the fill factor from 0.809 to 0.832.

Notes:

  1. The designed HIT solar cell on thin silicon wafer achieved new record of conversion efficiency.

Potential contribution to project: Maybe could use this type of solar cell into airport project.

15.Alajmi, B. N., Ahmed, K. H., Finney, S. J. & Williams, B. W. A Maximum Power Point Tracking Technique for Partially Shaded Photovoltaic Systems in Microgrids. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 60, 1596–1606 (2013).[edit]

A modified fuzzy-logic controller for maximum power point (MPP) tracking is proposed to increase photovoltaic (PV) system performance during partially shaded conditions. Instead of perturbing and observing the PV system MPP, the controller scans and stores the maximum power during the perturbing and observing procedures. The controller offers accurate convergence to the global maximum operating point under different partial shadowing conditions. A mathematical model of the PV system under partial shadowing conditions is derived. To validate the proposed modified fuzzy-logic-based controller, simulation and experimentation results are provided.

Notes:

  1. The paper proposed a controller for MPP tracking to increase performance when PV system is partially shaded.

Potential contribution to project: We could based on the airport location, determine the possibility that solar panel in shaded condition

16.Lohner, A., Meyer, T. & Nagel, A. A new panel-integratable inverter concept for grid-connected photovoltaic systems. in , Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, 1996. ISIE ’96 2, 827–831 vol.2 (1996).[edit]

This paper describes the problems of conventional inverter concepts for photovoltaic power systems and presents a new, panel-integratable inverter concept as a solution. This concept is advantageous regarding safety (no DC-lines), flexibility (modular concept), converted energy per year (no mismatch losses due to individual MPP tracking of each panel) and costs (no reinforced isolation due to AC distribution). Furthermore a 250 W DC to AC inverter is developed, which consists of a series resonant DC-DC power converter and a line inverter. The inverter has a high efficiency and consumes little power itself. Meeting international standards, sinusoidal line current with low distortion is achieved. The inverter has a built-in controller to operate the panel in the maximum power point. Above this, the concept allows the flexible use with many different combinations of solar panels. To realize an inexpensive system, the controller is built up using standard low-cost components

Notes:

  1. Overcome the problems of conventional inverter by presenting a panel-integratable inverter.

Potential contribution to project: For grid-connected PV system, we could apply the new model into the airport project.

17.Kadri, R., Gaubert, J.-P. & Champenois, G. An Improved Maximum Power Point Tracking for Photovoltaic Grid-Connected Inverter Based on Voltage-Oriented Control. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 58, 66–75 (2011).[edit]

In this paper, an improved maximum power point (MPP) tracking (MPPT) with better performance based on voltage-oriented control (VOC) is proposed to solve a fast-changing irradiation problem. In VOC, a cascaded control structure with an outer dc link voltage control loop and an inner current control loop is used. The currents are controlled in a synchronous orthogonal d,q frame using a decoupled feedback control. The reference current of proportional-integral (PI) d-axis controller is extracted from the dc-side voltage regulator by applying the energy-balancing control. Furthermore, in order to achieve a unity power factor, the q-axis reference is set to zero. The MPPT controller is applied to the reference of the outer loop control dc voltage photovoltaic (PV). Without PV array power measurement, the proposed MPPT identifies the correct direction of the MPP by processing the d-axis current reflecting the power grid side and the signal error of the PI outer loop designed to only represent the change in power due to the changing atmospheric conditions. The robust tracking capability under rapidly increasing and decreasing irradiance is verified experimentally with a PV array emulator. Simulations and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method provides effective, fast, and perfect tracking.

18.Das, D., Esmaili, R., Xu, L. & Nichols, D. An optimal design of a grid connected hybrid wind/photovoltaic/fuel cell system for distributed energy production. in 31st Annual Conference of IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2005. IECON 2005 6 pp.– (2005). doi:10.1109/IECON.2005.1569298[edit]

This paper proposes a hybrid energy system consisting of wind, photovoltaic and fuel cell designed to supply continuous power to the load. A simple and economic control with DC-DC converter is used for maximum power point tracking and hence maximum power extraction from the wind turbine and photovoltaic array. Due to the intermittent nature of both the wind and photovoltaic energy sources, a fuel cell is added to the system for the purpose of ensuring continuous power flow. The fuel cell is thus controlled to provide the deficit power when the combined wind and photovoltaic sources cannot meet the net power demand. In worst environmental conditions, when there is no output power from the wind or photovoltaic sources, the fuel cell will operate at its rated power of 10 kW. Hence this system under any operating condition will ensure a minimum power flow of 10 kW to the load. This hybrid system allows maximum utilization of freely available renewable energy sources like wind and photovoltaic and demand-based utilization of hydrogen-based fuel cell. The proposed system is attractive owing to its simplicity, ease of control and low cost. Also it can be easily adjusted to accommodate different and any number of energy sources. A complete description of this system is presented along with its simulation results which ascertain its feasibility.

19.Ma, W. W., Rasul, M. G., Liu, G., Li, M. & Tan, X. H. Climate change impacts on techno-economic performance of roof PV solar system in Australia. Renewable Energy 88, 430–438 (2016).[edit]

The techno-economic performance of roof PV solar system depends on local climatic conditions. The energy conversion behavior of PV system will change as a result of the new solar irradiation data caused by climate change. This study aims to investigate the quantified impacts of climate change on the future performance of PV roof system with a general electricity load and legal maximum size of solar array. In this study, the morphing method is employed to predict the future hourly mean global solar irradiation data for the year 2030, 2050 and 2070. By using the current and future solar irradiation data as the inputs, a simulation model of PV system is built to simulate the long-term implementation of the systems in the capital cities of Australian states. The solutions of the model given by computer programme, includes the system's electricity generation, greenhouse gas emissions, and cost of energy are analysed, and all the solutions are compared between different climatic conditions of all the capital cities. It is shown that there is a nearly linear correlation between the increase of average external air temperature and the increase of solar irradiation from 2030 to 2070. For the PV system in the majority of cities, a 10–20% increase of economic costs between the 2030 and 2050 climate scenario would be required. It is also found that the Hoba system has the best techno-economic performance with the lowest economic costs and higher renewable fraction, at both current climate and future climate.

20.Meier, D. L. & Schroder, D. K. Contact resistance: Its measurement and relative importance to power loss in a solar cell. IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 31, 647–653 (1984).[edit]

The concept of contact resistivity is discussed briefly and a technique for its measurement is presented. This technique allows for resistive contact material and for the possibility that the semiconductor sheet resistance beneath the contact differs from the semiconductor sheet resistance beside the contact. The test pattern is unique in that the effects of contact resistance are accumulated over the pattern, nearly unencumbered by voltage and current probes which might otherwise influence the current flow. Measurements of contact resistivities for typical solar cell metallizations using this technique are reported to be in the mid 10-6Ω-cm2range. The relative importance of contact resistance compared to other sources of power loss in a solar cell is determined for a typical contact system. Expressions derived in order to make this comparison are useful for evaluating and optimizing a solar cell contact system. Values of series resistance calculated using these expressions are compared with measured values.

21.Barbosa, P. G., Rolim, L. G. B., Watanabe, E. H. & Hanitsch, R. Control strategy for grid-connected DC-AC converters with load power factor correction. Generation, Transmission and Distribution, IEE Proceedings- 145, 487–491 (1998).[edit]

The paper presents the modelling, analysis and design of a pulse width modulation voltage source inverter (PWM-VSI) to be connected between a DC source, which is supplied from a photovoltaic (PV) array and the AC grid. The control algorithm of the PWM-VSI applies the concepts of the instantaneous p-q (real-imaginary) power theory. The objective is to show that, with adequate control, the power converter can transfer the DC energy from a PV array and improve the power factor (and the power quality) of the electrical system. Some design considerations are also discussed. A digital simulation and measurements on a small prototype model verified the feasibility of the proposed control method.

22.Kandatsu, Y. DC/AC inverter controller for solar cell, including maximum power point tracking function. (1993). at <http://www.google.com/patents/US5268832>[edit]

A DC/AC inverter controlling system controls a DC/AC inverter so as to continuously output maximum AC power thereof, taking account of solar energy generated from a solar cell. The DC/AC inverter controlling system comprises: a DC/AC inverter unit for inverting DC (direct current) power derived from the solar cell power source into AC (alternating current) power to be supplied to an AC power line; a power variation judging unit for judging whether or not a variation measured during a predetermined time period and occurring in the AC power outputted from the DC/AC inverter unit, exceeds a predetermined value, thereby producing a power variation judging signal; and a power controlling unit for controlling the DC/AC inverter unit so as to reduce the power variation to substantially zero in response to the power variation judging signal, while the power variation does not exceed the predetermined value. As a result, the AC power outputted from the DC/AC inverter unit becomes a maximum value thereof.

23.Ito, Y., Zhongqing, Y. & Akagi, H. DC microgrid based distribution power generation system. in Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference, 2004. IPEMC 2004. The 4th International 3, 1740–1745 Vol.3 (2004).[edit]

This paper describes an autonomous-control method for a DC microgrid system having distribution power generators. This system consists of following five generation and control units; a solar-cell generation unit, a wind-turbine generation unit, a battery energy-storage unit, a flywheel power-leveling unit, and an AC grid-connected power control unit. The proposed control method intended for suppression of circulating current detects only the DC grid voltage. Each unit could be controlled autonomously without communicating each other. This method brings high reliability, high-flexibility and maintenance-free operation to the system. Experimental results from a 10 kW-prototype system verify the validity and effectiveness of the proposed control method.

24.Chuah, D. G. S. in Solar Energy Applications in the Tropics (ed. M.S.I.P, B. B. P. L. P. D. B. A. S. Dip T. C. P. Syd , F. R. A. I. A. , M. R. I. B. A. , M. S. I. A.) 165–185 (Springer Netherlands, 1983). at <http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-009-7936-9_13>[edit]

A photovoltaic system converts sunlight into electricity. The elements of such a system are briefly described. Performance characteristics of these systems under local atmospheric conditions are presented. Urban applications of photovoltaic solar cells and cost goals are indicated.

25.Hassaine, L., Olias, E., Quintero, J. & Haddadi, M. Digital power factor control and reactive power regulation for grid-connected photovoltaic inverter. Renewable Energy 34, 315–321 (2009).[edit]

The overall efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) systems connected to the grid depends on the efficiency of direct current (DC) of the solar modules to alternate current (AC) inverter conversion. The requirements for inverter connection include: maximum power point, high efficiency, control power injected into the grid, high power factor and low total harmonic distortion of the currents injected into the grid. An approach to power factor control and reactive power regulation for PV systems connected to the grid using field programmable gate array (FPGA) is proposed. According to the grid demands; both the injected active and reactive powers are controlled.

In this paper, a new digital control strategy for a single-phase inverter is carried out. This control strategy is based on the phase shift between the inverter output voltage and the grid voltage, and the digital sinusoidal pulse width modulation (DSPWM) patterns, in order to control the power factor for a wide range of the inverter output current and consequently the control and the regulation of the reactive power will be achieved. The advantage of the proposed control strategy is its implementation around simple digital circuits.

In this work, a simulation study of this strategy has been realized using Matlab/Simulink and PSIM. In order to validate its performance, this control has been implemented in a FPGA. Experimental tests have been carried out demonstrating the viability of this control in order to control the power factor and the injected power into the grid.

26.Ackermann, T., Andersson, G. & Söder, L. Distributed generation: a definition1. Electric Power Systems Research 57, 195–204 (2001).[edit]

Distributed generation (DG) is expected to become more important in the future generation system. The current literature, however, does not use a consistent definition of DG. This paper discusses the relevant issues and aims at providing a general definition for distributed power generation in competitive electricity markets. In general, DG can be defined as electric power generation within distribution networks or on the customer side of the network. In addition, the terms distributed resources, distributed capacity and distributed utility are discussed. Network and connection issues of distributed generation are presented, too.

27.Toledo, O. M., Oliveira Filho, D. & Diniz, A. S. A. C. Distributed photovoltaic generation and energy storage systems: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14, 506–511 (2010).[edit]

Currently, in the field of operation and planning of electrical power systems, a new challenge is growing which includes with the increase in the level of distributed generation from new energy sources, especially renewable sources. The question of load redistribution for better energetic usage is of vital importance since these new renewable energy sources are often intermittent. Therefore, new systems must be proposed which ally energy storage with renewable energy generators for reestablishment of grid reliability. This work presents a review of energy storage and redistribution associated with photovoltaic energy, proposing a distributed micro-generation complex connected to the electrical power grid using energy storage systems, with an emphasis placed on the use of NaS batteries. These systems aim to improve the load factor, considering supply side management, and the offer of backup energy, in the case of demand side management.

28.Nielsen, L. D. Distributed series resistance effects in solar cells. IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 29, 821–827 (1982).[edit]

A mathematical treatment is presented of the effects of one-dimensional distributed series resistance in solar cells. A general perturbation theory is developed, including consistently the induced spatial variation of diode current density and leading to a first-order equivalent lumped resistance of one third the total sheet resistance. For the case of diode characteristics of exponential type and distributed resistance of arbitrary size, unified numerical results are presented for both illuminated and dark characteristics. At high forward dark currents, the distributed series resistance is shown to cause an effective doubling of the "diode quality factor."

29.Pearce, J. M. Expanding photovoltaic penetration with residential distributed generation from hybrid solar photovoltaic and combined heat and power systems. Energy 34, 1947–1954 (2009).[edit]

The recent development of small scale combined heat and power (CHP) systems has provided the opportunity for in-house power backup of residential-scale photovoltaic (PV) arrays. This paper investigates the potential of deploying a distributed network of PV + CHP hybrid systems in order to increase the PV penetration level in the U.S. The temporal distribution of solar flux, electrical and heating requirements for representative U.S. single family residences were analyzed and the results clearly show that hybridizing CHP with PV can enable additional PV deployment above what is possible with a conventional centralized electric generation system. The technical evolution of such PV + CHP hybrid systems was developed from the present (near market) technology through four generations, which enable high utilization rates of both PV-generated electricity and CHP-generated heat. A method to determine the maximum percent of PV-generated electricity on the grid without energy storage was derived and applied to an example area. The results show that a PV + CHP hybrid system not only has the potential to radically reduce energy waste in the status quo electrical and heating systems, but it also enables the share of solar PV to be expanded by about a factor of five.

30.Boroyevich, D. et al. Future electronic power distribution systems a contemplative view. in 2010 12th International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (OPTIM) 1369–1380 (2010). doi:10.1109/OPTIM.2010.5510477[edit]

Although it has long been argued that electronic power converters can help improve system controllability, reliability, size, and efficiency, their penetration in power systems is still quite low. The often-cited barriers of higher cost and lower reliability of the power converters are quite high if power electronics is used as direct, one-to-one, replacement for the existing electromechanical equipment. However, if the whole power distribution system were designed as a system of controllable converters, the overall system cost and reliability could actually improve, as is currently the case at low power levels within computer and telecom equipment. Starting from the example of a computer power system, the paper contemplates possible future ac and dc electronic power distribution system architectures, especially in the presence of renewable energy sources. The proposed nanogrid-microgrid-...-grid structure achieves hierarchical dynamic decoupling of generation, distribution, and consumption by using bidirectional converters as energy control centers. This is illustrated by the description and simulation of static and dynamic operation of a dc nanogrid in a hypothetical future sustainable home. Several ideas for modeling, analysis, and system-level design of such systems, including power flow control, protection, stability, and subsystem interactions, are presented.

31.Eltawil, M. A. & Zhao, Z. Grid-connected photovoltaic power systems: Technical and potential problems—A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14, 112–129 (2010).[edit]

Traditional electric power systems are designed in large part to utilize large baseload power plants, with limited ability to rapidly ramp output or reduce output below a certain level. The increase in demand variability created by intermittent sources such as photovoltaic (PV) presents new challenges to increase system flexibility. This paper aims to investigate and emphasize the importance of the grid-connected PV system regarding the intermittent nature of renewable generation, and the characterization of PV generation with regard to grid code compliance. The investigation was conducted to critically review the literature on expected potential problems associated with high penetration levels and islanding prevention methods of grid tied PV. According to the survey, PV grid connection inverters have fairly good performance. They have high conversion efficiency and power factor exceeding 90% for wide operating range, while maintaining current harmonics THD less than 5%. Numerous large-scale projects are currently being commissioned, with more planned for the near future. Prices of both PV and balance of system components (BOS) are decreasing which will lead to further increase in use. The technical requirements from the utility power system side need to be satisfied to ensure the safety of the PV installer and the reliability of the utility grid. Identifying the technical requirements for grid interconnection and solving the interconnect problems such as islanding detection, harmonic distortion requirements and electromagnetic interference are therefore very important issues for widespread application of PV systems. The control circuit also provides sufficient control and protection functions like maximum power tracking, inverter current control and power factor control. Reliability, life span and maintenance needs should be certified through the long-term operation of PV system. Further reduction of cost, size and weight is required for more utilization of PV systems. Using PV inverters with a variable power factor at high penetration levels may increase the number of balanced conditions and subsequently increase the probability of islanding. It is strongly recommended that PV inverters should be operated at unity power factor.

32.Ipakchi, A. & Albuyeh, F. Grid of the future. IEEE Power and Energy Magazine 7, 52–62 (2009).[edit]

Many believe the electric power system is undergoing a profound change driven by a number of needs. There's the need for environmental compliance and energy conservation. We need better grid reliability while dealing with an aging infrastructure. And we need improved operational effi ciencies and customer service. The changes that are happening are particularly signifi cant for the electricity distribution grid, where "blind" and manual operations, along with the electromechanical components, will need to be transformed into a "smart grid." This transformation will be necessary to meet environmental targets, to accommodate a greater emphasis on demand response (DR), and to support plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as well as distributed generation and storage capabilities. It is safe to say that these needs and changes present the power industry with the biggest challenge it has ever faced. On one hand, the transition to a smart grid has to be evolutionary to keep the lights on; on the other hand, the issues surrounding the smart grid are signifi cant enough to demand major changes in power systems operating philosophy.

33.Todorov, T. K., Reuter, K. B. & Mitzi, D. B. High-Efficiency Solar Cell with Earth-Abundant Liquid-Processed Absorber. Adv. Mater. 22, E156–E159 (2010).[edit]

34.Linares, L., Erickson, R. W., MacAlpine, S. & Brandemuehl, M. Improved Energy Capture in Series String Photovoltaics via Smart Distributed Power Electronics. in Twenty-Fourth Annual IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2009. APEC 2009 904–910 (2009). doi:10.1109/APEC.2009.4802770[edit]

This paper proposes an improved module integrated converter to increase energy capture in the photovoltaic (PV) series string. Prototypes for self-powered, high efficiency dc-dc converters that operate with autonomous control for tracking the maximum power of solar panels locally and on a fine scale are simulated, built and tested. The resulting module is a low-cost, reliable smart PV panel that operates independently of the geometry and complexity of the surrounding system. The controller maximizes energy capture by selection of one of three possible modes: buck, boost and pass-through. Autonomous controllers achieve noninteracting maximum power point tracking and a constant string voltage. The proposed module-integrated converters are verified in simulation. Experimental results show that the converter prototype achieves efficiencies of over 95% for most of its operating range. A 3-module PV series string was tested under mismatched solar irradiation conditions and increases of up to 38% power capture were measured.

35. Boys, J. T. & Green, A. W. Inductive power distribution system. (1994). at <http://www.google.com/patents/US5293308>[edit]

A contactless inductive power distribution system operating at 10 KHz has a self tuning resonant power supply connected to a resonant primary conductive path comprising a pair of parallel litz wire conductors each encapsulated within an insulated sheath and supported on a structural monorail beam on which a plurality of electric vehicles can run. Each vehicle has an electric motor capable of deriving power from a resonant pick-up coil wound on a ferrite core mounted on the vehicle in close proximity to the primary conductors. Each vehicle also has switching means capable of preventing a lightly loaded vehicle from presenting a reduced load to the resonant primary. In one version this comprises an isolating coil having a switch to switch the coil between an open circuit and a short circuit, so that when the switch is switched from one state to another state the power coupled between the primary conductive path and the pick-up coil is changed.

36.Burger, B. & Rüther, R. Inverter sizing of grid-connected photovoltaic systems in the light of local solar resource distribution characteristics and temperature. Solar Energy 80, 32–45 (2006).[edit]

Inverter sizing strategies for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems often do not take into account site-dependent peculiarities of ambient temperature, inverter operating temperature and solar irradiation distribution characteristics. The operating temperature affects PV modules and inverters in different ways and PV systems will hardly ever have a DC output equal to or above their STC-rated nominal power. Inverters are usually sized with a nominal AC output power some 30% (sometimes even more) below the PV array nominal power. In this paper, we show that this practice might lead to considerable energy losses, especially in the case of PV technologies with high temperature coefficients of power operating at sites with cold climates and of PV technologies with low temperature coefficients of power operating at sites with warm climates and an energy distribution of sunlight shifted to higher irradiation levels. In energy markets where PV kW h’s are paid premium tariffs, like in Germany, energy yield optimization might result in a favorable payback of the extra capital invested in a larger inverter.

This paper discusses how the time resolution of solar radiation data influences the correct sizing of PV plants.

We demonstrate that using instant (10 s) irradiation values instead of average hourly irradiation values leads to considerable differences in optimum inverter sizing. When calculating inverter yearly efficiency values using both, hourly averages and 1-min averages, we can show that with increased time resolution of solar irradiation data there are higher calculated losses due to inverter undersizing. This reveals that hourly averages hide important irradiation peaks that need to be considered.

We performed these calculations for data sets from pyranometer readings from Freiburg (48°N, Germany) and Florianopolis (27°S, Brazil) to further show the peculiarities of the site-dependent distribution of irradiation levels and its effects on inverter sizing.

37. Colli, A. & Zaaiman, W. J. Maximum-Power-Based PV Performance Validation Method: Application to Single-Axis Tracking and Fixed-Tilt c-Si Systems in the Italian Alpine Region. IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics 2, 555–563 (2012).[edit]

This paper presents springtime monitoring results for different crystalline-silicon (c-Si) photovoltaic (PV) systems installed at the multitechnology ground-mounted PV test field at the Airport Bolzano Dolomiti (ABD) located in the Italian Alps. The system data are analyzed and discussed.The main purpose of this paper is to validate the performance evaluation through a methodology based on the effective maximum power of the PV modules. This approach could be useful when dealing, as in the present case, with commercial monitoring systems. Three different silicon-based technologies are taken into consideration: polycrystalline silicon, high-efficiency monocrystalline silicon, and hybrid monocrystalline silicon that have been positioned both on a single-axis tracker and on fixed 30°-tilted supports. The systems are connected to different types of inverter, through which the power monitoring is performed. The assessment shows indicators, such as final yield and performance ratio, for both tracked and fixed-tilt systems. The PV systems are evaluated in relation to irradiance data registered by two identical c-Si reference devices positioned on the tracker and on the fixed supports. Results show that an average difference of ±14 W exists between the module's label and the actual peak power. This difference is in line with the power tolerance declared by manufacturers. The maximum-power-based PV performance validation method could initially highlight cases in which a faulty module hides in the system, having the potential for application in fault detection and reliability analysis, followed by more specific evaluations.

38. Pipattanasomporn, M., Feroze, H. & Rahman, S. Multi-agent systems in a distributed smart grid: Design and implementation. in Power Systems Conference and Exposition, 2009. PSCE ’09. IEEE/PES 1–8 (2009). doi:10.1109/PSCE.2009.4840087[edit]

The objective of this paper is to discuss the design and implementation of a multi-agent system that provides intelligence to a distributed smart grid - a smart grid located at a distribution level. A multi-agent application development will be discussed that involves agent specification, application analysis, application design and application realization. The message exchange in the proposed multi-agent system is designed to be compatible with an IP-based network (IP = Internet Protocol) which is based on the IEEE standard on Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agent (FIPA). The paper demonstrates the use of multi-agent systems to control a distributed smart grid in a simulated environment. The simulation results indicate that the proposed multi-agent system can facilitate the seamless transition from grid connected to an island mode when upstream outages are detected. This denotes the capability of a multi-agent system as a technology for managing the microgrid operation.

39.Al-Amoudi, A. & Zhang, L. Optimal control of a grid-connected PV system for maximum power point tracking and unity power factor. in Power Electronics and Variable Speed Drives, 1998. Seventh International Conference on (Conf. Publ. No. 456) 80–85 (1998). doi:10.1049/cp:19980504[edit]

The paper discusses a model-based method to predict the maximum power point (MPP) of a PV array using the measured data of radiation and temperature. The proposed method can be embedded in a synchronous rotating reference frame (SRRF) current regulator. This ensures good performance voltage control and unity power factor current supply to the grid. A simulation study of the proposed control scheme has been carried out, and the results are presented in the paper.

40.Shen, W. X. Optimally sizing of solar array and battery in a standalone photovoltaic system in Malaysia. Renewable Energy 34, 348–352 (2009).[edit]

Size optimization of solar array and battery in a standalone photovoltaic (SPV) system is investigated. Based on the energy efficiency model, the loss of power supply probability (LPSP) of the SPV system is calculated for different size combinations of solar array and battery. For the desired LPSP at the given load demand, the optimal size combination is obtained at the minimum system cost. One case study is given to show the application of the method in Malaysian weather conditions.

41. Moore, A. R. Optimized Grid Design for a Sun-Concentrator Solar Cell. RCA Rev.; (United States) 40:2, (1979).[edit]

42. Pathak, M. J. M., Sanders, P. G. & Pearce, J. M. Optimizing limited solar roof access by exergy analysis of solar thermal, photovoltaic, and hybrid photovoltaic thermal systems. Applied Energy 120, 115–124 (2014).[edit]

An exergy analysis was performed to compare a conventional (1) two panel photovoltaic solar thermal hybrid (PVT x2) system, (2) side by side photovoltaic and thermal (PV + T) system, (3) two module photovoltaic (PV) system and (4) a two panel solar thermal (T x2) system with identical absorber areas to determine the superior technical solar energy systems for applications with a limited roof area. Three locations, Detroit, Denver and Phoenix, were simulated due to their differences in average monthly temperature and solar flux. The exergy analysis results show that PVT systems outperform the PV + T systems by 69% for all the locations, produce between 6.5% and 8.4% more exergy when matched against the purely PV systems and created 4 times as much exergy as the pure solar thermal system. The results clearly show that PVT systems, which are able to utilize all of the thermal and electrical energy generated, are superior in exergy performance to either PV + T or PV only systems. These results are discussed and future work is outlined to further geographically optimize PVT systems.

43. Marion, B. et al. Performance parameters for grid-connected PV systems. in Conference Record of the Thirty-first IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 2005 1601–1606 (2005). doi:10.1109/PVSC.2005.1488451[edit]

The use of appropriate performance parameters facilitates the comparison of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems that may differ with respect to design, technology, or geographic location. Four performance parameters that define the overall system performance with respect to the energy production, solar resource, and overall effect of system losses are the following: final PV system yield, reference yield, performance ratio, and PVUSA rating. These performance parameters are discussed for their suitability in providing desired information for PV system design and performance evaluation and are demonstrated for a variety of technologies, designs, and geographic locations. Also discussed are methodologies for determining system a.c. power ratings in the design phase using multipliers developed from measured performance parameters.

44. Kim, I.-S. Robust maximum power point tracker using sliding mode controller for the three-phase grid-connected photovoltaic system. Solar Energy 81, 405–414 (2007).[edit]

A robust maximum power point tracker (MPPT) using sliding mode controller for the three-phase grid-connected photovoltaic system has been proposed in this paper. Contrary to the previous controller, the proposed system consists of MPPT controller and current controller for tight regulation of the current. The proposed MPPT controller generates current reference directly from the solar array power information and the current controller uses the integral sliding mode for the tight control of current. The proposed system can prevent the current overshoot and provide optimal design for the system components. The structure of the proposed system is simple, and it shows robust tracking property against modeling uncertainties and parameter variations. Mathematical modeling is developed and the experimental results verify the validity of the proposed controller.

45. L, G. D. Sequence flashing airport lighting system. (1970). at <http://www.google.com/patents/US3488558>[edit]

46. Wolf, M. & Rauschenbach, H. Series resistance effects on solar cell measurements. Advanced Energy Conversion 3, 455–479 (1963).[edit]

Current-voltage characteristics of photovoltaic solar energy converter cells are obtainable by three methods, which yield different results due to the effects of the cell internal series resistance.

47. Ruther, R. & Braun, P. Solar airports: A future multi-billion Euro PV market? Refocus 6, 30–34 (2005).[edit]

Airports are typically large, isolated, shade-free structures that are visited by millions of people every year presenting the perfect platform for PV both in terms of available solar resource and for awareness raising of the technology with the public. Ricardo Ruther and Priscila Braun present the case for PV integration on airport buildings and airport grounds worldwide and argue that it could become a multi-billion euro market for solar PV.

48. Pack, G. J. Solar cell connections. (1975). at <http://www.google.com/patents/US3903427>[edit]

The 10 percent increase in useful power from a photocell area without increasing the size or weight of the cell and with the capability to decrease the temperature of the cells themselves due to elimination of some of the power losses is obtained by taking the front leads through the cell to its back surface instead of across its surface.

49.1.Doan, D. Solar powered street lighting system. (1980). at <http://www.google.com/patents/US4200904>[edit]

A solar powered street lighting system that is totally independent of any external power supply. Solar panels are connected in such a manner to charge a maintenance-free storage battery with sufficient capacity to light street lights and/or traffic signals. An auxiliary generator may also be provided having a wind driven vane for also charging the battery if sufficient sun light is not available.

50. Xue, Y., Chang, L., Kjaer, S. B., Bordonau, J. & Shimizu, T. Topologies of single-phase inverters for small distributed power generators: an overview. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics 19, 1305–1314 (2004).[edit]

This paper presents an overview of single-phase inverters developed for small distributed power generators. The functions of inverters in distributed power generation (DG) systems include dc-ac conversion, output power quality assurance, various protection mechanisms, and system controls. Unique requirements for small distributed power generation systems include low cost, high efficiency and tolerance for an extremely wide range of input voltage variations. These requirements have driven the inverter development toward simpler topologies and structures, lower component counts, and tighter modular design. Both single-stage and multiple-stage inverters have been developed for power conversion in DG systems. Single-stage inverters offer simple structure and low cost, but suffer from a limited range of input voltage variations and are often characterized by compromised system performance. On the other hand, multiple-stage inverters accept a wide range of input voltage variations, but suffer from high cost, complicated structure and low efficiency. Various circuit topologies are presented, compared, and evaluated against the requirements of power decoupling and dual-grounding, the capabilities for grid-connected or/and stand-alone operations, and specific DG applications in this paper, along with the identification of recent development trends of single-phase inverters for distributed power generators.

51.Woyte, A., Van Thong, V., Belmans, R. & Nijs, J. Voltage fluctuations on distribution level introduced by photovoltaic systems. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion 21, 202–209 (2006).[edit]

In moderate climates, short fluctuations in solar irradiance and their impact on the distribution grid will become an important issue with regard to the future large-scale application of embedded photovoltaic systems. Several related studies from the past are recalled. The approach that is presented here applies a localized spectral analysis to the solar irradiance and derived quantities in order to determine the power content of fluctuations, depending on their characteristic persistence. Pseudorandom time series of solar irradiance, based on measured values of the instantaneous clearness index, are applied as input data. Power-flow calculations are carried out in order to assess the impact of fluctuating solar irradiance on the grid voltage. The "fluctuation power index" is defined as a measure for the mean-square value of fluctuations of a specific persistence. A typical scenario is simulated, and the results are interpreted.

Anurag************************************************************[edit]

Bificial PV System in Aichi Airport-Site Demonstrative Research Plant for a New Energy Power Generation[1][edit]

  • System Designed for Solar Power generation along with usage as Noise barriers.
  • 3 types of solar PV used- 1) Multi Crytalline, 2) Amorphous & 3) Single Crystalline (Bi-FAcial)
  • Apart from the combination of above, different types of fuel cells were also used
  • Rear Side of the Bi-facial panels were approx 21% less efficient at site readings in terms of Pmax

Background[edit]

What is Bifacial PV system?[edit]

Bifacial PV:[1] solar cells allow sunlight to enter from both sides. They typically employ a front surface design similar to that used in industry‑standard screen printed solar cells, with the major point of difference being the structure of the rear surface contact. Rather than cover the entire back surface with a reflective aluminium contact, a ‘finger’ grid is used in its place in order to allow sunlight through the rear.[1]

Advantages of Bifacial PV[edit]

  • Confirmed increased output compared to similar PV panel with no back panels as part of the reflected light is also used for power generation giving more power per cell.
  • One of the general advantages of BFPV (Bifacial PV) modules is as construction materials that can replace conventional, uni function building materials with additional properties like insulation, heat absorption and cooling.
  • Noise protection is another usage of BFPV; can be used as noise barrier in a vertical BFPV setup across roads, around airports, Bus stations or Railway stations

Ideas[edit]

  • Can we use mirror behind the panels to increase not only efficiency but space utilization as well?
  • Should have less glare compared to conventional making it more safe for airports?
  • wall with mirrors less reflecting material
  • Possible to decrease efficiency of PV marginally in order to have more safety against glare??(playing with azimuth angle)

Technical Guidance for Evaluating Selected Solar Technologies on Airports by Federal Aviation Administration[2][edit]

Solar PV Resource of USA from 1998-2009, Source - http://www.nrel.gov/gis/solar.html

Development of bifacial PV cells for new applications of flat-plate modules[3][edit]

The paper review early methods of developing bi-facial PV modules.

  • 12.5X12.5 cm SOG wafers were used for manufacturing B^3 cells
  • Bi-facial PV require long minority carrier lifetime to achieve high efficiency in the rare. (carrier lifetime - carrier lifetime is defined as the average time it takes for a minority carrier to recombine. The energy released due to recombination can be either thermal, thereby heating up the panel)
  • The generated power of a bifacial module did not depend much on the facing direction. When the front and rear efficiencies were the same, the generated power was almost the same as that of a monofacial module tilted at 301 facing south, and it did not show decrease when facing other directions.
The first advantage is that the generated power is not sensitive to the facing direction of the module, which reduces the limitations on PV module installation sites. 
The second is that a bifacial module installed normal to the ground can generate equal or larger power than a monofacial module tilted at 301, which greatly reduces the area required for installing PV modules.

Maximum-Power-Based PV Performance Validation Method: Application to Single-Axis Tracking and Fixed-Tilt c-Si Systems in the Italian Alpine Region[4][edit]

The paper discusses and validate the performance evaluation through a methodology based on the effective maximum power of the PV modules.

  • Three types of crystals were analyzed - i)polycrystalline silicon, ii)high-efficiency monocrystalline silicon, and iii)hybrid monocrystalline silicon
  • Two types of support structure were also used, i) fixed frame at 30 degrees and ii) single axis tracker
  • The irradiance detected by the tracker plane is higher than that monitored on the fixed support plane
  • Inverter readings are used for collecting system data, therefore its important to check system tolerance for both, DC and AC measurements.
  • The solar constant is the average amount of energy striking one square meter (perpendicular to the suns’ rays) each second at the top of the earths’ atmosphere. The satellite measured solar constant is 1366 W/m2. Of this energy reaching the top of the atmosphere as much as 70% can be absorbed & reflected by the atmosphere. Solar insolation is the amount of energy received by the sun at the earths’ surface. On a clear day ~1000 W/m2 reaches a surface perpendicular to the incoming radiation. This energy varies due to the angle of the incoming radiation and again cloud cover.[5]
Can we help reduce Temperature related stress on Airline hangers by using rooftop PV or worsen it further. Can Rooftop PV be helpful as an alternate roof structure or will it add on to the weight stress and building costs?
reduces heating and cooling costs by insulating the roof, and extends roof life

Solar energy on airports: the impact of large-scale photovoltaic systems on distribution networks[6][edit]

  • To achieve higher penetration ratios of distributed PV generation, to supply the energy levels demanded on airports, there are concerns regarding voltage rise.
  • Its important to keep in mind that most of the airports have conventional distribution grids and unidirectional power flow. Hence, it needs to be considered while upgrading protection schemes as well. As, the inclusion of solar PV will make the grid bi-directional in power flow.
  • The simulations and testing done in the paper supported the use of solar PV with airport system as having a source in the grid at a distance from the feeder node not only provided with power but also improved the network voltage profile which is necessary for correct working of the grid.
  • However, Solar PV power was unable to support evening peaks in the airport demand but that can be resolved using alternate methods like energy storage during the peak supply in the noon time

Effects of large-scale photovoltaic power integration on electricity distribution networks[7][edit]

  • The paper demonstrates analysis of PV system on integration with the distribution grid. Focus is put on static phenomena, including voltage drop, network losses and grid benefits.
  • large-scale implementation of distributed photovoltaic power generation in the end-use side is studied. Five different penetration levels and four different strategies for orientating the solar panels were included.
  • Iterative Newton–Raphson algorithm is used for load flow analysis and was used forits simplicity.However, faster iterative methods are available.
  • Temperature dependent PV model has been applied in simulation for calculation purposes. The system efficiency Z is composed mainly of three factors: the solar module efficiency (Z0) and its temperature dependence and the DC to AC conversion efficiency (Zinv) including losses in cablings

Performance analysis of different extraction strategies of the maximum power in PV systems[8][edit]

This paper has the objective to compare different methods in term of power extraction, an analysis of performance and efficiency of the photovoltaic (PV) system is performed on the basis of experimental results unlike many similar paper done only on simulation basis. This paper thus, gives a better understanding of the Pv subject

  • Three methods of experiments are considered, 1. tracking based power maximization method, 2. Maximum power point tracking method & 3. Mix of previous both.
  • PV with tracker and MPPT gave the best power output compared to other combinations.
  • Thoughts different setups were considered for finding the MPPT but no discussion on different types of panels combination or varying PV panels with varying conditions across geography discussed.
Perturb and Observe/ Hill Climbing and Incremental Conductance

A multi-objective assessment of the effect of solar PV array orientation and tilt on energy production and system economics, Solar Energy[9][edit]

  • Paper discusses that solar energy production does not always necessarily align with maximum grid load, placements that might not be optimal might be optimal on an economic or peak power production basis. Hence the paper estimates the total energy, power, and economic impacts of system azimuth and tilt (placement).
  • It also challenges how the south-orientated rule-of-thumb might not be the best for solar PV all the time and other factors like meteorological conditions such as fog or clouds, environmental conditions such as smog, and geographic features such as mountains can alter solar PV output at different times for varying duration.
  • Important to note that the paper considered for its evaluations the actual AC output received (after panel, inverter, and other losses) for optimal calculations and was not confined to one location but covered entire USA with actual data for study.
  • This study consider the AC electricity produced from a typical solar PV system and consider electricity prices on a national scale. The results showed how local electricity markets (as seen through TOU prices) affect the economic value of solar placement on a national level.

Enhancing the performance of building integrated photovoltaics[10][edit]

  • This is important from stand point where land available for solar PV is less of uneconomic but has enough insolation to support building integrated PV. This can be found to a common case in Japan.
  • The advantages of AC module-integrated inverters are: (i) low resistance losses in cables and connections; (ii) absence of a diode eliminates associated losses; (iii) excess energy can be supplied readily to the utility; (iv) safer than high-voltage DC PV systems; (v) flexibility, ease and low-cost of module installation; (vi) as each module is equipped with a maximum power point tracker, low mismatch losses at system level ensue; (vii) conduction losses and cable costs are low because of the high AC voltage and therefore low current; (viii) lower capital cost due to mass production economies; and (ix) the small size of one AC module lowers barriers to market entry[11]
  • The disadvantages of AC modules are: (i) increased heating of the inverter located at the back of the module; (ii) increased zero load dissipation compared to a conventional PV system; and (iii) for large PV systems, a central inverter system would be cheaper[12]
Master Slave inverter?

PV module power gain due to bifacial design. Preliminary experimental and simulation data[13][edit]

  • This paper evaluates by experimentation the rational usage potential of Bi-facial PV. And therefore, a method of determining nominal electrical parameters (Isc and Pmax) for each side of the module is proposed considering different conditions for PV.
  • The tilt angle of mono facial modules is optimized in practice by maximization of yearly energy production. The use of bifacial modules requires including an additional factor – power gain due to module back contribution. And irradiance uniformity is improved dramatically with increasing module elevation
  • Effect of varying energy gains were introduced by seasonal variation of the sun`s position. The shade due to more tilted to the horizon panels decreases with higher sun elevation in the summer compared to the winter. Therefore the energy gain which depends on reflection of direct sun light by the underlying surface is higher.

Solar Concentrators[14][edit]

  • Most concentrators utilize direct radiation only. These concentrators work well on bright clear days, poorly on hazy days, and not at all on drab gray days when the sunlight intensity is reduced and the light consists principally of diffuse radiation. Another limiting factor is that the sun is not a point but has a diameter equivalent to about one-half degree of arc. Concentrator design must consider this arc.
  • There are many ways to characterize concentrators. These include: Means of concentration--reflection or refraction, Point, line, or non-focusing, Fixed or tracking concentrator & Fixed or tracking receiver
  • Though seem to be solving many problems related to solar pv efficiency, it can't be made sure if they will be suitable for an airport environment. Biggest problem to be considered for now is the very involvement of reflectors in many types of concentrators, as reflectivity is one of the major concerns.
  • Some of the concentrators utilize metal plated reflecting surface which further might create problem for airport systems in terms of radio interference.
  • Type of Concentrator: Lens (Round) is one type which may be explored along with Concentrator having linear Lens.

Refer for details[15]

Low concentration photovoltaics (LCPV)[16][17][edit]

  • The most often cited advantage of CPV is the replacement of expensive photovoltaic materials with large areas of glass, plastic, or metal[18]. By taking down the semiconductor amount and contribution to the comparable system cost and relying instead on typical construction materials, it is argued that a lower and more stable cost can be achieved. While this is true to some degree, rapidly falling silicon prices and module costs weaken this argument[19]
  • LCPV systems offer many advantages like they typically only require single-axis tracking, show less sensitivity to tracking errors, are nore very sensitive to changes in the incident spectrum, and can capture a larger fraction of the diffuse and circumsolar content.
  • LCPV systems can be illuminated with intensities less than 20 suns which can be varied. LCPV systems eliminate the need of complex cooling systems and are often facilitated with booster reflectors. LCPV systems doesn't require active tracking mechanisms due to wide acceptance angles[20]. These can sufficed with single-axis tracking system yet maintaining 35-40% increased power output. The reflected radiation incident on these modules depends on the clearness of the index of the location and thus they are more effective when installed where direct radiation is a significant percentage of the global radiation South Europe, Northern Africa, Southern states of the USA, etc.[21]

Literature review Low level concentration for PV applications literature review

Comparison of Solar concentrators[edit]

Full paper not available

Two axis tracking system for solar concentrators[22][edit]

  • A two axis tracking system is described for the focussing of sunlight in paraboloid-type solar reflectors used in solar thermal devices like solar cookers. This system consists of wormgear drives and four bar type kinematic linkages for effortless and accurate focussing of reflectors at low cost.
Full paper not available

Light Trapping in Silicon Nanowire Solar Cells[23][edit]

  • Thin-film structures can reduce the cost of solar power by using inexpensive substrates and a lower quantity and quality of semiconductor material. However, the resulting short optical path length and minority carrier diffusion length necessitates either a high absorption coefficient or excellent light trapping. Semiconducting nanowire arrays have already been shown to have low reflective losses compared to planar semiconductors, but their light-trapping properties have not been measured. {taken directly from the article}


The National Geodetic Survey (NGS) and NOAA[24][edit]

Citations[edit]

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  11. de Graaf, L.E.; van der Weiden, T.C.J., "Characteristics and performance of a PV-system consisting of 20 AC-modules," in Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, 1994., Conference Record of the Twenty Fourth. IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference - 1994, 1994 IEEE First World Conference on , vol.1, no., pp.921-924 vol.1, 5-9 Dec 1994 doi: 10.1109/WCPEC.1994.520112[9]
  12. de Graaf, L.E.; van der Weiden, T.C.J., "Characteristics and performance of a PV-system consisting of 20 AC-modules," in Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, 1994., Conference Record of the Twenty Fourth. IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference - 1994, 1994 IEEE First World Conference on , vol.1, no., pp.921-924 vol.1, 5-9 Dec 1994 doi: 10.1109/WCPEC.1994.520112[10]
  13. Kreinin, Lev; Bordin, Ninel; Karsenty, A.; Drori, A.; Grobgeld, D.; Eisenberg, Ygal, in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2010 35th IEEE , vol., no., pp.002171-002175, 20-25 June 2010 doi: 10.1109/PVSC.2010.5615874[11]
  14. http://www.appropedia.org/Understanding_solar_concentrators
  15. http://www.appropedia.org/Understanding_solar_concentrators
  16. us.sunpower.com
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  19. R. M. Swanson, “The promise of concentrators – update 2010,” presented at CPV-6, Freiburg, Germany, 2010
  20. Andrews, Rob W.; Pollard, Andrew; Pearce, Joshua M., "Photovoltaic system performance enhancement with non-tracking planar concentrators: Experimental results and BDRF based modelling," Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2013 IEEE 39th, pp.0229,0234, 16–21 June 2013. doi: 10.1109/PVSC.2013.6744136
  21. http://www.appropedia.org/Kirigami_design_approach_to_LCPV_reflectors#cite_ref-1
  22. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/096014819290104B
  23. Erik Garnett and Peidong Yang, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720. Received for review: 01/17/2010, Published on Web: 01/28/2010, DOI: 10.1021/nl100161z | Nano Lett. 2010, 10, 1082–1087
  24. The National Geodetic Survey (NGS) and NOAA http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/AERO/OIS/ois.html