Page data
Keywords renewable energy
Authors Eric Blazek
Lonny Grafman
Published 2007
License CC BY-SA 4.0
Derivatives Kamusi la nishati hai
Page views 4,787


How to use this Dictionary[edit | edit source]

This encyclopedic dictionary is comprised of up-to-date and authoritative definitions of terms used in renewable energy. This dictionary is thoroughly cross-referenced for ease of use and to provide for the most thorough understanding of each term.

The terms are organized alphabetically. Each term is printed in bold type and capital letters. Some terms are hyperlinked to pages with more information. The term is followed by a parenthetical classification reference. Some terms have more than one reference, which helps to clarify the ways in which they can be used.

Some words within the definition are also in capital letters. These are words that are defined elsewhere in the dictionary. Subsequent use of these words within the same definition is in lower case letters.

Each alphabetic section and each word is followed by an edit link. Clicking this will allow editing of the definition, inclusion of a link or adding a new word that follows alphabetically the word which you edit. Make sure to follow the same format as the previous word.

At the end of each definition are translations of the term itself into French and Spanish. The preferred usage is listed first, with secondary or less common usages following. The preferred term is the one that appears in the other language section.

For example:

ABSORPTANCE (sol) (meas). The ratio between the SOLAR RADIATION absorbed by a surface and the total amount of solar radiation that strikes it.

F - absorptance; coefficient d'absorption
S - coeficiente de absorcion

Second reference

This is a measurement (meas) term used in the field of solar (sol) energy. The term "Solar Radiation" is defined in the "S" section of the dictionary. The primary translation of this term into French is "absorptance," though in some French documents, the term "coefficient d'absorption" may be found. The translation of this term into Spanish is "coeficiente de absorcion."

Definition of Abbreviations[edit | edit source]

Agri Relating to agriculture.

Alc Alcohol production or alcohol fuels.

Ani Relating to animal power.

Arc Archaic. Terms that are outdated but are still useful.

Auto Relating to internal combustion engines or automobiles.

Bio Relating to the field of biological science or a biological substance.

Biocon Relating to bioconversion. Includes methane and woodfuel.

Chem Relating to the field of chemical science or a chemical substance.

Constr Relating to construction methods, materials, and structures.

Elec Relating to the production and use of electricity.

Fos Relating to fossil fuels.

Gen General terms, which may apply to various areas of energy, particularly renewable energy technologies.

Geo Geothermal power concepts and applications.

Heat Relating to heating or the use of heat for space heating and to produce other forms of energy.

Hydr Relating to water and the application of water power. Also closed hydraulic systems, which may use fluids other than water.

Impl Implement. Tools, utensils, or devices that work in conjunction with other equipment.

Meas Measuring instruments, scales, or types of measurement.

Ocean Methods or devices for extracting energy from the ocean.

Prod Relating to producer gas.

Refrig Relating to refrigerants or methods of refrigeration.

Sol Relating to the field of solar energy.

Wind Relating to wind power or other aspects of air movement.

A[edit | edit source]

ABSORBENT[edit | edit source]

(refrig). The less VOLATILE of the two working FLUIDS used in an absorption cooling device.

F - absorbant
S - absorbente
ABSORBENT OIL[edit | edit source]

(refrig). A type of oil used in an absorption cooling device.

F - huile absorbante
S - aceite absorbente
ABSORBER PLATE[edit | edit source]

(sol). A dark surface that absorbs SOLAR RADIATION and converts it into heat; a component of a FLAT-PLATE SOLAR COLLECTOR.

F - plaque d'absorption
S - placa de absorcion
ABSORPTANCE[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). The ratio between the SOLAR RADIATION absorbed by a surface and the total amount of solar radiation that strikes it.

F - taux d'absorptivite
S - coeficiente de absorcion

(sol). An air conditioner designed to use a SOLAR HEATED liquid. Such a system provides space cooling through use of ABSORBER PLATES, VOLATILE FLUIDS, HEAT EXCHANGERS, and CONDENSERS.

F - climatiseur a absorption
S - aire acondicionado por absorcion

(refrig). A cooling system that uses heated liquid to activate the chilling process.

F - refrigeration par absorption
S - refrigeracion por absorcion
AC[edit | edit source]

(elec). Abbreviation for ALTERNATING CURRENT.

F - CA
S - C.A.
ACCELERATOR[edit | edit source]

(impl). A mechanism that controls the speed of a vehicle or other device.

F - accelerateur
S - acelerador
ACCUMULATION[edit | edit source]

(gen) (elec). The action of collecting or gathering. In electricity, the charging of a BATTERY or the storage of electric POWER.

F - accumulation
S - acumulacion
ACCUMULATOR[edit | edit source]

(gen). A CELL, SOLAR POND, THERMAL MASS, or other device to store ENERGY. :F - accumulateur

S - acumulador
AC-DC[edit | edit source]

(elec). Pertaining to a device that will operate on either ALTERNATING CURRENT or DIRECT CURRENT.

ACETATE[edit | edit source]

(chem) (sol). A compound composed of the SALTS of ACETIC ACID or the acetylation products of acetic acid, such as CELLULOSE acetate. Certain acetates can be used as GLAZING on SOLAR COLLECTORS.

F - acetate
S - acetato
ACETIC ACID[edit | edit source]

(chem). An important raw material in the chemical industry. It is a by-product of the DESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION of wood. It can also be obtained by oxidizing ALCOHOL. The chemical make-up of acetic acid is CH3COOH.

F - acide acetique
S - acido acetico
ACID[edit | edit source]

(bio) (biocon). A compound that dissociates or separates in a water solution to provide hydrogen ions. Acid forms a SALT when mixed with ALKALI, and is important in ANAEROBIC DIGESTION and FERMENTATION.

F - acide
S - acido
ACID DIGESTION[edit | edit source]

(biocon). The "first phase" of BIOGAS production, in which complex molecules are broken down into smaller ones.

F - digestion acide
S - digestion de acido
ACID HYDROLYSIS[edit | edit source]

(chem) (alc). A chemical process that uses ACID to convert STARCH to sugar. This is the "first phase" in ETHANOL production.

F - hydrolysation acide
S - hidrolisis de acido
ACROMETER[edit | edit source]

(gen) (meas). An instrument used to measure the density of gases.

F - acrometre
S - acrometro
ACTINOMETER[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). An instrument used to measure DIRECT RADIATION from the sun.

F - actinometre
S - actinometro
ACTIVE DRIED YEAST[edit | edit source]

(alc). YEAST that has been dried, but in which the yeast cells still can be activated.

F - levure seche active
S - levadura activa secada
ACTIVE SOLAR HEATING[edit | edit source]

(sol). Warming an interior space with heat collected mechanically through SOLAR COLLECTORS. The collection and distribution of this warm air requires additional external ENERGY to operate pumps, motors, valves, etc.

F - chauffage solaire actif
S - calefaccion solar activa
ADAPTED SEED[edit | edit source]

(biocon). INOCULUM used during the START-UP of a BIOGAS DIGESTER that has been obtained from another digester with similar FEEDSTOCK composition and operating under similar conditions.

F - germe adapte
S - semilla adaptada
ADOBE[edit | edit source]

(constr) (sol). Sun-dried brick of clay and straw. Also the clay and soil used for making such bricks. Adobe is high in THERMAL MASS and is useful in low-cost building construction.

F - adobe
S - adobe
ADSORPTION[edit | edit source]

(chem). The process through which carbonaceous materials are able to compress and hold on their surfaces large quantities of gas. Also, the physical adhesion of molecules to the surfaces of solids without causing a chemical reaction.

F - adsorption
S - adsorcion
AEOLIAN[edit | edit source]

(wind). (See: EOLIAN)

F - eolien, - ienne
S - eolico
AEROBIC[edit | edit source]

(bio). Pertaining to micro-organisms that require FREE OXYGEN to live.

F - aerobie
S - aerobio
AEROBIC BACTERIA[edit | edit source]

(bio) (biocon). BACTERIA living on FREE OXYGEN that is derived from the air. Aerobic bacteria break down ORGANIC MATTER during COMPOSTING.

F - bacteries aerobies
S - bacteria aerobia
AEROBIC DECOMPOSITION[edit | edit source]

(biocon). (See: AEROBIC BACTERIA)

F - decomposition aerobie
S - descomposicion aerobia
AFFORESTATION[edit | edit source]

(gen). Forest crops established by purposeful planting on land previously not used for tree crops.

F - boisement
S - conversion en bosque
AFTERBURNER[edit | edit source]

(gen). An air pollution abatement device that removes undesirable organic gases through incineration.

F - postcombustion
S - quemador auxiliar
AIR BRAKES[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). Longitudinal SHUTTERS that are sometimes incorporated in PATENT SAILS to reduce the speed of SAIL rotation in strong winds.

F - freins d'ailes
S - frenos de aire
AIR DIFFUSER[edit | edit source]

(gen). A device that delivers air into a room to mix with the room air.

F - diffuseur d'air
S - difusor de aire
AIRFOIL[edit | edit source]

(wind). A curved surface designed to create aerodynamic LIFT forces when air flows around it.

F - voilure d'aile
S - plano aerodinamico
AIR-GAS RATIO[edit | edit source]

(chem). The ratio of the air volume to the gas volume. It can be adjusted to change the character of combustion.

F - rapport air-gaz
S - relacion de aire-gas
AIR HEATING SYSTEM[edit | edit source]

(sol). A SOLAR HEATING system, which heats air in a SOLAR COLLECTOR and uses the heated air as the HEAT-TRANSFER MEDIUM to the rest of the system.

F - chauffage d'air, systeme de
S - sistema de calefaccion del aire
AIR-TYPE COLLECTOR[edit | edit source]

(sol). A SOLAR COLLECTOR designed to use air as its HEAT-TRANSFER MEDIUM.

F - capteur a air
S - colector solar tipo aire
AIR VELOCITY[edit | edit source]

(wind). (See: WIND VELOCITY)

F - vitesse d'ecoulement de l'air
S - velocidad del aire
ALBEDO[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). The ratio of the amount of light reflected by a surface to the light falling onto it.

F - albedo
S - albedo
ALCOHOL[edit | edit source]

(chem). A class of compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which occurs widely in nature and is used in solvents, antifreezes, chemical manufacture, and as a fuel. Alcohol commonly is obtained by FERMENTATION. (See also: BUTYL ALCOHOL, ETHYL ALCOHOL, and METHYL ALCOHOL)

F - alcool
S - alcohol
ALCOHOL CONDENSER[edit | edit source]

(alc). (See: CONDENSER)

F - condenseur d'alcool
S - condensador de alcohol
ALCOHOL STILL[edit | edit source]

(alc). (See: STILL)

F - alambic de distillation
S - alambique de alcohol
ALCOHOL VAPOR[edit | edit source]

(alc). ALCOHOL in its gaseous state.

F - vapeur d'alcool
S - vapor de alcohol
ALGAE[edit | edit source]

(bio) (biocon) (gen). Fresh and saltwater aquatic plants, usually microscopic in size, but including seaweed. They are valuable in waste treatment, as a protein source for humans, as animal feed, and as a FEEDSTOCK for BIOGAS DIGESTERS.

F - algues
S - algas
ALKALI[edit | edit source]

(chem) (biocon). Any of various BASES, which neutralize ACIDS to form SALTS. Bases are important in maintaining the chemical balance in a BIOGAS DIGESTER.

F - alcali
S - alcali
ALKALINE BATTERY[edit | edit source]

(elec). A BATTERY that uses sodium or potassium hydroxide as an electrolyte, and nickel-oxide flakes and powdered iron or nickel-cadmium for its active plates.

F - accumulateur alcalin
S - pila alcalina
ALKANE[edit | edit source]

(chem). A general name for hydrocarbons of the METHANE series.

F - paraffine
S - alcano
ALTERNATING CURRENT[edit | edit source]

(elec). An electric current that periodically reverses its direction. Generally abbreviated as ac.

F - courant alternatif
S - courriente continua

(auto). Alternatives to the spark ignition and the diesel combustion engines. Among the more developed designs are the GAS TURBINE and STIRLING ENGINES.

F - substituts aux moteurs a combustion
S - motores de combustion alterna

(gen). Sources of ENERGY different from those generally employed by a user. The term usually refers to RENEWABLE ENERGY sources such as SOLAR ENERGY, WIND ENERGY, GEOTHERMAL POWER, HYDROPOWER, etc. The use of alternative energy sources is attractive because of the [1] high price and limited availability of petroleum-based fuels; [2] the pollution that is associated with the burning of FOSSIL FUELS; and [3] the expense and dangers of nuclear power.

F - sources d'energie de substitution
S - fuentes alternas de energia
ALTERNATOR[edit | edit source]

(elec). A GENERATOR that changes mechanical ENERGY into electrical energy (ALTERNATING CURRENT) by the rotation of its ROTOR. Alternators are used in motor vehicles to recharge and minimize the drain on the BATTERY. They are also commonly adapted to be driven by WINDMILLS or by STEAM TURBINES and WATER TURBINES.

F - alternateur
S - alternador
ALUMINIZED MYLAR[edit | edit source]

(constr) (sol). A very strong, thin sheet of plastic material coated with aluminum. Used as a reflective surface for SOLAR COOKERS.

F - Mylar aluminise
S - Milar aluminizado
AMBIENT[edit | edit source]

(gen). Referring to undisturbed environmental surroundings, particularly to air and temperature.

F - ambiant
S - ambiente
ANAEROBES[edit | edit source]


F - anaerobies
S - anaerobes
ANAEROBIC[edit | edit source]

(bio). Pertaining to micro-organisms that can live in an airless environment.

F - anaerobie
S - anaerobio
ANAEROBIC BACTERIA[edit | edit source]

(bio) (biocon). BACTERIA, known as ANAEROBES, that can live in an airless environment by obtaining oxygen through the DECOMPOSITION of compounds.

F - bacteries anaerobies
S - bacteria anaerobia
ANAEROBIC DIGESTER[edit | edit source]

(biocon). (See: BIOGAS DIGESTER)

F - digesteur anaerobie
S - digestor anaerobio
ANAEROBIC DIGESTION[edit | edit source]

(bio) (biocon). The DECOMPOSITION of ORGANIC MATTER by ANAEROBIC BACTERIA. This process involves ACID-forming BACTERIA and METHANE-forming bacteria.

F - digestion anaerobie
S - digestion anaerobia
ANAEROBIC FERMENTATION[edit | edit source]

(bio) (biocon). (See: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION)

F - fermentation anaerobie
S - fermentacion anaerobia
ANAEROBIC ORGANISMS[edit | edit source]

(bio) (biocon). (See: ANAEROBIC BACTERIA)

F - organismes anaerobies
S - organismos anaerobios
ANCHOR[edit | edit source]

(wind) (impl). A rod or stake driven into the ground, to which GUY WIRES for a WINDMILL TOWER are attached.

F - ancrage
S - ancla
ANDIRON[edit | edit source]

(impl). Raised metal bars placed on a fireplace hearth to support firewood for burning. Andirons allow air to pass under the burning wood for more EFFICIENT combustion.

F - chenets
S - morillo
ANEMOMETER[edit | edit source]

(wind) (meas). An instrument for measuring WIND SPEED.

F - anenometre
S - anemometro
ANGLE OF ATTACK[edit | edit source]

(wind). The angle between the CHORD of an AIRFOIL and the wind. It is considered in WINDMILL ROTOR design.

F - angle d'attaque
S - angulo de ataque
ANGLE OF INCIDENCE[edit | edit source]

(sol). (See: INCIDENT ANGLE)

F - angle incident
S - angulo de incidencia
ANGLE OF REFLECTION[edit | edit source]

(sol). (See: INCIDENT ANGLE)

F - angle de reflexion
S - angulo de reflexion
ANHYDROUS[edit | edit source]

(alc) (biocon). Free from moisture. The term applies to oxides, SALTS, and other substances that do not contain water.

F - anhydre
S - anhidro
ANHYDROUS ALCOHOL[edit | edit source]

(alc). ALCOHOL that is almost completely free from water. Alcohol must be ANHYDROUS to be mixed with gasoline to form GASAHOL. Alcohol and water cannot be separated beyond 199.99 PROOF. At that CONCENTRATION, they form an AZEOTROPE and vaporize at the same temperature.

F - alcool anhydre
S - alcohol etilico anhidro
ANIMAL-DRAWN[edit | edit source]

(ani). (See: ANIMAL-POWERED)

F - animal de trait
S - traccion animal
ANIMAL-POWERED[edit | edit source]

(ani). Driven or impelled by animals.

F - traction animale
S - impulsado por animales
ANIMAL WASTE CONVERSION[edit | edit source]

(biocon). The process of directly burning or obtaining ENERGY PRODUCTS from animal wastes.

F - conversion des dechets animaux
S - conversion de los desechos animales
ANNUAL LOAD FRACTION[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). That portion of annual heating that is supplied to a building by SOLAR ENERGY.

F - part de la charge annuelle
S - fraccion de la carga anual
ANNULAR SAIL[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). A ring-like SAIL with radial SHUTTERS.

F - aile annulaire
S - aspa circular
ANTICLOCK SAIL[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). A SAIL ROTOR that runs counterclockwise when observed from the front of the WINDMILL.

F - aile a rotation positive
S - aspa sinistrorsa
AQUATIC BIOMASS[edit | edit source]

(biocon). BIOMASS grown in fresh or saltwater, including ALGAE, seaweed, etc.

F - biomasse aquatique
S - biomasa acuatica
AQUEDUCT[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A CHANNEL or trough built to convey water For irrigation, to operate a HYDROPOWER plant, or for household use. The water in aqueducts generally flows by means of gravity, although pumps may also be used.

F - aqueduc
S - acueducto
AQUIFER[edit | edit source]

(hydr). Any geological formation containing water, especially one that supplies the water for wells, springs, etc.

F - aquifere
S - acuifera
ARTICULATED WINDMILL[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). A WINDMILL constructed to provide maximum EFFICIENCY in winds of various speeds and from different directions.

F - eolienne articulee
S - molino de viento articulado
ASH BOX[edit | edit source]

(heat). A removable box below the [[#GRATE]] in a [[#WOOD STOVE]] or a [[#PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR]] that collects ash residue from combustion.

F - cendrier
S - caja de cenizas
ASYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR[edit | edit source]

(elec) (wind). An electrical GENERATOR that produces ALTERNATING CURRENT, matching an existing POWER source so the two sources can be combined to power one LOAD. These generators are often used with WINDMILLS to provide power to buildings that already receive power from an electric utility.

F - generateur asynchrone
S - generador asincronico
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE[edit | edit source]

(gen). The pressure exerted by the Earth's atmosphere at any given point, generally measured on a scale based on the pressure of air at sea level.

F - pression atmospherique
S - presion atmosferica
ATRIUM[edit | edit source]

(sol). An unroofed, partially roofed, or fully roofed courtyard or room in a dwelling, which allows sunlight to reach adjoining rooms. It is often used for PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING.

F - atrium
S - atrio
ATTENUATION[edit | edit source]

(alc). The fall in SPECIFIC GRAVITY of the WORT during FERMENTATION. This is caused by the weakening of BACTERIA or FUNGI in a CULTURE.

F - attenuation
S - atenuacion
AUGER[edit | edit source]

(impl) (alc). A rotating, screw-type device that moves material through a tube. In ALCOHOL production, it is used to transfer grains from storage to the grinding site, and from the grinding site to the COOKER.

F - vrille d'alimentation
S - barrena
AUTOMATIC DAMPER[edit | edit source]

(impl). A device that automatically maintains the FLOW of hot or cold air into a room.

F - registre automatique
S - regulador de tiro automatico
AUTOMATIC TRACKING[edit | edit source]

(sol). The use of a device that allows SOLAR COLLECTORS to "track" or follow the sun during the day without manual adjustment.

F - poursuite automatique
S - aparato de seguimiento automatico
AUXILIARY GENERATOR[edit | edit source]

(gen) (elec). A small, engine-driven GENERATOR that supplements a RENEWABLE ENERGY POWER source.

F - generateur auxiliaire
S - generador auxiliar
AVAILABLE ENERGY[edit | edit source]

(gen) (meas). That part of the total ENERGY produced by a system that can be applied usefully. EFFICIENCY is a measure oF available energy.

F - energie disponible
S - energia disponible
AVERAGE WIND SPEED[edit | edit source]

(wind) (meas). The most common WIND VELOCITY over a specified period of time.

F - vitesse moyenne du vent
S - velocidad promedio del viento
AXIS[edit | edit source]

(gen). An imaginary line passing through the center of a body, about which the body rotates. (Plural: axes)

F - axe de rotation
S - axis
AXLE[edit | edit source]

(gen). A supporting member that carries a wheel. It either rotates with the wheel to transmit mechanical POWER, or allows the wheel to rotate freely on it.

F - essieu
S - eje
AZEOTROPE[edit | edit source]

(chem) (alc). The chemical term for two liquids that, at a certain CONCENTRATION, boil at the same temperature. For example, ETHANOL and water cannot be separated further than 199.9 PROOF because at this concentration they form an azeotrope and vaporize together.

F - azeotrope
S - azeotrope

B[edit | edit source]

S LAW[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A law stating that the VAPOR PRESSURE of a liquid is lowered when a non-VOLATILE substance is dissolved in it. The pressure is lowered by an amount proportional to the CONCENTRATION of the solution.

F - loi de von Babo
S - ley de Babo
BACKPUFFING[edit | edit source]

(gen). The emission of smoke through cooking holes or other openings in a wood-burning or CHARCOAL stove. It occurs when poor DRAFT in the CHIMNEY causes air to pass back down into the stove.

F - retour de fumee
S - contracorriente de humo
BACK STAYS[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). Support bars across the back of the SAILS of a WINDMILL.

F - galhaubans
S - soporte posterior
BACK WATERING[edit | edit source]

(hydr). The braking effect caused by the immersion in water of the lowest BLADES of an OVERSHOT WATER WHEEL.

F - frein d'immersion
S - remanso
BACTERIA[edit | edit source]

(bio). Any of numerous single-celled micro-organisms occurring in a wide variety of forms, existing either as free-living organisms or as parasites, having a wide range of biochemical properties. Bacteria are necessary for DIGESTION and FERMENTATION. (Singular: bacterium)

F - bacteries
S - bacteria

(biocon). The chemical breakdown of ORGANIC MATTER by micro-organisms.

F - decomposition bacterienne
S - descomposicion bacteriana
BAFFLE[edit | edit source]

(gen). A metal plate or other artificial obstruction used to check or deflect the FLOW of FLUIDS.

F - deflecteur
S - desviador
BAGASSE[edit | edit source]

(biocon). The fibrous residue remaining after the extraction of the juice from sugar cane. It may be used as a fuel.

F - bagasse
S - bagazo
BANCO[edit | edit source]

(biocon). (See: LORENA STOVE)

F - banco
S - banco
BANKI TURBINE[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A WATER TURBINE with curved BLADES, GUIDE VANES, and a hallow interior. Water passing through it propels the RUNNER both on entering and leaving. This turbine operates well under a wide HEAD range and FLOW rates.

F - turbine de Banki
S - turbina de Banki
BAROMETER[edit | edit source]

(meas). A device used to measure ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE.

F - barometre
S - barometro
BASES[edit | edit source]

(alc) (chem). Compounds that dissociate in water solution to form HYDROXYL ions. Bases react with ACIDS to form SALTS, and can be used to maintain the proper pH (POTENTIAL HYDROGEN) balance in an ALCOHOL STILL.

F - bases
S - bases
BATCH DIGESTION[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A process of BIOGAS production in which the material to be digested is loaded into the DIGESTER at the start of the process. A SEED may also be added at this time. The digester is then sealed and the contents left to FERMENT. At completion, the digested SLUDGE is removed and the tank reloaded. Daily gas production varies during the process. It is slow at the start, increases, and finally declines toward the end of the DIGESTION cycle.

F - digestion a charge initiale
S - digestion por tandas
BATCH DISTILLATION[edit | edit source]

(alc). A batch DISTILLATION process of ALCOHOL production in which the material to be distilled is loaded into a STILL at the start of the process. The entire volume is heated and left to distill. At completion, the distilled MASH is removed and the still reloaded. Daily alcohol production varies during the process. It is slow at the start, increases, and finally declines toward the end of the distillation cycle.

F - distillation a charge initiale
S - destilacion intermitente
BATCH FEED[edit | edit source]

(gen). A DIGESTER or STILL in which ORGANIC MATTER is loaded, allowed to generate gas or FERMENT, and then removed. The digester or still then is cleaned and prepared for a fresh load of BIOMASS.

F - alimentation initiale unique
S - alimentacion por tandas
BATCH-LOADING DIGESTER[edit | edit source]

(biocon). (See: BATCH FEED)

F - digesteur a chargement unique
S - digestor de carga intermitente
BATCH PROCESSING[edit | edit source]

(biocon). (See: BATCH FEED)

F - traitement de charges uniques
S - elaboracion por tandas
Batteries|BATTERY[edit | edit source]

(elec). A group of two or more CELLS or ACCUMULATORS electrically connected in series or parallel. Batteries are used to store electrical ENERGY.

F - batterie
S - bateria
BATTERY CUT-OUT[edit | edit source]

(wind) (impl). An automatic switch that disconnects a BATTERY during its charge if the voltage of the wind charger falls below or rises above that of the battery, within certain limits. A battery cut-out is a battery protection device.

F - coupe-circuit de batterie
S - interruptor de bateria
BEARING[edit | edit source]

(gen). A machine part that supports and guides a shaft, pivot, or wheel that slides, rotates, or oscillates in or on it.

F - palier
S - cojinete
BEARING ANGLE[edit | edit source]

(sol). (See: SOLAR AZIMUTH)

F - azimut
S - marcacion
BEAUFORT SCALE[edit | edit source]

(meas) (wind). A scale of WIND VELOCITIES ranging from 0 to 12 as follows:

Code Number (mph) Description
0 less than 1 calm
1 1-3 light air
2 4-7 light breeze
3 8-12 gentle breeze
4 13-18 moderate breeze
5 19-24 fresh breeze
6 25-31 strong breeze
7 32-38 moderate gale; near gale
8 39-46 gale
9 47-54 strong gale
10 55-63 whole gale (or storm)
11 64-74 violent storm
12 over 74 hurricane
F - Beaufort, echelle de
S - escala de Beaufort
BEER COLUMN[edit | edit source]


F - colonne a biere
S - columna de cerveza
BERM[edit | edit source]

(constr). A manmade mound or small hill of earth built up against a house to stop the INFILTRATION of hot or cold air.

F - banquette
S - monticulo
BEVEL GEAR[edit | edit source]

(gen). One of a pair of gears used to connect two shafts whose AXES intersect.

F - engrenage conique
S - engranaje biselado
BICYCLE ADAPTER[edit | edit source]

(gen) (impl). A device that can be attached to a bicycle to supply POWER to pump water, generate electricity, etc.

F - adaptateur de bicyclette
S - adaptador de bicicleta
Pedal power|BICYCLE GENERATOR[edit | edit source]

(elec). A small GENERATOR that produces DIRECT CURRENT (dc) electricity through PEDAL POWER.

F - generateur a pedalier
S - generador accionado por bicicleta
BIOCONVERSION[edit | edit source]

(chem) (gen). The conversion of ORGANIC WASTE into ENERGY PRODUCTS through the action of micro-organisms. Chemically, this is the reduction of complex organic compounds into simpler, more stable forms.

F - bioconversion
S - bioconversion
Biofuel|BIOGAS[edit | edit source]

(biocon). The gaseous mixture produced during ANAEROBIC DIGESTION, composed chiefly of METHANE and carbon dioxide.

F - bio-gaz
S - biogas
BIOGAS DIGESTER[edit | edit source]

(biocon). An airtight vessel in which ANAEROBIC DIGESTION takes place and from which METHANE may be drawn off.

F - digesteur de bio-gaz
S - digestor de biogas
BIOGAS GENERATOR[edit | edit source]

(biocon). (See: BIOGAS DIGESTER)

F - generateur de bio-gaz
S - generador de biogas
BIOGAS PLANT[edit | edit source]

(biocon). (See: BIOGAS DIGESTER)

F - reacteur de bio-gaz
S - planta de biogas

(biocon). The use of BIOMASS to convert one form of ENERGY into another.

F - conversion biologique de l'energie
S - conversion biologica de energia
BIOMASS[edit | edit source]

(bio). Plants and plant materials, trees, crop residues, wood and bark residues, and animal manures. Any ORGANIC MATTER that can be used in BIOCONVERSION processes.

F - biomasse
S - biomasa
BIOMASS ENERGY[edit | edit source]

(biocon). The ENERGY that is released from BIOMASS when it is eaten, burned, or otherwise used as or converted into fuel.

F - energie de la biomasse
S - energia de biomasa
BIOMASS FEEDSTOCK[edit | edit source]

(biocon). The ORGANIC MATTER used to produce ENERGY PRODUCTS through BIOCONVERSION.

F - biomasse d'alimentation
S - alimento seco de la biomasa
BIOMASS FUELS[edit | edit source]

(biocon). Fuels, such as METHANE, produced from BIOMASS.

F - combustibles de la biomasse
S - combustibles de biomasa
BIOMASS YIELD[edit | edit source]

(biocon) (meas). The amount of BIOMASS that can be produced in a given areA. It usually is expressed in weight units per area measurement per unit of time.

F - production de biomasse
S - produccion de biomasa
BIOMONITORING[edit | edit source]

(biocon (meas). A pollution-control method in which living organisms are used to test the EFFLUENT from a DIGESTER to determine whether it is safe to discharge the effluent into a body of water. It may also be used to test the quality of waters downstream from a digester discharge point.

F - controle biologique
S - biocontrol
BITUMEN[edit | edit source]

(fos). Any naturally-occurring hydrocarbon, especially solid hydrocarbons such as asphalt, wax, pitch, and Gilsonite.

F - bitume
S - bitumen
BLACKBODY[edit | edit source]

(sol). A surface that completely absorbs all SOLAR RADIATION that strikes it.

F - corps noir
S - cuerpo negro
BLADE[edit | edit source]

(hydr) (impl) (wind). [1] The curved surface of certain types of WATER TURBINES (i.e., CROSS-FLOW TURBINES). Water striking the blades causes the turbine to rotate. Some turbines, such as the PELTON WHEEL, have cups instead of blades. [2] A single, extended surface of a WINDMILL ROTOR.

F - [1] aube; [2] pale
S - [1] paleta; [2] aspa
BLADE ANGLE]] [1][edit | edit source]

(wind). The angle of a CHORD of a WINDMILL BLADE with the ROTOR plane of rotation. [2] (hydr). The INCIDENT ANGLE of a TURBINE BLADE.

F - [1] angle de pale; [2] angle d'aube
S - [1] angulo del aspa; [2] angulo de la paleta
BORE HOLE[edit | edit source]

(gen). A deep, vertical hole in the earth. Usually used to describe a well.

F - trou de sondage
S - pozo de sondeo
BRACE SOLAR STEAM COOKER[edit | edit source]


F - rechaud a vapeur solaire Brace
S - portahornillo de vapor solar Brace
BRAKE[edit | edit source]

(gen). A device used to slow or stop motion, especially by contact friction.

F - frein
S - freno
Brazing|BRAZING[edit | edit source]

(gen). A process by which two pieces of metal are joined using a nonferrous alloy with a lower melting point than either of the two metals being joined.

F - brasage
S - soldadura con laton
BREAST BEAM[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). The main lateral beam below the WIND SHAFT.

F - poutrelle maitresse
S - viga de costado
BREAST WHEEL[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A sophisticated type of WATER WHEEL into which water enters below the top of the wheel and is kept in the BUCKETS until being discharged at or near the lowest point on the wheel. Breast wheels generally operate best with HEADS amounting to less than the diameter of the wheel. High breast wheels (where the water enters above the center shaft) can approach 65 percent ENERGY CONVERSION EFFICIENCY. (Syn: breast-shot wheel)

F - roue de poitrine
S - rueda de costado
BREEZE[edit | edit source]

(wind). In general, any light to moderate wind. (See also: BEAUFORT SCALE)

F - brise
S - brisa
S DRIED GRAIN[edit | edit source]

(alc). (See: DISTILLER'S GRAIN).

F - grains secs de brasserie
S - grano seco de destilacion
BREWING MASH[edit | edit source]

(alc). Crushed or ground FEEDSTOCK mixed with warm water in preparation for FERMENTATION during the production of ETHANOL.

F - mout de brassage
S - mosto
BRINE[edit | edit source]

(refrig). A heavy SALT solution used in REFRIGERATION.

F - saumure
S - salmuera
BRIQUETTE[edit | edit source]

(fos). A type of fuel that has been finely ground and compressed in pressure molds. It is usually made from low-grade coal, coke, CHARCOAL, or BIOMASS, and is mixed with a binder such as STARCH, tar, cement, pitch, or asphalt.

F - briquette
S - briqueta
BRITISH THERMAL UNIT[edit | edit source]

(heat) (meas). The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree FAHRENHEIT under stated conditions of temperature and pressure. It is a standard unit for measuring quantity of HEAT ENERGY. Generally abbreviated as BTU.

F - British thermal unit
S - unidad termica britanica
BUBBLE CAP[edit | edit source]

(alc). A perforated cap on the plates of a DISTILLATION COLUMN, used to ensure that the vapor and condensed liquid mix thoroughly.

F - cloche de barbotage
S - casquete de burbujeo
BUBBLE CHAMBER[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A safety device attached to a BIOGAS DIGESTER to ensure that the gas is free of air, since an air and gas mixture would be explosive. The gas is "bubbled" through a container of water before being used or stored. If LIMEWATER is used instead of water, the bubble chamber can also be used to SCRUB the gas. In addition, the bubble chamber serves as a SPARK ARRESTER.

F - chambre a bulles
S - camara de burbujas
BUCKET[edit | edit source]

(hydr). Cup-shaped containers or BLADES attached to a WATER WHEEL.

F - auget
S - cangilon
BUCKET ANGLE[edit | edit source]


F - angle d'auget
S - angulo de los cangilones
BUCKET CHAIN[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A chain loop with BUCKETS attached to it at regular intervals. The chain runs over sprocket wheels. As each bucket passes by a water source, water fills the bucket, providing POWER and propelling the chain further along.

F - noria a godets
S - transportador de cangilones
BUFFER CAPACITY[edit | edit source]

(biocon) (chem). The capacity of a solution to resist pH (POTENTIAL HYDROGEN) changes when small amounts of ACID or ALKALI are added. In the case of DIGESTED SLUDGE, the ammonium and bicarbonate ions are mainly responsible for buffering.

F - pouvoir tampon
S - capacidad amortiguadora
BUTANOL[edit | edit source]

(alc). (See: BUTYL ALCOHOL).

F - butanol
S - butanol
BUTYL ALCOHOL[edit | edit source]

(alc) (chem). An ALCOHOL obtained by the FERMENTATION of sugar or cornstarch. The chemical equivalent of butyl alcohol is C4H9OH. (Syn: butanol)

F - alcool butylique
S - alcohol butilico

C[edit | edit source]

C[edit | edit source]

(meas). Abbreviation for CELSIUS.

F - C
S - C
CALCIUM HYDROXIDE[edit | edit source]

(biocon) (chem). A solution that is often used in BUBBLE CHAMBERS to SCRUB BIOGAS. It is commonly known as LIMEWATER.

F - hydrate de calcium
S - hidroxido de calcio
CALORIE[edit | edit source]

(gen). The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree CELSIUS at ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE.

F - calorie [1]
S - caloria
CAM[edit | edit source]

(gen). An eccentric projection on a revolving shaft, shaped to produce variable or reciprocating motion in another contacted or engaged part.

F - came
S - leva
CANAL[edit | edit source]

(gen) (hydr). An artificial watercourse uniting rivers, lakes, or seas for purposes of inland navigation, irrigation, or conveyance of water to a HYDROPOWER device.

F - canal
S - canal
CANISTER[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). A piece of metal placed at the outer end of a ROTOR SPAR to hold the SAIL in place.

F - douille
S - chapa de fijacion
CAP[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). The revolving top of a TOWER MILL or SMOCK MILL.

F - calotte
S - cumbrera
CAPACITY FACTOR[edit | edit source]

(elec) (meas). The total KILOWATT HOURS of ENERGY consumed divided by the total KILOWATTS produced by an electricity-generating plant. Generally calculated on an annual basis.

F - facteur de capacite
S - factor de capacidad
CAPACITY OF THE WIND[edit | edit source]

(wind) (meas). The total amount of dirt and dust particles of a given kind that can be sustained per unit volume of air by a wind of a given velocity.

F - capacite du vent
S - capacidad del viento
CARBOHYDRATE[edit | edit source]

(alc) (chem). Sugars, STARCHES, CELLULOSE, and other similar compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen only. Carbohydrates are excellent FEEDSTOCK for an ALCOHOL STILL.

F - hydrates de carbone
S - carbohidrato
CARBON-TO-NITROGEN RATIO[edit | edit source]

(biocon). The proportion of carbon to nitrogen in the material being placed in a BIOGAS DIGESTER. This ratio is important for maintaining biogas production. 25:1 is the optimal C/N ratio.

Material Nitrogen Carbon-Nitrogen
Name Content Ratio
Cow dung 1.7% 25 to 1
Poultry manure 6.3% No carbon
Grass 4.0% 12 to 1
Sheep manure 3.75% No carbon
Urine 15-18% 8 to 1
Wheat straw 0.3% 128 to 1
Potato tops 1.5% 25 to 1
Tomato 3.3% 128 to 1
F - rapport carbone-azote
S - proporcion de carbon a nitrogeno
CARBURETOR[edit | edit source]

(auto). A device for mixing and controlling the amount of air and fuel supplied to a gasoline engine.

F - carburateur
S - carburador
CASING[edit | edit source]

(sol). The framework housing the components of a FLAT-PLATE COLLECTOR. It is generally made of metal and lined with material for THERMAL insulation. Inlet and outlet openings are provided.

F - enveloppe
S - envoltura
CATCHMENT APRON[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A projecting slope on the downstream side of a SLUICE or dam, which is provided to withstand the force of falling water.

F - pente de captage
S - plataforma colectora
CELL[edit | edit source]

(elec). A device that generates electricity, traditionally consisting of two plates or conducting surfaces placed in an electrolytic FLUID.

F - element
S - celula
CELLULASE[edit | edit source]

(bio) (alc). Any of several ENZYMES found in FUNGI, BACTERIA, and lower animals that cause CELLULOSE to break down in water. These enzymes are needed for ALCOHOL DISTILLATION.

F - cellulase
S - celulase
CELLULOSE[edit | edit source]

(chem) (alc). The main POLYSACCHARIDE in living plants. Cellulose forms the skeletal structure of plant cell walls and can be HYDROLYZED to form GLUCOSE.

F - cellulose
S - celulosa
CELLULOSIC BIOMASS[edit | edit source]

(biocon). BIOMASS that contains vegetable matter.

F - biomasse cellulosique
S - biomasa celulosica
CELSIUS[edit | edit source]

(meas). The international temperature scale in which water freezes at 0 [degrees] and boils at 100 [degrees]. To convert from degrees Celsius to degrees FAHRENHEIT, multiply the temperature in degrees Celsius by 9/5 (or 1.8) and add 32. To convert from degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius, subtract 32 from the Fahrenheit temperature and then multiply by 5/9. Abbreviated as C. (Syn: centigrade)

F - Celsius
S - Celsio
CENTIGRADE[edit | edit source]

(meas). (See: CELSIUS).

F - centigrade
S - centigrado
CENTRIFUGAL FORCE[edit | edit source]

(gen). The inertial force repelling a body away from the center of the curvature of a curved path along which it is moving, or away from the AXIS around which it rotates. The opposite of CENTRIPETAL FORCE.

F - force centrifuge
S - centrifuga, fuerza
CENTRIPETAL FORCE[edit | edit source]

(gen). A force attracting a body toward the center of the curvature of a curved path along which it is moving, or toward the AXIS around which it rotates. The apposite of CENTRIFUGAL FORCE.

F - force centripete
S - centripeta , fuerza
CHALK ADOBE[edit | edit source]

(constr). A method of making ADOBE bricks in which chalk is added to the clay, straw, and water. Chalk adobe is useful as a THERMAL MASS.

F - adobe a la chaux
S - mezcla de adobe y creta
CHANNEL[edit | edit source]

(hydr). The bed of a stream or waterway. (See also: CANAL)

F - chenal [1]
S - cauce
CHARCOAL[edit | edit source]

(fos) (gen). A dark-colored or black porous form of CARBON made from vegetable or animal substances. Charcoal commonly is made by charring wood in a KILN or RETORT from which air is partially excluded. It is used for FUEL, and in various mechanical, artistic, and chemical processes. By using DISTILLATION and retorts to produce charcoal, several valuable products can be collected that would otherwise be lost, including COMBUSTIBLE GASES, CREOSOTE OIL, METHANOL, soluble tar, and combustible pitch.

F - charbon de bois
S - carbon
CHARCOAL GAS[edit | edit source]

(prod). (See: PRODUCER GAS)

F - gaz de charbon de bois
S - gas de carbon
CHIMNEY[edit | edit source]

(constr). A vertical passage or FLUE through which smoke and gases escape from a stove or fireplace.

F - cheminee
S - chimenea
CHIMNEY CAP[edit | edit source]

(constr). A cone, usually made of sheet metal, placed pointed end up slightly above the top of a CHIMNEY. It prevents rain and debris from falling into the chimney.

F - mitre
S - sombrerete de chimenea
CHINESE-TYPE DIGESTER[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A BIOGAS DIGESTER that is primarily designed to produce fertilizer. Usually a FIXED-DOME DIGESTER.

F - digesteur type chinois
S - digestor de tipo chino
CHORD[edit | edit source]

(wind). The distance from the LEADING EDGE to the TRAILING EDGE of an AIRFOIL. The term refers to WINDMILL BLADE design.

F - profondeur de l'aile
S - profundidad del aspa
CHULA[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A small, wood-burning stove, usually made of mud, clay, brick, or metal. The term is widely used in South Asia.

F - chula
S - chula


F - capteur circulaire a concentration
S - colector circular de enfoque
CISTERN[edit | edit source]

(hydr). An artificial reservoir or watertight tank for storing water or other liquids.

F - citerne
S - cisterna
CLAMPS[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). Wooden splints bolted to the sides of the STOCKS, locking the SAIL assembly in the POLL END.

F - eclisses
S - prensas
CLEARNESS INDEX[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). A SOLAR ENERGY concept introduced to express the ratio of a particular hour, day, or month's SOLAR RADIATION on a horizontal surface to the EXTRATERRESTRIAL SOLAR RADIATION on that same surface for the same period of time. It is useful in calculating DIFFUSE RADIATION and RADIATION falling on a tilted surface.

F - indice de clarte
S - indice de claridad
CLERESTORY[edit | edit source]

(sol). A vertical window that is placed high in a wall near the eaves for light, HEAT GAIN, and ventilation.

F - lanterneau
S - claraboya
CLOSED-LOOP SYSTEM[edit | edit source]

(sol). A SOLAR HEATING system in which distilled water, antifreeze, and/or corrosion inhibitors are circulated through the COLLECTORS and storage tanks in a closed loop. Heat picked up from the collectors by the circulating FLUIDS is transferred to the water in the storage tanks through the closed loop or other HEAT EXCHANGERS.

F - circuit ferme, systeme de
S - sistema de ciclo cerrado
C/N[edit | edit source]


F - C/N
S - C/N
COAL GASIFICATION[edit | edit source]

(prod). The combustion of coal to form a gas suitable for use as a fuel. This is usually done in a PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR.

F - gazeification du charbon
S - gasificacion del carbon
COB ADOBE[edit | edit source]

(constr). A type of ADOBE in which corn cobs are added to clay, water, and straw. Adobe bricks are reinforced by this addition of cobs during the brick-making process. Cob adobe is a useful THERMAL MASS.

F - adobe a la rafle de mais
S - mezcla de paja, arcilla, agua y mazorcas
COLLECTION[edit | edit source]

(sol). The act of trapping SOLAR RADIATION.

F - captation
S - captacion
COLLECTOR[edit | edit source]

(sol). A device to trap SOLAR RADIATION and convert it into usable heat. The term collector frequently refers to an insulated frame containing a panel made from an ABSORBER PLATE and GLAZING. More broadly, a well-designed building with windows facing the equator may also be considered a collector, as can other solar devices that capture SOLAR RADIATION in the form of heat.

F - capteur
S - colector
COLLECTOR EFFICIENCY[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). The ratio of SOLAR ENERGY absorbed by a COLLECTOR to the RADIANT ENERGY falling on the collector.

F - rendement d'un collecteur
S - eficiencia del colector

(sol) (meas). An index that indicates how much useful SOLAR ENERGY is lost during the exchange of heat from the COLLECTOR to the storage tank in LIQUID-BASED SOLAR HEATING SYSTEMS.

F - coefficient de correction capteur-echangeur de chaleur
S - factor de correccion del colector/termopermutador

(sol) (meas). The ratio of actual useful HEAT GAIN of a FLAT-PLATE SOLAR COLLECTOR to the heat gain if the entire COLLECTOR PLATE were at the same temperature as the inlet FLUID.

F - coefficient de rendement capteur-echangeur de chaleur
S - factor de eficiencia del colector-termoextractor
COLLECTOR PLATE[edit | edit source]

(sol). A metal sheet in a SOLAR COLLECTOR whose primary function is to absorb as much as possible of the SOLAR RADIATION reaching it through the GLAZING, while losing as little heat as possible as it transfers the retained heat to the HEAT TRANSFER MEDIUM.

F - plaque collectrice
S - placa colectora
COLLECTOR TILT ANGLE[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). The angle between the plane of the horizon and the surface of a SOLAR COLLECTOR, generally used to maximize the COLLECTION of SOLAR RADIATION.

F - inclinaison d'un capteur
S - angulo de inclinacion del colector
COMBUSTIBLE GAS[edit | edit source]

(biocon) (prod). Gas that will burn. This includes BIOGAS, PRODUCER GAS, and other VOLATILE FLUIDS.

F - gaz combustible
S - gas combustible
COMBUSTION CHAMBER[edit | edit source]

(heat). The place in a stove where fuel is burned.

F - chambre de combustion
S - camara de combustion
COMBUSTION ZONE[edit | edit source]

(prod). The section in a PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR in which the FEEDSTOCK is burned.

F - zone de combustion
S - zona de combustion
COMMON SAIL[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). A WINDMILL SAIL that is covered with a canvas cloth.

F - aile de moulin
S - aspa comun
COMPOSTED SLUDGE[edit | edit source]

(biocon). SLUDGE that has been rendered relatively PATHOGEN-free through COMPOSTING. It generally can be used safely as fertilizer.

F - boues compostees
S - composte de lodos cloacales
COMPOSTING[edit | edit source]

(biocon). AEROBIC DECOMPOSITION of ORGANIC MATTER. The resulting material is used as a fertilizer.

F - compostage
S - composte

(sol). A type of SOLAR COLLECTOR using parabolic REFLECTORS.

F - capteur parabolique compose
S - colector parabolico compuesto

(sol). A SOLAR COLLECTOR that uses REFLECTORS to concentrate DIRECT RADIATION from the sun onto a narrow ABSORBER PLATE to produce intense heat.

F - capteur a concentration
S - colector concentrador

(sol). A series of lenses or mirrors used to concentrate SOLAR RADIATION onto PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS, which convert the sunlight into electricity. The concentrated sunlight increases the output of each cell, thus reducing the total number of cells required to produce a given amount of electricity. (See also: PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAY)

F - groupe photovoltaique de concentration
S - conjunto concentrador fotovoltaico


F - capteur thermique a concentration
S - colector termico concentrador
CONCENTRATION[edit | edit source]

(gen). The amount of a substance contained in a FLUID per unit volume.

F - concentration
S - concentracion
CONDENSER[edit | edit source]

(gen) (impl). A device used to change a vapor into a liquid. This can be done either by exposing to air a tube that contains vapor, or by passing the tube through a WATER JACKET.

F - condenseur
S - condensador
CONDUCTION[edit | edit source]

(heat). Heat transfer from direct contact between a hot body and a cold body.

F - conduction
S - conduccion
CONING[edit | edit source]

(wind). The practice of tilting up the WIND SHAFT of a WIND MACHINE at a small angle.

F - fuseler
S - movimiento de la pala
CONTINUOUS DIGESTION[edit | edit source]

(biocon). The continuous feeding of BIOMASS into a BIOGAS DIGESTER, with the removal of an equivalent volume of EFFLUENT. The process is usually started with the addition of a SEED. It may take several DETENTION TIMES before the process becomes steady. For many purposes, this is a more EFFICIENT and convenient process than BATCH DIGESTION. Processes involving daily addition and removal are more properly described as semi-continuous.

F - digestion en continu
S - digestion continua
CONTINUOUS FLOW DIGESTER[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A DIGESTER into which BIOMASS may be loaded and gas and EFFLUENT recovered without discontinuing digestion.

F - digesteur a flux continu
S - digestor de circulacion continua
CONTINUOUS PROCESSING[edit | edit source]


F - traitement en continu
S - proceso continuo
CONTINUOUS STILL[edit | edit source]

(alc). An ALCOHOL STILL into which MASH may be loaded and ALCOHOL recovered without discontinuing alcohol production.

F - alambic a distillation continue
S - alambique continuo

(fos). An atmosphere in which oil or natural gas is burned with just enough oxygen to prevent all the carbon from being consumed. The recovered carbon may be used as a fuel.

F - atmosphere a combustion controlee
S - atmosfera de combustion controlada
CONVECTION[edit | edit source]

(heat). The transfer of heat between one location or surface and another by the motion of a heat-carrying FLUID. Also, the transfer of heat within a fluid by movements within the fluid.

F - convection
S - conveccion
CONVECTION AIR COOLER[edit | edit source]

(refrig). A non-electric cooler that depends on the natural circulation of air.

F - refroidisseur par convection d'air
S - enfriador de aire por conveccion
CONVERSION PROCESS[edit | edit source]

(gen). A process through which ENERGY is converted from one form to another, such as RADIANT ENERGY into heat or electric energy.

F - conversion
S - proceso de conversion
COOKER[edit | edit source]

(alc). A heated tank with an AGITATOR that heats the MASH as part of the ALCOHOL production process.

F - chaudiere de cuisson
S - caldera de coccion
COOKING[edit | edit source]

(alc). A heating and stirring process that breaks down STARCH granules, thus making the starch available for the liquefaction and SACCHARIFICATION steps of the ALCOHOL manufacturing process.

F - cuisson
S - coccion
COOK STOVE[edit | edit source]

(biocon). An apparatus in which fuel is burned to produce heat for cooking.

F - cuisiniere
S - estufa
CO-PRODUCT[edit | edit source]

(alc). Substances resulting from the production of ETHANOL by FERMENTATION.

F - coproduit
S - coproducto

(sol). A type of SOLAR COLLECTOR that uses a corrugated metal as its ABSORBER PLATE. The metal is usually painted with FLAT BLACK PAINT.

F - capteur solaire en tole ondulee
S - colector solar de metal corrugado
COVER[edit | edit source]

(sol). (See: GLAZING)

F - revetement
S - revestimiento
COVER PLATE[edit | edit source]

(sol). The transparent material placed over a COLLECTOR-ABSORBER PLATE so that heat loss to the atmosphere is reduced and a greater fraction of the SOLAR RADIATION is collected as useable heat.

F - plaque de couverture
S - placa revestidora
CREOSOTE OIL[edit | edit source]

(gen). A by-product from CHARCOAL production by DISTILLATION. It may be used as a preservative to protect wood from termites, moisture, etc.

F - huile de creosote
S - aceite de creosota
CRETAN SAIL WINDMILL[edit | edit source]

(wind). (See: CRETAN WINDMILL)

F - moulin a ailes cretois
S - molino de viento con aspas cretanas
CRETAN WINDMILL[edit | edit source]

(wind). A type of HORIZONTAL AXIS SAIL ROTOR WINDMILL generally having four fixed, triangular SAILS. Cretan windmills are used primarily for low-lift water pumping.

F - moulin a vent cretois
S - molino de viento cretano
CROSS[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). A cruciform iron support for the sail assembly, used as an alternative to the POLL END.

F - croix
S - aspa de hierro
CROSS-FLOW TURBINE[edit | edit source]

(hydr). (See: BANKI TURBINE)

F - turbine a ecoulement radial
S - turbina con rodete de tambor
CROSSWIND[edit | edit source]

(wind). Winds blowing crosswise to the direction of the wind stream.

F - vent de travers
S - viento de costado
CULTURE[edit | edit source]

(bio). A preparation containing micro-organisms that are growing on a medium.

F - bouillon de culture
S - cultivo
CUP ANEMOMETER[edit | edit source]

(wind) (meas). An ANEMOMETER with three or four cups that rotate with the wind to measure wind speed.

F - anemometre a coquilles
S - anemometro de tazas
CUPS[edit | edit source]

(hydr). Bowl shaped BLADES found on PELTON WHEELS and other types of IMPULSE TURBINES.

F - godets
S - tazas
CURB[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). In SMOCK MILLS and TOWER MILLS, the circular timber rim or wall plate supporting the revolving cap.

F - chemin de glissement
S - apoyo circular
CURRENT[edit | edit source]

(elec). The FLOW of electrons through a conductor.

F - courant
S - corriente
CUT-IN SPEED[edit | edit source]

(wind). The WIND VELOCITY at which a WIND MACHINE is activated.

F - vitesse d'enclenchement
S - velocidad de accionamiento
CUT-OUT SPEED[edit | edit source]

(wind). The WIND VELOCITY at which a WIND MACHINE turns out of the wind. (See also: BATTERY CUT-OUT)

F - vitesse de disjonction
S - velocidad de interrupcion
CYLINDER[edit | edit source]

(hydr). In hydraulic systems, a short, hollow metal tube containing a piston, piston rod, and end seals, and fitted with a system to allow the entrance and exit of FLUIDS.

F - cylindre
S - cilindro

D[edit | edit source]

DAM[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A structure that detains the FLOW of water in an open CHANNEL or watercourse. POWER dams raise the level of streams or rivers to create or concentrate HEAD for power purposes.

F - barrage
S - represa
DAMPER[edit | edit source]

(heat). A movable plate or other device for regulating the air-FLOW and burning rate in a stove. It is often located either inside the stove or in the FLUE pipe.

F - registre
S - regulador de tiro
DARRIEUS ROTOR WINDMILL[edit | edit source]

(wind). A VERTICAL AXIS WIND MACHINE that has long, thin, loop-shaped BLADES connected at the top and bottom of the WIND SHAFT.

F - eolienne a rotor de Darrieus
S - molino de viento de rotor Darrieus
DC[edit | edit source]

(elec). Abbreviation for DIRECT CURRENT.

F - CC
S - C.C.
DDG[edit | edit source]


S - G.S.D.
DDGS[edit | edit source]


F - G.S.B.S.
S - G.S.D.S.
DEAD AIR SPACE[edit | edit source]

(constr) (sol). An empty area within the walls of a building in which the air remains motionless and acts as insulation. Dead air space may be included in a SOLAR COLLECTOR between the ABSORBER PLATE and the GLAZING, between glazings, and in the CASING.

F - espace d'air inerte
S - espacio de aire no renovado
DEAD CURB[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). A ledge supporting the CAP of a WINDMILL without the interposition of WHEELS or ROLLERS.

F - chemin dormant
S - reborde
DEADMAN[edit | edit source]

(wind). A log or a mass of concrete or steel buried in the ground, to which GUY WIRES for supporting towers and poles are attached.

F - point fixe d'ammarage
S - macizo de anclaje
DECOMPOSITION[edit | edit source]

(bio) (chem). Decay of ORGANIC MATTER due to the action of BACTERIA. Also the separation of a substance into its component parts by chemical action.

F - decomposition
S - descomposicion
DEEP CYCLE BATTERY[edit | edit source]

(elec) (wind). A BATTERY that can be fully charged and discharged without shortening its life. They are often used with WIND GENERATORS.

F - batterie a cycle profond
S - bateria de gran ciclo
DEGREE DAY COOLING[edit | edit source]

(gen) (meas). A measurement used to evaluate the summer cooling requirements of a given location. Each degree that the daily temperature is above 75 [degrees] F (24 [degrees] C), one cooling degree day is counted.

F - degre-jour de refroidissement
S - enfriamiento de grado-dia
DEGREE DAY HEATING[edit | edit source]

(gen) (meas). A measurement used to determine the winter heating requirements of a given location. Each degree that the daily temperature is below 65 [degrees] F (19 [degrees] C) is a heating degree day.

F - degre-jour de chauffage
S - calefaccion de grado-dia
DEHYDRATION[edit | edit source]

(gen). The removal of moisture from a substance.

F - deshydratation
S - deshidratacion
DENATURE[edit | edit source]

(alc). The process of adding a substance, often METHANOL, to ETHANOL to make it unfit for human consumption.

F - denaturer
S - desnaturalizar
DEPHLEGMATOR[edit | edit source]

(alc). (See: ALCOHOL STILL)

F - deflegmateur
S - desflegmador
DESIGN HEAT LOAD[edit | edit source]

(heat) (meas). The total heat loss from a building during the most severe winter conditions the building is likely to experience.

F - charge thermique nominale
S - carga de calefaccion prevista
DESSICANT[edit | edit source]

(gen). A substance with an affinity for water, used for drying purposes.

F - dessiccatif
S - desecante

(alc) (gen). The heating, DECOMPOSITION, and subsequent DISTILLATION of FLUIDS from ORGANIC MATTER (e.g., METHANOL production from wood).

F - distillation destructive
S - destilacion destructora
DETENTION TIME[edit | edit source]

(biocon) (meas). The amount of time that incoming material is retained in a BIOGAS DIGESTER.

F - temps de retention
S - periodo de detencion
DIFFUSED RADIATION[edit | edit source]

(sol). Indirect, scattered sunlight, which casts no shadow. It is the opposite of DIRECT RADIATION.

F - rayonnement diffus
S - radiacion difusa
DIFFUSION[edit | edit source]

(chem). The process by which a substance of a greater CONCENTRATION mixes with a substance of a lesser concentration to produce a uniform mixture.

F - diffusion
S - difusion
DIGESTED SLUDGE[edit | edit source]

(biocon). The residue remaining after DIGESTION. Digested sludge contains some UNDIGESTED SOLIDS and stabilized ORGANIC MATTER.

F - boues digerees
S - sedimento digerido
DIGESTED SLURRY[edit | edit source]

(biocon). (See: DIGESTED SLUDGE)

F - boue digeree
S - fango digerido
DIGESTER[edit | edit source]

(biocon). The tank in which ANAEROBIC DIGESTION takes place.

F - digesteur
S - digestor
DIGESTER TANK[edit | edit source]

(bio). The reservoir area in a BIOGAS DIGESTER in which DIGESTION of ORGANIC MATTER takes place. It usually has some gas holding capacity, and provides For the collection and removal of SCUM and SLUDGE.

F - reservoir digesteur
S - tanque digestor
DIGESTION[edit | edit source]

(biocon). The process by which ORGANIC MATTER is decomposed by the action of ANAEROBIC BACTERIA, producing METHANE and high-grade fertilizer.

F - digestion
S - digestion
DILUTION RATE[edit | edit source]

(biocon) (meas). The frequency with which water is added to a BIOGAS DIGESTER.

F - taux de dilution
S - tasa de dilucion
DIRECT CONVERSION[edit | edit source]

(sol). The transformation of sunlight to electricity without an intervening thermodynamic cycle.

F - conversion directe
S - conversion directa
DIRECT CURRENT[edit | edit source]

(elec). A continuous, one-directional FLOW of electricity, such as that from a BATTERY. Commonly abbreviated as dc.

F - courant continu
S - corriente continua
DIRECT GAIN SYSTEM[edit | edit source]


F - gain direct, systeme de
S - sistema de ganancia directa

(sol). SOLAR HEATING techniques in which SOLAR RADIATION enters a building through windows and SKYLIGHTS and is trapped inside to warm a room.

F - chauffage solaire direct
S - metodos directos de calefaccion solar
DIRECT RADIATION[edit | edit source]

(sol). Sunlight that has traveled a straight path from the sun. It is the opposite of DIFFUSED RADIATION.

F - rayonnement direct
S - radiacion directa
DIRECT SOLAR ENERGY[edit | edit source]

(sol). ENERGY acquired From conversion of DIRECT RADIATION.

F - energie solaire directe
S - energia solar directa
DIRECT SOLAR GAIN[edit | edit source]

(sol). A PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING system in which SOLAR RADIATION passes through and warms a room in a dwelling before being stored in THERMAL MASS for longterm heating.

F - apport solaire direct
S - ganancia solar directa
DISCHARGE PIPE[edit | edit source]

(hydr) (biocon). [1] The pipe through which water exits from a WATER TURBINE. [2] The outlet for EFFLUENT from a BIOGAS DIGESTER.

F - [1] tube de decharge; [2] tuyau d'evacuation
S - tubo de descarga
DISTILLATE[edit | edit source]

(alc). The portion of a liquid that is removed from a solid or semisolid as a vapor and CONDENSED during the DISTILLATION process. ETHANOL is a distillate of FERMENTED MASH. (See also: SOLAR DISTILLATE)

F - distillat
S - destilado
DISTILLATION[edit | edit source]

(alc). An evaporation and recondensation process by which liquids are separated into various fractions according to their boiling points. ETHANOL is separated by distillation from MASH and water.

F - distillation
S - destilacion
DISTILLATION COLUMN[edit | edit source]

(alc). (See: STILL COLUMN)

F - colonne de distillation
S - columna de destilacion
S DRIED GRAIN[edit | edit source]


F - grains secs de brasserie


S - grano seco de destilacion


S GRAIN[edit | edit source]

(alc). A by-product of ETHANOL production. Once ethanol has been driven from the MASH in an ALCOHOL STILL, the remaining solids are known as distiller's grain. When dried, these grains can be used as high protein animal feed. The dried distiller's grain commonly is abbreviated as DDG. (Syn: BREWER'S DRIED GRAIN)

F - grains de distillerie
S - grano de destilacion
S MASH[edit | edit source]

(alc). (See: SPENT MASH)

F - mout de distillateur
S - mezcla de destilacion
DOUBLE CHAMBER[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A type of BIOGAS DIGESTER in which the GASHOLDER is separate from the DIGESTER TANK.

F - chambre double
S - camara doble
DOUBLE-GLAZING[edit | edit source]

(sol). [1] A cover for a SOLAR COLLECTOR that is made from two layers of GLAZING materials. [2] Double-glass windows designed to serve as insulation for buildings.

F - [1] vitre double; [2] double vitrage
S - vidriado doble
DOUBLE-SHUTTERED[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). PATENT SAILS or SPRING SAILS fitted with SHUTTERS on both sides of the WHIP.

F - double volets, a
S - doble postigo
DOWNCOMER[edit | edit source]

(alc) (impl). A component of an ALCOHOL STILL. When water is separated from ALCOHOL during DISTILLATION, the water falls toward the bottom of the STILL COLUMN through a pipe called a downcomer.

F - deversoir
S - tubo de descenso
DOWNDRAFT[edit | edit source]

(gen) (prod). [1] A type of PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR in which air and gas FLOWS from the top of the COMBUSTION ZONE down through to the bottom. [2] KILNS or other types of ovens and stoves in which CONVECTION or combustion air flows down through the device.

F - [1] tirage en bas; [2] tirage inverse
S - corriente descendiente
DOWNWIND[edit | edit source]

(wind). On the side opposite the WIND DIRECTION.

F - sous le vent
S - con el viento
DRAFT[edit | edit source]

(heat). The FLOW of air through a KILN, stove, oven, fireplace, PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR, etc. Draft affects both temperature and rate of combustion.

F - tirage
S - tiro de aire
DRAG[edit | edit source]

(wind). An aerodynamic force that retards the motion of lift-type ROTOR blades, or that causes BLADE motion in DRAG-TYPE WIND MACHINES.

F - trainee
S - resistencia aerodinamica
DRAG-TYPE SYSTEM[edit | edit source]

(wind). WIND MACHINES that are actuated by aerodynamic DRAG in a WIND STREAM (e.g., SAVONIUS ROTOR).

F - type a trainee, systeme du
S - sistema del tipo de arrastre
DRAG-TYPE WIND MACHINE[edit | edit source]

(wind). A WIND MACHINE that rotates by being pushed by the wind instead of by being driven by LIFT forces. This is generally a slow-moving device.

F - eolienne a trainee
S - aerogenerador del tipo de arrastre
DRAIN DOWN SOLAR COLLECTOR[edit | edit source]

(sol). A SOLAR COLLECTOR that will automatically drain itself to protect against freezing.

F - capteur solaire a evacuation automatique
S - colector solar con drenaje
DRY BIOMASS[edit | edit source]

(gen). Moisture-free BIOMASS. It is valuable because it can be conveniently stored for long periods of time. (See also: DRY ORGANIC WASTE)

F - biomasse seche
S - biomasa seca
DRY-BULB TEMPERATURE[edit | edit source]

(meas). The temperature of air as indicated by a standard thermometer, as contrasted with WET-BULB TEMPERATURE that depends on atmospheric humidity. This measure of AMBIENT temperature is used in designing PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING and SOLAR COOLING systems.

F - temperature au thermometre sec
S - temperatura de bola seca
DRY DIGESTION[edit | edit source]

(biocon). DIGESTION in which more than 10 percent of the SLURRY is solid material.

F - digestion seche
S - digestion seca
DRYING BED[edit | edit source]

(biocon). An area prepared for drying EFFLUENT after it hs been removed from a METHANE DIGESTER. Dried effluent can be used as fertilizer or as animal feed.

F - lit de sechage
S - lecho secador
DRY ORGANIC WASTE[edit | edit source]

(gen). ORGANIC WASTE that is free from moisture. This type of waste can be stored for long periods before being used as a fuel or fertilizer. (See also: DRY BIOMASS)

F - dechets organiques secs
S - desperdicios organicos secos
DRY SLURRY[edit | edit source]

(biocon). SLURRY that is more than 10 percent solid material.

F - boue seche
S - fango seco
DRY STEAM[edit | edit source]

(geo). An ENERGY source obtained when hot water boils in an underground reservoir. As the steam rises, some of it condenses on surrounding rack. The uncondensed steam that reaches the surface is called dry steam, and may be tapped and used in STEAM TURBINES.

F - vapeur seche
S - vapor seco
DUAL-FUEL ENGINE[edit | edit source]

(auto) (gen). A gasoline or diesel engine equipped to operate on an alternative fuel, either alternately or in combination (e.g., gasoline-BIOGAS, diesel-biogas, gasoline-WOOD GAS, diesel-wood gas).

F - moteur polycarburant
S - motor a doble combustible
DUNG[edit | edit source]

(bio). Manure, usually without urine. Dried dung can be burned directly as a fuel or used as a fertilizer.

F - fumier
S - estiercol
DUNG GAS[edit | edit source]

(biocon). (See: BIOGAS)

F - gaz de fumier
S - gas de estiercol
DYNAMO[edit | edit source]

(elec). A device for converting mechanical ENERGY into electrical energy by electromagnetic induction. Dynamos are often adapted to be driven by WINDMILLS. (See also: ALTERNATOR)

F - dynamo
S - dinamo
DYNAPOD[edit | edit source]

(gen) (impl). A pedal-operated POWER source. It is used to drive a variety of machines and devices.

F - dynapod
S - dynapod

E[edit | edit source]

EARTH KILN[edit | edit source]

(heat). A relatively inefficient KILN made by mounding earth over the materials to be burned. Used in traditional CHARCOAL production.

F - meule a charbon de bois
S - horno de tierra
ECCENTRIC WHEEL[edit | edit source]

(gen). A wheel in which the axle is not at the center point, but slightly off-center.

F - roue excentrique
S - rueda excentrica
ECONOMIZER[edit | edit source]

(heat). A HEAT EXCHANGER that recovers heat from FLUE gases and uses it to heat feedwater or combustion air.

F - economiseur
S - economizador
EFFECTIVENESS[edit | edit source]

(heat) (meas). The ratio of actual heat transfer in a HEAT EXCHANGER to the maximum possible heat transfer.

F - efficacite
S - eficacia
EFFICIENCY[edit | edit source]

(gen). The ratio of the ENERGY output to the energy input. Efficiency is usually expressed as a percentage.

F - rendement
S - eficiencia
EFFLUENT[edit | edit source]

(biocon). [1] SLURRY that has been removed from a BIOGAS PLANT. [2] Liquid sewage after having passed through any stage in its purification.

F - effluent
S - efluente
EMISSIVITY[edit | edit source]

(sol). The ratio of RADIANT ENERGY emitted by a body to that emitted by a perfect BLACKBODY. A perfect blackbody has an emissivity of one; a perfect REFLECTOR, an emissivity of zero.

F - emissivite
S - emisividad
EMITTANCE[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). A rating of the ability of a material to give off heat as RADIANT ENERGY.

F - emittance
S - emitancia
ENERGY[edit | edit source]

(gen). The capacity of a body to do work; POWER in action.

F - energie
S - energia

(gen) (meas). The maximum amount of electricity that an electricity-producing device may produce under the best conditions during a given period. ENERGY capability is determined by the mechanical EFFICIENCY of the device.

F - capacite energetique d'un dispositif produisant du courant
S - capacidad energetica de un aparato productor de electricidad
ENERGY CONSERVATION[edit | edit source]

(gen). Practices and measures that increase the EFFICIENCY with which ENERGY is used or produced.

F - conservation de l'energie
S - conservacion de energia
ENERGY CONSUMPTION[edit | edit source]

(gen). The amount of ENERGY consumed in the form in which it is obtained by the user. This term excludes electrical generation and distribution losses. It also is called net energy consumption.

F - consommation d'energie
S - consumo de energia
ENERGY CONVERSION[edit | edit source]

(gen). The act of changing ENERGY from one form to another (e.g., WIND ENERGY to mechanical energy).

Mechanical -> Electrical
Wind Generator 40%
Water Turbine 68-93%
Steam Power Plant 40%
Mechanical -> Mechanical
Windmill 20-30%
Waterwheel 70-85%
Solar -> Thermal
Flat Collector 40-60%
Concentrator 80-90%
Chemical -> Thermal
Wood Combustion Burner 85% maximum
Chemical -> Electrical
Battery 80%


Chemical -> Chemical
Biogas Digester 40-60%
F - conversion de l'energie
S - conversion de energia
ENERGY PATTERN FACTOR[edit | edit source]

(wind). The ratio of the available ENERGY in all of the winds in a particular location over a certain period of time to the energy that would be available if the WIND SPEED over that period of time were constant at the mean wind speed over that period of time.

F - coefficient de diagramme energetique
S - factor energetico del viento
ENERGY PRODUCTS[edit | edit source]

(gen). Fuels that can be used to generate ENERGY. Also, the by-products that result when fuels are produced.

F - combustibles energetiques
S - productos energeticos
ENERGY STORAGE[edit | edit source]

(gen) (meas). The ability to convert ENERGY into other forms, such as heat or a chemical reaction, so that it can be retrieved for later use. Also the development, design, construction, and operation of devices for storing energy until needed. The technology includes devices such as batteries, pumped storage for hydroelectric generation and compressed gas.

F - stockage de l'energie
S - almacenamiento de energia
Storage Medium Storage Efficiency (%) Major Loss Characteristics Cost* Complexity**
SOLAR (Heat) Water 75-90 Leaks (thermal & physical) 2 1
Earth varies Leaks (thermal) 1 1
Rock 60-80 Leaks (thermal) 2 2
Salt Hydrates 75-95 Material Breakdown 3 3
WIND/WATER (Mechanical) Pumped Water 50-70 Evaporation, Friction 1 2
Compressed Air 40-50 Leaks, Friction 2 2
WIND/WATER (Electrical) Battery 70-85 Internal Discharge 3 3
METHANE Tank Leaks 1 2
Tank (compressed) 50-60 3 3
ALCOHOL Tank Leaks, Evaporation 1 1
* Relative Cost 1 = Negligible
2 = Intermediate
** Degree of Mechanical Complexity 3 = Considerable
ENHANCEMENT[edit | edit source]

(sol). Increasing the amount of sunlight transmitted through the GLAZING in a SOLAR COLLECTOR through the use of a REFLECTOR.

F - renforcement
S - intensificacion
ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS[edit | edit source]

(alc). The use of ENZYMES to convert STARCH into simple sugars. This is a stage in the production of ETHANOL.

F - saccharification enzymatique
S - hidrolisis enzimica
ENZYMES[edit | edit source]

(chem) (alc). Organic substances that are produced in the cells of living organisms, and which cause specific chemical changes. Enzymes are produced by BACTERIA or FUNGI and are used in the liquefication and SACCHARIFICATION steps of ALCOHOL production.

F - enzymes
S - enzimas
EOLIAN[edit | edit source]

(wind). Of, relating to, formed by, or deposited by the wind or air currents. (Syn: Aeolian)

F - eolien, eolienne
S - eolico
EQUINOX[edit | edit source]

(sol). Either of two times of year when the sun passes over the celestial equator and when the length of day and night are almost equal.

F - equinoxe
S - equinoccio
ETHANOL[edit | edit source]

(alc). A Flammable organic compound (C[H.sub.3]C[H.sub.2]OH) formed during sugar FERMENTATION. It is also called ethyl alcohol, GRAIN ALCOHOL, or simply ALCOHOL.

F - ethanol
S - etanol
ETHYL ALCOHOL[edit | edit source]

(alc). (See: ETHANOL)

F - alcool ethylique
S - alcohol etilico
EUTECTIC SALTS[edit | edit source]

(heat). Heat storing salts that melt at a relatively low temperature. They absorb large quantities of heat when they do melt. Heat is released when the salts freeze.

F - eutectiques
S - sales eutecticos
EVACUATED TUBE COLLECTOR[edit | edit source]

(sol). A SOLAR COLLECTOR that uses a vacuum to insulate the ABSORBER PLATE. This COLLECTOR is highly EFFICIENT but very expensive.

F - capteur a tube vide
S - colector con tubo vaciado
EVAPORATIVE COOLING[edit | edit source]

(refrig). The exchange of heat from air to a water spray or wet surface through a reversible THERMODYNAMIC process. Air passing through the water is cooled as the water evaporates. The process can be reversed by condensing the vapor on a cool surface.

F - refroidissement par evaporation
S - enfriamiento evaporante
EXCESS AIR[edit | edit source]

(heat). Air that passes through a COMBUSTION ZONE in excess of the quantity theoretically required for complete combustion.

F - exces d'air
S - aire excesivo

(sol) (meas). The amount of SOLAR RADIATION that would strike a surface if that surface were outside the Earth's atmosphere. (See also: CLEARNESS INDEX)

F - rayonnement solaire extraterrestre
S - radiacion solar extraterrestre

F[edit | edit source]

F[edit | edit source]

(meas). Abbreviation for FAHRENHEIT.

F - F
S - F
FAHRENHEIT[edit | edit source]

(meas). The temperature scale in which water freezes at 32 oF and boils at 212 oF. Temperatures of the Fahrenheit scale can be converted to equivalent temperatures on the CELSIUS or Centigrade scale by first subtracting 32 degrees from the Fahrenheit temperature, then multiplying the result by 5/9 according to the formula: [math]\displaystyle{ (F-32) * 5/9 = C }[/math].

F - Fahrenheit
S - Fahrenheit
FALL WIND[edit | edit source]

(wind). A strong, cold, downhill wind.

F - vent catabatique
S - racha de viento
FANTAIL[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). A small, secondary ROTOR set at a right angle to the main ROTOR of a WINDMILL to provide the motive POWER to turn the CAP to face the wind.

F - gouvernail
S - timon
FARM WINDMILL[edit | edit source]

(wind). A multi-BLADED WINDMILL that is based on an Early American design and is used primarily for water pumping.

F - eolienne de ferme
S - molino de viento rural
FEATHER[edit | edit source]

(wind). Turning the SAILS or the ROTOR of a WIND MACHINE out of the wind to protect the device from damage from high WIND VELOCITIES.

F - mettre en drapeau
S - poner en bandolera
FEATHERING MECHANISM[edit | edit source]

(wind) (impl). A mechanism on a WINDMILL that automatically turns the BLADES out of the wind when winds are too strong. This slows the windmill, protecting it from damage in high winds.

F - mecanisme de mise en drapeau
S - mecanismo de puesta en bandolera
FEED[edit | edit source]

(gen). See: FEEDSTOCK)

F - alimentation
S - alimento
FEEDSTOCK[edit | edit source]

(gen). The raw ORGANIC MATTER, such as grain, fruit, DUNG, or other BIOMASS, used as the INFLUENT in the FERMENTATION or DIGESTION processes.

F - charge d'alimentation
S - materia prima organica
FENESTRATION[edit | edit source]

(sol). An opening in a building that admits light and/or air.

F - fenestration
S - ventanaje
FERMENT[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A transformation or DECOMPOSITION of ORGANIC MATTER by the catalytic effect of ENZYMATIC action. To cause or undergo the action of FERMENTATION.

F - fermenter
S - fermentar
FERMENTABLE SUGAR[edit | edit source]


F - sucre fermentable
S - azucar fermentable
FERMENTATION[edit | edit source]

(alc) (chem). [1] A biological sequence of ENZYMATIC reactions that convert sugars to carbon dioxide and ALCOHOL in the absence of FREE OXYGEN. The term generally refers to metabolism in the absence of oxygen. [2] The process by which YEAST changes sugar to ALCOHOL in the absence of air. [3] The process of chemical change in ORGANIC MATTER brought about by living organisms.

F - fermentation
S - fermentacion
FERMENTATION PERIOD[edit | edit source]

(gen) (meas). The length of time required for a substance to FERMENT.

F - duree de fermentation
S - periodo de fermentacion
FERMENTATION TANK[edit | edit source]

(alc). The container in which FERMENTATION takes place in an ETHANOL production operation.

F - cuve de fermentation
S - tanque de fermentacion
FERMENTER[edit | edit source]


F - fermenteur
S - fermentador
FETCH AREA[edit | edit source]

(wind). The geographic area over which the wind passes shortly before reaching a WIND MACHINE. It is considered in the selection of a site for a wind-powered device.

F - portee du vent
S - extension expuesta
FIRE BACK[edit | edit source]

(constr). A metal plate set in a CHIMNEY to control the back DRAFT of flames.

F - contre-feu
S - respaldo refractario
FIREBOX[edit | edit source]

(gen). The area in a stove, oven, or PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR in which combustion occurs.

F - chambre de combustion
S - caja refractaria
FIRE BRICK[edit | edit source]

(constr). A type of brick with a high melting point that is used to line FLUES, CHIMNEYS, furnaces, and fireplaces.

F - brique refractaire
S - ladrillo refractario
FIXED-DOME DIGESTER[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A BIOGAS DIGESTER in which the gasholder is an integral part of the digester, rather than a FLOATING GAS CAP. This type of digester is usually used to produce fertilizer. METHANE is considered a by-product.

F - digesteur a dome fixe
S - digestor de sombrerete fijo
FLAT BLACK PAINT[edit | edit source]

(sol). A nonglossy black paint with a relatively high ABSORPTANCE.

F - peinture noire mate
S - pintura negra uniforme
FLAT-PLATE SOLAR COLLECTOR[edit | edit source]

(sol). A device that uses an ABSORBER PLATE to COLLECT SOLAR RADIATION without assistance of devices to concentrate the sun's rays.

F - capteur solaire a panneau plan
S - colector solar de placa lisa
FLOAT[edit | edit source]

(hydr). The BUCKET of a WATER WHEEL.

F - aube
S - paleta [1]
FLOATING GAS CAP[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A lid over a BIOGAS DIGESTER that rises or falls with the production of METHANE.

F - cloche a gaz flottante
S - sombrerete movible
FLOW[edit | edit source]

(gen). The volume of a substance passing a point per unit time (e.g., meters per second, gallons per hour, etc.)

F - debit
S - flujo
FLOW DESIGN[edit | edit source]

(hydr) (meas). The FLOW rate at which a TURBINE is designed to operate.

F - debit nominal
S - diseno de flujo
FLUE[edit | edit source]

(const). A passageway in a CHIMNEY that vents gases produced during combustion. The flue opening can be regulated to control the DRAFT in the oven or stove, thus changing the rate of combustion.

F - carneau
S - conducto de humos
FLUE GAS DRYING[edit | edit source]

(heat). THERMAL drying using gases in a FLUE as the source of heat.

F - sechage au gaz de carneau
S - secado por gases del conducto
FLUID[edit | edit source]

(gen). Any substance that FLOWS, such as a liquid or gas. Fluids differ from solids in that they cannot resist changes in their shape when acted upon by a force.

F - fluide
S - fluido
FLUIDIZED BED GASSIFIER[edit | edit source]

(prod). A type of PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR in which air FLOWS upward through a bed of suitably-sized fuel particles fast enough to buoy the particles and give them an appearance of great agitation. The fuel particles generally are small. This type of combustion reduces the sulphur-dioxide emissions when coal is burned.

F - gazogene a lit fluidise
S - gasificador en lecho fluidizado
FLUME[edit | edit source]

(hydr). [1] A HEAD RACE in the form of a trough or CHANNEL that carries water to a WATER WHEEL. [2] A waterway, usually made of wood and often supported on a trestle, that conveys water to be used for POWER, transportation, etc.

F - [1] coursier; [2] canal d'amenee
S - canaleta
FLYWHEEL[edit | edit source]

(gen) (impl). A rotating element attached to the shaft of a machine to maintain uniform angular velocity and revolutions per minute.

F - volant
S - volante
FOCUSING COLLECTOR[edit | edit source]

(sol). A type of SOLAR COLLECTOR that focuses the sun's rays on a sinqle point.

F - capteur a concentration [2]
S - colector enfocante
FOLD-UP REFLECTOR[edit | edit source]

(sol). A portable type of folding mirror used in SOLAR COOKERS to reflect sunlight.

F - reflecteur pliant
S - reflector plegable
FOOT-POUND[edit | edit source]

(gen) (meas). The amount of ENERGY required to lift one pound of a substance one foot.

F - pied-livre
S - libra-pie
FORCED CONVECTION[edit | edit source]

(heat). The use of a pump or blower to control the FLOW of heat into a heated FLUID (e.g. circulating warm air in a room or dwelling with a pump or blower).

F - convection forcee
S - conveccion forzada
FOSSIL FUELS[edit | edit source]

(fos). Nonrenewable, naturally-occurring fuels from ORGANIC MATTER. These include coal, crude oil, and natural gas.

F - combustibles fossiles
S - combustibles fosiles
FRACTIONATING COLUMN[edit | edit source]

(alc). A vertical tube or column attached to an ALCOHOL STILL that is usually filled with packing or intersected with plates. An internal REFLUX results in a separation between the high and low boiling fractions inside the column. Those with the lowest boiling point DISTILL out. (See also: DISTILLATION COLUMN)

F - colonne de fractionnement
S - columna de fraccionar
FRANCIS TURBINE[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A WATER TURBINE that operates on a low or medium HEAD and is often installed in large HYDROELECTRIC plants. Water enters the turbine radially and leaves axially.

F - turbine de Francis
S - turbina Francis
FREE OXYGEN[edit | edit source]

(bio). Oxygen in the atmosphere, which can be extracted at no cost. Conversely, oxygen extracted at a cost would cause the substance from which the oxygen molecules were taken to DECOMPOSE.

F - oxygene libre
S - oxigeno libre
FRESNEL COLLECTOR[edit | edit source]

(sol). A type of SOLAR COLLECTOR consisting of a concentric series of rings with reflecting surfaces. These rings focus SOLAR RADIATION onto an ABSORBER PLATE.

F - capteur a lentille de Fresnel
S - colector Fresnel
FRESNEL LENS[edit | edit source]

(sol). A type of lens built up from a number of narrow concentric segments. It is used in SOLAR CONCENTRATORS.

F - lentille de Fresnel
S - lente de Fresnel
FRICTION[edit | edit source]

(gen). Surface resistance to relative motion, which slows down movement and causes heat.

F - frottement
S - friccion
FRICTION HEAD[edit | edit source]

(hydr). HEAD or ENERGY lost due to FRICTION created by the contact between a moving stream of water and the conduit through which it is moving. In pipes, the friction head is also caused by bends in the pipelines, changes in the pipe diameter, valves, and couplings.

F - perte frictionnelle
S - perdida de carga por rozamiento
FRUCTOSE]](alc)[edit | edit source]

(chem). A FERMENTABLE sugar commonly found in fruit. Fructose can be used as a FEEDSTOCK in ETHANOL production.

F - fructose
S - fructosa
FUEL EFFICIENCY[edit | edit source]

(heat) (meas). The ratio of heat produced by a fuel for doing work to the available heat of the fuel. Fuel EFFICIENCY is determined by the nonheat-forming materials in the fuel and the nonwork-producing heat that is developed by the fuel.

F - rendement du combustible
S - eficiencia del combustible
FUELWOOD[edit | edit source]

(heat). Any type of wood that can be used to fuel a fire.

F - bois de chauffe
S - lena
FULL SAIL[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). A COMMON SAIL with the cloth fully spread.

F - aile deployee
S - aspa completamente estirada
FUNGUS[edit | edit source]

(bio). One of numerous plants in the division of Thallophyta characterized by a lack of chlorophyll, including YEAST, molds, and mushrooms. Fungi do not require FREE OXYGEN to survive. (Plural: fungi)

F - champignon
S - hongo
FURLING[edit | edit source]

(wind). Rollinq up and tying back SAILS of a WINDMILL to keep the ROTOR from turning.

F - ferlage
S - aferramiento
FURLING SPEED[edit | edit source]

(wind). (See: CUT-OUT SPEED)

F - vitesse de ferlage
S - velocidad maxima admisible

G[edit | edit source]

GASAHOL[edit | edit source]

(alc). A gasoline substitute or supplement derived from 10 percent ETHANOL and 90 percent unleaded gasoline. (Syn: gasohol)

F - carburol
S - gasohol
GAS CAP[edit | edit source]

(biocon). (See: GASHOLDER)

F - cloche a gaz
S - tapa de gas
GAS DIGESTION[edit | edit source]

(biocon). The second stage of BIOGAS generation, during which METHANE ([CH.sub.4]) is produced.

F - digestion de gaz
S - digestion de gas
GASHOLDER[edit | edit source]

(biocon). (1) A container for holding the BIOGAS produced in a DIGESTER. The size of the holder depends on the rates of gas production and gas use. (See also: FLOATING GAS CAP)

F - gazometre
S - gasometro
GASIFICATION[edit | edit source]

(prod). The conversion of wood or coal to COMBUSTIBLE GAS without leaving a combustible residue.

F - gazeification
S - gasificacion
GASIFIER[edit | edit source]

(prod). A special type of furnace in which the air supply to the COMBUSTION ZONE is carefully metered. This promotes the production of COMBUSTIBLE GASES as wood or coal are burned.

F - gazogene
S - gasificador
GAS PRODUCTION RATE[edit | edit source]

(biocon) (meas). The quantity of METHANE generated per unit of time. It generally is expressed as cubic feet/day or cubic meters/day. The figure should be quoted under standard conditions of temperature and pressure.

F - taux de production du gaz
S - tasa de produccion de gas
GAS SCRUBBER[edit | edit source]

(gen). (See: SCRUBBING)

F - epurateur de gaz
S - lavagases
GAS STORAGE CAPACITY[edit | edit source]

(biocon). The maximum amount of METHANE that a BIOGAS DIGESTER is able to store. The amount generally is expressed in cubic feet or cubic meters.

F - capacite de stockage de gaz
S - capacidad de almacenamiento de gas
GAS TURBINE[edit | edit source]

(auto). An ALTERNATIVE COMBUSTION ENGINE in which a gas, under pressure or formed by combustion, is directed against the BLADES of a TURBINE. The ENERGY in the expanding gas is thereby converted into useful mechanical energy.

F - turbine a gaz
S - turbina de gas
GEAR RATIO[edit | edit source]

(gen) (meas). The number of revolutions required of one gear to turn another gear, which generally is of a different size.

F - demultiplication
S - relacion de los engranajes
GENERATOR[edit | edit source]

(elec) (impl). A device that converts mechanical ENERGY into electrical energy.

F - generateur
S - generador
GENGAS[edit | edit source]

(prod). (See: PRODUCER GAS)

F - gaz pauvre de gazogene
S - gengas
GEOPRESSURED RESERVOIR[edit | edit source]

(geo). A GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR consisting of porous sands that contain water or BRINE at high temperatures and pressure.

F - reservoir sous geopression
S - tanque de presion geotermica
GEOTHERMAL[edit | edit source]

(geo). Of or relating to the heat of the Earth's interior.

F - geothermique
S - geotermico
GEOTHERMAL FIELD[edit | edit source]

(geo). A geographical region with known GEOTHERMAL POWER sources that might be tapped to produce ENERGY.

F - zone geothermique
S - zona geotermica
GEOTHERMAL POWER[edit | edit source]

(geo). ENERGY obtained from GEOTHERMAL sources. Geothermal power is tapped in three ways: by using hot water, steam, or DRY STEAM. Each may be used to drive a TURBINE.

F - energie geothermique
S - energia geotermica
GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR[edit | edit source]

(geo). A water reserve created near a HOT DRY ROCK RESERVOIR to develop a potential GEOTHERMAL POWER site.

F - reservoir geothermique
S - tanque geotermico
GEOTHERMAL STEAM[edit | edit source]

(geo). Steam drawn from sources within the Earth.

F - vapeur geothermique
S - vapor geotermico
GEYSER[edit | edit source]

(geo). Natural steam or hot water spouts in active GEOTHERMAL regions.

F - geyser
S - geiser
GIN POLE[edit | edit source]

(wind). A long board or pipe used to improve the leverage in lifting a TOWER for a WINDMILL.

F - fleche de levage
S - mastil grua
GLAZING[edit | edit source]

(impl) (sol). A transparent sheet that admits sunlight to a SOLAR COLLECTOR and then inhibits the escape of heat. Commonly used glazing materials include ACETATE, acrylic, fiber-reinforced plastics, and glass.

F - vitrification
S - vidriado
GLOBAL RADIATION[edit | edit source]


F - rayonnement global
S - radiacion global
GLUCOSE[edit | edit source]

(chem) (alc). The most common sugar, which is derived from STARCH during the ETHANOL production process.

F - glucose
S - glucosa
GOBAR GAS[edit | edit source]

(biocon). (See: BIOGAS)

F - bio-gaz
S - gas gobar
GOVERNOR[edit | edit source]

(gen) (impl). A device that regulates the speed of an engine or other device under varying conditions of load and pressure. Also a device for regulating the FLOW or pressure of a FLUID passing through a device.

F - regulateur
S - regulador
GRAIN ALCOHOL[edit | edit source]

(alc). ETHANOL made from grain by DISTILLATION.

F - alcool de grains
S - alcohol de granos
GRAM CALORIE[edit | edit source]

(gen). The amount of ENERGY required to raise one gram of water one degree CELSIUS.

F - calorie [2]
S - caloria-gramo
GRAMLAXMI GAS[edit | edit source]

(biocon). (See: BIOGAS)

F - bio-gaz
S - gas gramlaxmi
GRATE[edit | edit source]

(impl) (heat). A frame of metal bars that holds fuel above the floor of a firebox. It usually is used in a boiler, GASIFIER, fireplace, or stove.

F - grille
S - parilla
GRAVITY CONVECTION]] heat).[edit | edit source]


F - convection par pesanteur
S - conveccion por gravedad
GUIDE VANES[edit | edit source]

(hydr) (impl). Surfaces that direct water to the appropriate parts of TURBINE BLADES or BUCKETS so as to increase POWER output.

F - aubes directrices
S - alabe director
GUSSET[edit | edit source]

(constr) (wind). A triangular metal brace for reinforcing a corner or angle. It is commonly used in TOWER construction.

F - gousset
S - esquinero
GUST[edit | edit source]

(wind). A sudden, brief increase in WIND VELOCITY that is then followed by calmer air.

F - rafale
S - rafaga
GUYED TOWER[edit | edit source]

(impl) (wind). A WINDMILL TOWER that is supported by GUY WIRES.

F - pylone haubanne
S - torre atirantada
GUY WIRE[edit | edit source]

(wind) (impl). A cable that stabilizes a structure and keeps it in position. For example, wires attached to a WINDMILL TOWER so that it cannot move or shake from the force of the wind.

F - hauban
S - retenida de alambre

H[edit | edit source]

HARNESS[edit | edit source]

(ani). The gear or tackle, other than a YOKE, used on draft animals to pull a vehicle or drive an implement. It differs from a yoke, which joins together draft animals.

F - harnais
S - arnes
HEAD[edit | edit source]

(hydr) (meas). [1] The vertical distance from the point where water enters an intake to the point where the water leaves a HYDROPOWER device. It is generally measured in feet or meters. The product of the head times the FLOW is a measurement of potential POWER. [2] The vertical distance a liquid must be pumped from its source to its point of use or storage.

F - chute d'eau [1]-[2]
S - altura
HEADER[edit | edit source]

(sol). The pipe that runs across the top of an ABSORBER PLATE to gather or distribute HEAT TRANSFER FLUID from or to the grid pipes that run across the absorber surface. Some headers run along the bottom of the absorber plate.

F - entree-sortie
S - tubo colector
HEADRACE[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A CANAL or conduit that feeds water into a mill, WATER WHEEL, or TURBINE.

F - bief d'amont
S - canal de llegada
HEAD WATER[edit | edit source]

(hydr). The water upstream of a DAM or a HYDROPOWER plant.

F - eau d'amont
S - aguas arriba
HEAT CAPACITY[edit | edit source]

(heat) (meas). The amount of heat required to raise by one degree the temperature of a unit mass of a substance.

F - capacite thermique
S - capacidad calorifica
HEAT ENERGY[edit | edit source]

(heat). ENERGY in the form of heat.

F - energie thermique
S - energia calorifica
HEAT EXCHANGER[edit | edit source]

(heat) (impl). A device, such as a coiled copper tube immersed in a tank of water which is used to transfer heat from one FLUID to another through a separating wall. A CONDENSER is one type of heat exchanger.

F - echangeur de chaleur
S - termopermutador
HEAT GAIN[edit | edit source]

(heat). The increase of heat in a space resulting from DIRECT RADIATION and from the heat given off by such other sources as THERMAL MASS, a stove, a fireplace, humans, or animals.

F - apport de chaleur
S - ganancia calorifica
HEATING VALUE[edit | edit source]

(heat) (meas). The amount of heat produced by the complete combustion of a specific amount of fuel. This is a measure of FUEL EFFICIENCY.

F - pouvoir calorifique
S - valor calorifico
HEAT LOSS[edit | edit source]

(heat). An unwanted decrease in the amount of heat contained in a space. Heat is usually lost through CONVECTION.

F - perte de chaleur
S - perdida calorifica
HEAT PUMP[edit | edit source]

(heat) (impl). A mechanical device that transfers heat from a heat source to a HEAT SINK. This process causes the source to cool and the sink to become warmer.

F - pompe a chaleur
S - bomba calorifica

(heat) (meas). The rate at which heat is transferred per hour, per unit surface, per degree of temperature difference.

F - coefficient de transmission de chaleur
S - coeficiente de transferencia del consumo calorifico
HEAT-REFLECTIVE GLASS[edit | edit source]

(sol). A type of glass designed to reflect SOLAR RADIATION.

F - verre a pouvoir reflechissant thermique
S - vidrio reflector de calor
HEAT SINK[edit | edit source]

(sol). A body that is capable of accepting and storing heat. It therefore may also act as a heat source.

F - puits de chaleur
S - sumidor de calor
HEAT TAX[edit | edit source]

(heat). Referring to the HEAT ENERGY that becomes unavailable for further use whenever ENERGY is converted from one form to another.

F - chaleur perdue
S - gravamen calorifico
HEAT TRANSFER FLUID[edit | edit source]


F - fluide caloporteur
S - fluido de termotransferencia
HEAT TRANSFER MEDIUM[edit | edit source]

(sol). The FLUID that is heated in a SOLAR COLLECTOR for conducting heat to another place or substance.

F - caloporteur
S - medio de termotransferencia
HELICAL SAIL WINDMILL[edit | edit source]

(wind). The name for a particular type of HORIZONTAL-AXIS, SAIL ROTOR WINDMILL. It usually is used for low-lift water pumping.

F - eolienne a ailes helicoidales
S - molino con aspas helicoidales
HELIO-ELECTRICAL PROCESS[edit | edit source]

(sol). A process by which PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES convert SOLAR ENERGY into electricity.

F - processus helioelectrique
S - proceso helioelectrico
HELIOSTAT[edit | edit source]

(sol) (impl). A solar-focusing instrument consisting of a mirror mounted on an AXIS that is moved by clockwork. The heliostat reflects sunbeams in one direction, usually to a central ABSORBER located in a TOWER.

F - heliostat
S - heliostato
HELIOTHERMAL[edit | edit source]

(sol). [1] A process that uses SOLAR RADIATION to produce heat. [2] A device that absorbs RADIATION on a blackened surface and converts it into heat.

F - heliothermique
S - heliotermico
HELIOTHERMAL PROCESS[edit | edit source]

(sol). A process by which SOLAR ENERGY is used to provide THERMAL ENERGY for space heating, space cooling, and domestic water heating.

F - processus heliothermique
S - proceso heliotermico
HELIOTHERMOMETER[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). An instrument that measures heat from the sun.

F - heliothermometre
S - heliotermometro
HELIOTROPIC[edit | edit source]

(sol) (impl). Turning toward light. It describes devices that TRACK the sun, following its movement across the sky.

F - heliotropique
S - heliotropico
HORIZONTAL AIR MILL[edit | edit source]


F - moulin a vent a arbre horizontal
S - molino de aire horizontal
HORIZONTAL AXIS SAIL ROTOR[edit | edit source]

(wind). A WIND MACHINE with cloth sails in which the WIND SHAFT is situated on a horizontal plane.

F - eolienne a ailes en toile sur axe horizontal
S - rotor de eje horizontal
HORIZONTAL AXIS WINDMILL[edit | edit source]

(wind). A WINDMILL driven by a ROTOR on a horizontal WIND SHAFT.

F - eolienne a arbre horizontal
S - molino de eje horizontal
HORIZONTAL WATERMILL[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A WATERMILL driven by a horizontal wheel mounted on a vertical shaft. (Syn: Greek Mill; Norse Mill)

F - moulin a eau horizontal
S - molino hidraulico horizontal
HORIZONTAL WATER WHEEL[edit | edit source]


F - roue hydraulique horizontale
S - rueda hidraulica horizontal
HORSEPOWER[edit | edit source]

(gen). A unit of POWER equal to 33,000 FOOT POUNDS per minute, 550 foot pounds per second, or 746 WATTS.

F - cheval-vapeur
S - potencia util
HOT DRY ROCK[edit | edit source]

(geo) A system for using GEOTHERMAL POWER. A hole is drilled and the deep rock cracked. This may be done hydraulically, as is done in conventional oil fields, or with explosives. Water is injected into the fractured rock, allowed to heat, and then withdrawn as steam for use as an ENERGY source.

F - roche chaude et seche
S - roca seca caliente
HOT WATER RESERVOIR[edit | edit source]


F - reservoir d'eau chaude
S - tanque de agua caliente
HOUR ANGLE[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). The angular displacement of the sun east or west of the local meridian due to the rotation of the Earth on its AXIS at 15 [degrees] per hour (morning [+] afternoon [-]).

F - angle horaire
S - angulo hora
HUB EXTENSION[edit | edit source]

(wind). A piece of pipe that sticks out from the front of the hub of a ROTOR on a WINDMILL. It provides a place to attach GUY WIRES to strengthen the BLADES or SAILS.

F - rallonge de moyeu
S - extension del cubo
HUMIDIFIER[edit | edit source]

(gen). A mechanical means for increasing the relative humidity in an enclosed area by injecting water vapor into the air.

F - humidificateur
S - humidificador
HUMUS[edit | edit source]

(biocon). Well-decomposed organic soil material consisting of the residues from plant and animal matter together with the cell substances of soil organisms and various inorganic materials.

F - humus
S - humus
HYBRID GENERATOR[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A two-stage BIOGAS DIGESTER design consisting of a larger batch-fed, ACID-producing, cold phase, and a smaller CONTINUOUS-FEED, METHANE-producing, heated phase. Alternatively, any digester that separates acid and methane production.

F - generateur hybride
S - generador hibrido
HYBRID POWER SYSTEM[edit | edit source]

(gen). A system, such as one might find within a home, that derives its heating, lighting, and other ENERGY from several interconnected sources. One or more of these sources generally would come from RENEWABLE ENERGY.

F - energie heterogene, systeme d'
S - sistema de energia hibrida
HYBRID SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEM[edit | edit source]

(sol). A heating or cooling system that uses both ACTIVE SOLAR HEATING and PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING methods in its design. At least one of the system's significant THERMAL ENERGY FLOWS is by natural means, and at least one is by forced means.

F - energie solaire heterogene, systeme d'
S - sistema de energia solar hibrida
HYDRATE[edit | edit source]

(chem). A solid material resulting from the combination under pressure of a gas with water.

F - hydrate
S - hidrato
HYDRAULIC RAM[edit | edit source]

(hydr) (impl). A water pump that uses the ENERGY of descending water to raise a part of the water to a height greater than that of the source. It requires no other power than the energy from the descending water.

F - belier hydraulique
S - ariete hidraulico
HYDRAULIC RETENTION TIME[edit | edit source]

(biocon) (meas). The number of days an average volume of SLURRY remains in a BIOGAS DIGESTER.

F - duree de retention hydraulique
S - periodo de retention hidraulica
HYDROELECTRIC[edit | edit source]

(hydr). Relative to a system in which the potential ENERGY of falling water is harnessed by releasing it from DAMS or through a PENSTOCK downward through WATER TURBINES.

F - hydro-electrique
S - hidroelectrico
HYDROLOGIC CYCLE[edit | edit source]

(hydr). The cycle in which water passes through different states. It begins as atmospheric water vapor. It then becomes a liquid through precipitation. Next it flows along the ground surface, where it is useful as an energy source. Finally, it returns to its original form through evaporation and transpiration.

F - cycle hydrologique
S - ciclo hidrologico
HYDROLOGY[edit | edit source]

(hydr). The science of water systems on or beneath the Earth's surface.

F - hydrologie
S - hidrologia
HYDROLYSIS[edit | edit source]

(alc) (chem). The chemical process that breaks complex organic molecules into simple molecules. For example, STARCH and CELLULOSE can be hydrolyzed by ACIDS or ENZYMES to produce simple sugars, which can be FERMENTED to form ETHANOL.

F - hydrolyse
S - hidrolisis
HYDROMETER[edit | edit source]

(impl) (meas). An instrument used to determine the density or SPECIFIC GRAVITY of FLUIDS.

F - hydrometre
S - hidrometro
HYDROPOWER[edit | edit source]

(hydr). POWER produced by falling water. The term is used to identify a type of electricity-generating station or any energy output in which the main mover is driven by FLOWing water.

F - puissance hydraulique
S - potencia hidraulica
HYDROPOWER SYSTEM[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A system in which the potential ENERGY of FLOWing water is used to create electricity or to mechanically drive machines, by impounding it behind DAMS and then diverting it through a CHANNEL to a WATER TURBINE.

F - systeme de puissance hydraulique
S - sistema de potencia hidraulica
HYDROXYL[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A monovalent group consisting of a hydrogen atom and an oxygen atom linked together. Most BASES contain hydroxyl groups. (See also: BASE)

F - hydroxyle
S - hidroxilo
HYGROMETER[edit | edit source]

(impl) (meas) (sol). A device for measuring the humidity of the air. It is used in designing SOLAR HEATING and SOLAR COOLING systems.

F - hygrometre
S - higrometro

I[edit | edit source]

IMPERMEABLE DRY ROCK[edit | edit source]

(geo). Rock systems in GEOTHERMAL regions where the heat is contained almost entirely in impermeable rock.

F - roche seche impermeable
S - roca seca impermeable
IMPULSE TURBINE[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A TURBINE driven by high velocity JETS of water or steam that are produced by forcing the water or steam through a nozzle.

F - turbine a action
S - turbina de impulsion
INCIDENT ANGLE[edit | edit source]

(sol) (hydr). [1] The angle between the sun's rays and a line perpendicular (normal) to the irradiated surface. The incident angle determines both the intensity of the DIRECT RADIATION component striking the surface and the ability of the surface to reflect, transmit, or ABSORB the sun's rays. [2] In the case of HYDROPOWER devices, the angle between the water intake and a line perpendicular to the BUCKETS.

F - angle d'incidence
S - angulo incidente
INCIDENT RADIATION[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). The quantity of RADIANT ENERGY striking a surface per unit time and unit area.

F - rayonnement incident
S - radiacion de incidencia
INDIAN-TYPE DIGESTER[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A BIOGAS DIGESTER primarily designed to produce METHANE. These digesters usually have FLOATING GAS CAPS.

F - digesteur type indien
S - digestor de tipo indio
INDIRECT CONVERSION[edit | edit source]

(sol). The indirect use of SOLAR ENERGY from such sources as solar-produced winds, thermal currents in air and water, and wave action.

F - conversion indirecte
S - conversion indirecta
INDIRECT SOLAR ENERGY[edit | edit source]

(sol). A system in which SOLAR ENERGY is COLLECTED and used through mechanical means.

F - energie solaire indirecte
S - energia solar indirecta
INDIRECT SOLAR GAIN[edit | edit source]

(sol) . A PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING system in which heat is stored between the COLLECTING and the distributing surfaces (e.g., TROMBE WALL).

F - apport solaire indirect
S - ganancia solar indirecta
INDIRECT SOLAR HEATING[edit | edit source]

(sol). A method of solar heating in which SOLAR RADIATION is COLLECTED in FLAT PLATE or CONCENTRATING COLLECTORS that are mounted on a roof, a wall, or apart from a building. Pumps or fans are used to circulate HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS through the collectors and then back to a heat storage medium.

F - chauffage solaire indirect
S - calefaccion solar indirecta
INDUCTION MOTOR[edit | edit source]

(elec) (wind). A common type of motor, which, when modified slightly and driven by the rotary action of a WINDMILL or TURBINE, provides ALTERNATING CURRENT (ac).

F - moteur a induction
S - motor de induccion
INFILTRATION[edit | edit source]

(heat). The unchecked movement of outdoor air into a building through cracks around windows and doors or in walls, roofs, and floors. Infiltration generally refers to cold air during the winter and hot air during the summer.

F - infiltration
S - infiltracion
INFLUENT[edit | edit source]

(biocon). BIOMASS mixed with water for use in a BIOGAS DIGESTER.

F - affluent
S - influente
INFRARED RADIATION[edit | edit source]

(sol). Electromagnetic RADIATION from the sun or a warm body that has wavelengths longer than the red end of the visible spectrum. Infrared radiation is experienced as heat.

F - radiation infrarouge
S - radiacion infraroja
INOCULATION[edit | edit source]


F - inoculation
S - inoculacion
INOCULUM[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A sample of partially DIGESTED SLURRY, and its associated BACTERIA, that is added at the start of DIGESTION to a BIOGAS DIGESTER. It provides sufficient micro-organisms for the digestion process to proceed at a satisfactory rate. Without this seeding, there generally is a prolonged wait before a digester begins producing gas. (Syn: seed)

F - inoculum
S - inoculum
INSOLATION[edit | edit source]

(sol). The rate at which ENERGY from the sun reaches the Earth's surface. Insolation generally is measured in BTU/square feet (meters)/day.

F - insolation
S - insolacion
INSULATED STEAM COOKER[edit | edit source]

(sol). A small, insulated cooking box in which steam acts as the heating agent. Water heated to steam by a SOLAR COLLECTOR flows into the box, condenses, and drips back into the COLLECTOR.

F - rechaud a vapeur isole
S - cocinilla aislada de vapor
INTEGRATED HEATING[edit | edit source]

(sol). A method of SOLAR HEATING in which SOLAR RADIATION is intercepted and absorbed by a massive exterior wall or roof pond, which usually doubles as a heat storage container. Heat flows to the rooms by CONDUCTION, or natural CONVECTION. This is a form of PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING.

F - chauffage integre
S - calefaccion solar integrada
INTEGRATED SYSTEM[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A system in which the outputs of one activity are used as inputs in other related activities. For example, a BIOGAS system in which the EFFLUENT is used as a nutrient to enrich an aquaculture environment. In exchange, BIOMASS from the aquaculture may be used as INFLUENT to the DIGESTER.

F - systeme integre
S - sistema integrado
INVERTER[edit | edit source]

(elec) (wind). A device that converts DIRECT CURRENT (dc) to ALTERNATING CURRENT (ac). It often is used with WIND GENERATORS.

F - onduleur
S - invertidor
IRRIGATION WHEEL[edit | edit source]

(hydr). (See: NORIA)

F - roue hydraulique d'irrigation
S - rueda de irrigacion
ISOLATED SOLAR GAIN[edit | edit source]

(sol). A PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING system in which heat is collected in one area to be used in another. (See also: SOLAR GREENHOUSE)

F - apport solaire isole
S - ganancia solar aislada

J[edit | edit source]

JACKET[edit | edit source]

(prod) (impl). An enclosure around a PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR through which cooling liquid flows. (See also: WATER JACKET)

F - chemise d'eau
S - cubierta
JET[edit | edit source]

(auto) (hydro). A nozzle of a specific size that limits the FLOW of water to a TURBINE or the flow of fuel in a CARBURETOR.

F - gicleur
S - lanza
JET STREAM[edit | edit source]

(wind). Strong winds concentrated in a relatively narrow, shallow stream in the upper troposphere.

F - jet-stream
S - manga de aire
JIB SAILS[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). Triangular COMMON SAILS, set on radiating SPARS.

F - clinfoc
S - aspas triangulares
JOULE[edit | edit source]

(meas). A unit of ENERGY or work equal to one WATT per second or 0.737 foot pounds.

F- Joule
S- Joule
S LAW[edit | edit source]

(gen) (heat). The law stating that: [1] The rate at which heat is produced by a steady current in any part of an electric circuit is jointly proportional to the resistance and to the square of the current. [2] The internal ENERGY of an ideal gas depends only on its temperature regardless of volume and pressure.

F - loi de Joule
S - ley de Joule
JUMPER[edit | edit source]

(elec). A length of wire, usually with clips on each end, for making temporary electrical connections.

F - fil volant
S - puente

K[edit | edit source]

KAPLAN TURBINE[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A propeller-type of WATER TURBINE with variable pitch BLADES that adjust automatically in accordance with the HEAD.

F - turbine de Kaplan
S - turbina Kaplan
KENAF[edit | edit source]

(biocon). An annual East Indian plant, which may be used effectively in BIOGAS production.

F - kenaf
S - hibiscus cannabinus
KILN[edit | edit source]

(heat). A high temperature oven, furnace, or heated enclosure used to process a substance by burning, firing, or drying. Kilns often are described by the direction that air passes through them (i.e., UPDRAFT or DOWNDRAFT).

F - four
S - horno
KILOWATT[edit | edit source]

(elec). A unit of POWER equal to 1,000 WATTS or to ENERGY consumption at a rate of 1,000 JOULES per second. It is usually used as a measure of electrical energy. Commonly abbreviated as kW.

F - kilowatt
S - kilovatios
KILOWATT HOUR[edit | edit source]

(elec) (meas). A unit of POWER consumption equal to the amount of power multiplied by the amount of time the power is used. A 100-watt light bulb burning for 10 hours uses one kilowatt-hour of power.

F - kilowattheure
S - kilovatio-hora
KINETIC ENERGY[edit | edit source]

(gen). The ENERGY that a body possesses by virtue of its motion.

F - energie cinetique
S - energia cinetica
KNOT[edit | edit source]

(wind). A measure of WIND SPEED equal to one nautical mile per hour. One knot equals 1.15 miles per hour.

F - noeud
S - nudo

L[edit | edit source]

LANGLEY[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). A unit of SOLAR RADIATION intensity, equal to 1.0 gram CALORIE per square centimeter.

F - langley
S - langley
LATITUDE[edit | edit source]

(gen) (meas). An angular position north or south of the equator, measured in degrees along a meridian of a point.

F - latitude
S - latitud
LEADING EDGE[edit | edit source]

(wind). The vertical edge of a WINDMILL BLADE that lies on the side towards which the blade moves. The opposite edge is called the TRAILING EDGE.

F - arete avant
S - borde anterior
LIFE-CYCLE COSTING[edit | edit source]

(gen) (meas). A method for estimating the comparative costs of ALTERNATIVE ENERGY or other systems. Life-cycle costing takes into consideration such long-term costs as ENERGY consumption, maintenance, and repair.

F - evaluation du cycle de vie
S - calculo del coste de la vida util
LIFT[edit | edit source]

(wind). The aerodynamic force that "pulls" the BLADES of a WINDMILL and causes them to rotate.

F - portance
S - impulsion
LIFT COEFFICIENT[edit | edit source]

(wind) (meas). The ratio of LIFT forces to FLOW forces.

F - coefficient de portance
S - coeficiente de impulsion
LIFT-TYPE DEVICES[edit | edit source]

(wind). WIND MACHINES that provide aerodynamic LIFT in a wind stream.

F - eoliennes a portance
S - aparatos impulsores
LIME[edit | edit source]

(chem). A white powder composed of calcium oxide that forms a highly ALKALINE solution when mixed with water. It is used in various ways, including as a means to increase the pH (POTENTIAL HYDROGEN) of MASH in ALCOHOL STILLS or BIOGAS DIGESTERS.

F - chaux
S - cal
LIME KILN[edit | edit source]

(chem). A KILN used to make LIME from coral or limestone.

F - four a chaux
S - horno de cal
LIMEWATER[edit | edit source]

(biocon) (chem). A CALCIUM HYDROXIDE solution often used as a gas SCRUBBER.

F - eau de chaux
S - agua de cal
LINED FIREBOX[edit | edit source]

(gen). A firebox fitted with special insulating material.

F - chambre de combustion garnie
S - caja de fuego revestida

(sol). A SOLAR HEATING system in which a liquid HEAT TRANSFER MEDIUM is heated in SOLAR COLLECTORS. The liquid generally is either water or an antifreeze solution.

F - chauffage solaire a liquide, systeme de
S - sistema de energia solar a base de liquidos
LIQUID SLURRY[edit | edit source]

(biocon). SLURRY comprising less than 10 percent solid material.

F - boue liquide
S - fango liquido
LIQUID-TYPE COLLECTOR[edit | edit source]


F - capteur a liquide
S - colector de tipo liquido
LIVE CURB[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). The circular timber rim or wall plate supporting a WINDMILL CAP that revolves on ROLLERS or WHEELS.

F - chemin de roulement
S - soporte movil
LOAD[edit | edit source]

(elec) (meas). The output of one or several electric machines or transformers. Load also denotes the POWER carried by a particular circuit.

F - charge
S - carga
LOADING RATE[edit | edit source]

(biocon) (meas). The amount of BIOMASS added to a DIGESTER over a specific period of time.

F - taux de charge
S - velocidad de carga
LOLLY AXIS[edit | edit source]

(wind). (See: YAW AXIS)

F - axe de lacet
S - eje de relingar
LORENA STOVE[edit | edit source]

(biocon). An inexpensive, yet efficient, cook stove made of a sand, clay, and water mixture known as "lorena."

F - cuisiniere lorena
S - estufa lorena
LOW HEAD TURBINE[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A WATER TURBINE that is designed to function with a low HEAD.

F - turbine pour chutes faibles
S - turbina de poco desnivel
LUFF[edit | edit source]

(wind). To turn the BLADES of a WINDMILL into the wind so they will rotate.

F - lofer
S - cenir el viento

M[edit | edit source]

MAGNESITE BRICK[edit | edit source]

(constr) (sol). A masonry brick to which magnesium or similar material has been added to darken the color of the brick and increase its THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY and ABSORPTANCE.

F - brique a la magnesite
S - ladrillo de magnesita
MAGNETO[edit | edit source]

(elec). A small, permanent-magnet, electric GENERATOR capable of producing periodic high voltage impulses.

F - magneto
S - magneto
MAGNOUS EFFECT[edit | edit source]

(wind). An effect whereby a spinning CYLINDER exposed to the wind produces a horizontal force. This effect has been used to enable experimental WIND MACHINES to POWER small boats.

F - effet magnus
S - efecto de fuerza horizontal
MALT[edit | edit source]

(alc). Sprouted grain that contains ENZYMES to convert STARCH to sugar. Special varieties of barley are frequently used to produce malt.

F - malt
S - malta
MANOMETER[edit | edit source]

(biocon) (meas). A device used to measure gas pressure. It may be used to monitor gas pressure in a BIOGAS DIGESTER.

F - manometre
S - manometro
MANTLE[edit | edit source]

(biocon) (impl). A cloth MEMBRANE in which gases are collected and burned to create light through incandescence.

F - manchon a incandescence
S - manteleta
MARSH GAS[edit | edit source]

(biocon). METHANE. Decaying ORGANIC MATTER at the bottom of a marsh or pond will produce bubbles of methane gas when stirred.

F - gaz des marais
S - gas de los pantanos
MASH[edit | edit source]

(alc). A mixture of water and crushed grains or other FEEDSTOCKS that can be FERMENTED to produce ETHANOL.

F - mout
S - mezcla
MASH COMPOSITION[edit | edit source]

(alc). The materials making up the MASH in an ALCOHOL STILL.

F - composition du mout
S - malta empastada
MASONITE[edit | edit source]

(constr). Trademark name for a thin board made of compressed wood fibers. It is useful as a backing for SOLAR REFLECTORS.

F - masonite
S - masonite
MAXIMUM FLOW RATE[edit | edit source]

(hydr) (meas). The maximum amount of water that can FLOW past a point during a given period of time. This measurement is used to evaluate the HYDROPOWER potential of a site.

F - debit maximum
S - velocidad maxima de flujo
MEADOW MILL[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A small, untended WATERMILL used for drainage.

F - moulinet de campagne
S - molino de pradera
MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE[edit | edit source]

(gen) (meas). The factor by which a machine multiplies any applied force.

F - effet mecanique
S - rendimiento mecanico
MECHANICAL TURBULENCE[edit | edit source]

(wind). Erratic air movement caused by such obstructions as trees or buildings.

F - turbulence mecanique
S - turbulencia mecanica
MEGAWATT[edit | edit source]

(elec) (meas). One million WATTS.

F - megawatt
S - megavatio
MEMBRANE[edit | edit source]

(alc). A sheet polymer or thin biological tissue capable of separating liquid solutions. Membranes are sometimes used in the ALCOHOL DISTILLATION process.

F - membrane
S - membrana
MERIDIONAL WIND[edit | edit source]

(wind). The wind or wind component along the local meridian.

F - vent meridien
S - viento meridional
MESOPHYLLIC BACTERIA[edit | edit source]

(biocon). BACTERIA that thrive best at temperatures of 70-104 [degrees] F (21-40 [degrees] C) and are useful in producing BIOGAS.

F - bacteries mesophyliennes
S - bacteria mesofilica
METHANATION[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A process of converting to METHANE the carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide present in synthetic gas.

F - methanisation
S - metanacion
METHANE[edit | edit source]

(biocon) (chem). An odorless, colorless gas (C[H.sub.4]), nearly insoluble in water, which burns with a pale, faintly luminous flame to produce water and carbon dioxide (or carbon monoxide if oxygen is deficient). (See also: MARSH GAS) (Syn: BIOGAS)

F - methane
S - metano
METHANE CONVERSION[edit | edit source]

(biocon). The production of METHANE through BIOCONVERSION.

F - conversion du methane
S - conversion de metano
METHANE DIGESTER[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A device that converts BIOMASS into METHANE and Fertilizer through biological activity. (See also: BIOGAS DIGESTER)

F - digesteur au methane
S - digestor de metano
METHANE GAS[edit | edit source]

(biocon) (chem). (See: METHANE)

F - gaz de methane
S - gas de metano
METHANE GENERATION[edit | edit source]

(biocon). (See: BIOGAS DIGESTER)

F - production du methane
S - produccion de metano
METHANE PLANT[edit | edit source]


F - generateur a methane
S - instalacion de metano
METHANOGENIC BACTERIA[edit | edit source]

(bio) (biocon). BACTERIA that generate METHANE (i.e., those that are responsible for the "second step" of DIGESTION). (See also: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION)

F - bacteries methanogenes
S - bacteria metanogenica
METHANOL[edit | edit source]

(alc). A light, VOLATILE, flammable, poisonous liquid ALCOHOL (C[H.sub.3]OH) formed in the DESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION of wood or made synthetically. METHANOL is used especially as a solvent, antifreeze, or DENATURANT for ETHANOL, and in the synthesis of other chemicals. It is also used increasingly as a fuel. (Syn: methyl alcohol or wood alcohol)

F - methanol
S - metanol
METHYL ALCOHOL[edit | edit source]

(alc). (See: METHANOL)

F - alcool methylique
S - alcohol metilico

(bio) (biocon). The microscopic organisms, chiefly BACTERIA in this context, that are responsible for ANAEROBIC DIGESTION.

F - micro-organismes de la flore microbienne
S - microorganismos de microflora
MICROHYDRO[edit | edit source]

(hydr). Small-scale, water-powered systems that may be used to produce mechanical POWER or less than 100 KILOWATTS of electricity. They commonly are used for homes, farms, or small industries.

F - microcentrales hydrauliques
S - microhidro
MILL[edit | edit source]

(gen) (hydr) (wind). A device to grind grain and cereals. Also used colloquially to describe a WINDMILL, WATER WHEEL, or WATER MILL.

F - moulin
S - molino
MILL RACE[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A CHANNEL that carries water to a WATER WHEEL.

F - bief de moulin
S - caz
MINIHYDRO[edit | edit source]

(hydr). HYDROPOWER units that produce 100-1000 KILOWATTS.

F - minicentrales hydrauliques
S - minihidro
MINIMUM FLOW RATE[edit | edit source]

(hydr) (meas). The least amount of water that will FLOW past a given point at any time. This measurement is used to help evaluate the HYDROPOWER potential of a site.

F - debit minimum
S - velocidad minime de flujo
MISCIBLE[edit | edit source]

(chem). Capable of being mixed in any proportion.

F - miscible
S - miscible
MIXING TANK[edit | edit source]

(biocon) (impl). A chamber in which BIOMASS is mixed with water to form SLURRY for a BIOGAS DIGESTER.

F - reservoir de melange
S - cuba de mezcla
MOLECULAR SIEVE[edit | edit source]

(alc). A STILL COLUMN that separates molecules by selectively ADSORPING them on the basis of size.

F - tamis moleculaire
S - criba por accion molecular
MONOSACCHARIDE[edit | edit source]

(alc). SUGAR derived from STARCH and CELLULOSE that can be converted to ETHANOL.

F - monosaccharide
S - monosacarido
MOUNTAIN AND VALLEY WINDS[edit | edit source]

(wind). A system of daily winds prevailing in calm, clear weather along the width of a valley. The winds blow uphill and upvalley by day and downhill and downvalley by night.

F - vents des monts et des vallees
S - vientos de las montanas y aldeas
MULTIBLADE WINDMILL[edit | edit source]

(wind). A WINDMILL that has a large number of BLADES. It generally is used to pump water.

F - eolienne a ailes multiples
S - molino de multiaspas
MULTIVANE WINDMILL[edit | edit source]

(wind). A WINDMILL having more than one TAIL.

F - eolienne a empennages multiples
S - molino de multiples puntas

N[edit | edit source]

NACELLE[edit | edit source]

(wind). The portion of a wind electric conversion machine that houses the electricity generating equipment.

F - carter
S - barquilla
NATURAL CONVECTION[edit | edit source]

(heat). The natural CONVECTION of heat through the FLUID in a body that occurs when warm, less dense fluid rises and cold, dense fluid sinks under the influence of gravity. (Syn: gravity convection)

F - convection naturelle
S - conveccion natural
NET AREA[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). The area of the opening of a SOLAR COLLECTOR, through which SOLAR RADIATION may pass.

F - fenetre d'entree
S - superficie neta
NET ENERGY CONSUMPTION[edit | edit source]

(gen) (meas). (See: ENERGY CONSUMPTION)

F - consommation nette d'energie
S - consumo neto de energia
NIGHT SKY RADIATION[edit | edit source]

(sol). A method of cooling through RADIANT ENERGY exchange. Relatively warm surfaces are exposed directly to the colder night sky to which they radiate the heat they collected during the day.

F - rayonnement diffus nocturne
S - radiacion del cielo nocturno
NIGHT SOIL[edit | edit source]

(bio). Human excreta with or without flush water, which may be used as FEEDSTOCK for a BIOGAS DIGESTER.

F - vidanges
S - defecaciones humanas
NOCTURNAL RADIATION[edit | edit source]


F - rayonnement nocturne
S - radiaciones nocturnas
NORIA[edit | edit source]

(hydr) (arc). A vertical WATER WHEEL that is turned by water current. Containers attached to its rim LIFT water for irrigation.

F - noria
S - noria

O[edit | edit source]

OCEAN THERMAL GRADIENTS[edit | edit source]

(oceans). The temperature difference between deep and surface water in the ocean. These temperature variations may be used as an ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCE.

F - gradients de temperature oceaniques
S - termogradientes oceanicos
OCEAN THERMAL POWER[edit | edit source]

(ocean). ENERGY acquired from differences in temperatures at different depths in the ocean.

F - energie thermique des mers
S - termopotencia oceanica
OCEAN TIDAL POWER[edit | edit source]

(ocean). The production of electricity by harnessing ocean tidal movements through the use of adjustable-BLADE WATER TURBINES or other devices.

F - energie maremotrice
S - energia oceanica
OFFSHORE WINDS[edit | edit source]

(wind). Winds blowing seaward from the coast.

F - vents de terre
S - vientos terrales
S LAW[edit | edit source]

(elec). The law stating that for any circuit the electric current is proportional to the voltage and inversely proportional to the resistance.

F - loi d'ohm
S - ley de ohmio
ONSHORE WINDS[edit | edit source]

(wind). Winds blowing shoreward from the sea.

F - vents du large
S - vientos del mar
OPERATING FLOW[edit | edit source]

(hydr) (meas). The FLOW rate needed by a HYDROPOWER device to operate at its rated LOAD level.

F - debit nominal
S - flujo de operacion
ORGANIC MATTER[edit | edit source]

(gen). Materials of animal or vegetable origin.

F - matieres organiques
S - materia organica
ORGANIC WASTE[edit | edit source]

(bio). Residues derived from living organisms. Organic wastes may be used as FEEDSTOCK for BIOGAS DIGESTERS. (See also: BIOMASS)

F - dechets organiques
S - desperdicios organicos
ORIENTATION[edit | edit source]

(sol). The arrangement of windows on a building or solar device along a given AXIS to face in a direction best suited to absorb SOLAR RADIATION. This is an essential element in planning PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING systems for homes and other buildings.

F - exposition
S - orientacion
OSMOSIS[edit | edit source]

(gen). The process by which a solvent is DIFFUSED through a semipermeable MEMBRANE into a more CONCENTRATED solution.

F - osmose
S - osmosis
OVERFLOW WEIR[edit | edit source]

(hydr). (See: WEIR)

F - deversoir de trop-plein
S - vertedero de superficie
OVERSHOT WATER WHEEL[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A WATER WHEEL powered by a HEADRACE that discharges over the outer circumference of the wheel. (Syn: overshot gravity wheel)

F - roue en dessus
S - rueda hidraulica de admision superior

P[edit | edit source]

PACKED COLUMN[edit | edit source]

(alc). A type of STILL COLUMN or pipe that is used in ALCOHOL DISTILLATION. It is filled with such material as metal filings, plastic, or glass beads. Packed columns increase ALCOHOL yields by providing continuous redistillation of the ALCOHOL VAPOR as it moves up the still column.

F - colonne garnie
S - columna compacta
PANEMONE[edit | edit source]

(wind). A VERTICAL-AXIS WIND MACHINE, generally a DRAG-TYPE WIND MACHINE, that can react to winds from any direction.

F - panemone
S - molino de eje vertical
PARABOLA[edit | edit source]

(sol). The geometrically-curved shape used in the design of SOLAR COOKERS to focus sunlight on a single point. A parabola is based on a family of quadratic curves.

F - parabole
S - parabola

(sol). A SOLAR COOKER that uses a PARABOLIC DISH to focus sunlight.

F - cuiseur solaire a miroir concave
S - cocina parabolica concentrante
PARABOLIC DISH[edit | edit source]

(sol). A SOLAR ENERGY device shaped like a dish or bowl, with the characteristics of a PARABOLA. It focuses sunlight on a point or a very small area.

F - parabolique solaire
S - plato parabolico
PARABOLIC MIRROR[edit | edit source]

(sol). A device with a large, shiny, curved surface that focuses SOLAR RADIATION on a specific point, such as a cooking vessel, for heating or boiling.

F - miroir parabolique
S - espejo parabolico
S LAW[edit | edit source]

(gen). The law stating that pressure applied to a confined FLUID at any point is transmitted throughout the fluid in all directions. The pressure acts upon every part of the confining vessel at right angles to its interior surfaces, acting equally upon equal areas.

F - loi de Pascal
S - ley de Pascal
PASSIVE SOLAR DESIGN[edit | edit source]

(sol). An architectural design that makes use of the structural elements of a building to heat or cool spaces in the building.

F - systeme solaire passif
S - diseno solar pasivo
PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING[edit | edit source]

(sol). The SOLAR HEATING of a building by use of architectural design, without the aid of mechanical equipment.

F - chauffage solaire passif
S - calefaccion solar pasiva
PATENT SAIL[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). A SAIL fitted with SHUTTERS that are controlled automatically.

F - aile a volets
S - aspa patente
PATHOGENIC ORGANISM[edit | edit source]

(bio). (See: PATHOGENS)

F - organisme pathogene
S - organismos patogenicos
PATHOGENS[edit | edit source]

(bio). Harmful micro-organisms, such as BACTERIA and viruses. Pathogens may be found in human, animal, and other wastes, and help spread disease.

F - microbes pathogenes
S - patogenos
PEAK WATT[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas) (elec). Unit used for the performance rating of PHOTOVOLTAIC CONVERTERS. A system rated at one peak watt will deliver one WATT at the specified working voltage under peak SOLAR IRRADIATION.

F - watt-crete
S - vatio maximo
PEAT[edit | edit source]

(bio) (biocon). Partially decomposed ORGANIC MATTER formed in marshes and swamps. Dried peat is useful as a fuel.

F - tourbe
S - turba
PEBBLE BED[edit | edit source]

(sol). A large bin of uniformly-sized pebbles that is used to store heat in SOLAR HEATING or SOLAR COOLING systems. A pebble bed is one type of HEAT SINK.

F - lit de galets
S - lecho de gravilla
PEDAL POWER[edit | edit source]

(gen). Mechanical or electrical POWER generated by the use of a bicycle-gearing apparatus. Pedal power may be used for buffing, lathing, grinding grain or meat, operating a potter's wheel, driving a small GENERATOR, turning a sharpening stone, operating a corn sheller, and other applications.

F - energie par pedalier
S - potencia generada por pedal
PEDAL-POWER UNIT[edit | edit source]


F - appareil a entrainement par pedales
S - unidad de potencia-pedal
PELTON WHEEL[edit | edit source]

(hydr). An IMPULSE WATER TURBINE in which the pressure of the water supply is concentrated through a few stationary nozzles. The JETS of water strike the BUCKETS, which are mounted on the RUNNER. Pelton wheels usually are limited to installations with HEADS that exceed 500 feet, or about 160 meters. (Syn: Pelton turbine)

F - roue Pelton
S - rueda Pelton
PENSTOCK[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A water conduit from a DAM to a TURBINE or WATER WHEEL. (See also: CHANNEL)

F - conduite forcee
S - paradera de caz
pH[edit | edit source]

(chem) (meas). Potential hydrogen. The symbol that denotes a measurement of the effective hydrogen ion CONCENTRATION. On a scale of 0 to 14, 7 represents neutrality. Numbers less then 7 indicate increasing ACIDITY. Numbers greater than 7 indicate increasing ALKALINITY of a solution.

F - pH
S - pH
PHOTOMETER[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). A device that measures the intensity of light.

F - photometre
S - fotometro
PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAY[edit | edit source]

(sol). A number of PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES that are electrically connected in a series and/or in parallel so as to provide the desired POWER and voltage. The modules are mounted on a sturdy framework that generally faces the equator. The array may be tailored to the requirements of a particular application and location. Such an array is valuable because it can generate electricity from sunlight without the use of moving mechanical parts.

F - chapelet de photopiles
S - conjunto fotovoltaico
PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL[edit | edit source]

(sol). A SOLAR ENERGY device that changes light into electrical ENERGY. The cell is a small square or circular wafer made of treated SILICON or other semiconductor material.

F - cellule photovoltaique
S - celula fotovoltaica
PHOTOVOLTAIC CONVERTER[edit | edit source]


F - convertisseur photovoltaique
S - convertidor fotovoltaico
PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE[edit | edit source]

(sol). The basic building block of a PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAY, which consists of a number of interconnected SOLAR CELLS.

F - module photovoltaique
S - modulo fotovoltaico
PHOTOVOLTAIC PANEL[edit | edit source]


F - panneau photovoltaique
S - panel fotovoltaico
PHOTOVOLTAIC PROCESS[edit | edit source]

(sol). A process by which light rays are converted directly into electrical ENERGY.

F - conversion photovoltaique
S - proceso fotovoltaico
PITCH[edit | edit source]

(wind) (meas). The angle between the BLADE surface and the ANGLE OF ATTACK in a WINDMILL.

F - pas
S - paso
PITCH-BACK WATER WHEEL[edit | edit source]

(hydr). An OVERSHOT WATER WHEEL in which the trough carrying water to the wheel is modified to discharge onto the near side of the wheel, thus reversing the normal direction of rotation.

F - roue hydraulique a jet inverse
S - rueda hidraulica de engranaje
PIT KILN[edit | edit source]

(heat). A KILN made from a hole that is dug in the ground.

F - four en terre
S - horno de foso
PLUG FLOW GENERATOR[edit | edit source]

(biocon) (impl). A BIOGAS DIGESTER with no mechanical agitation through which the SLURRY passes along in more or less discrete "plugs," creating a cycle of "first in-first out." The EFFLUENT is then theoretically composed only of older slurry. The plug flow design differs from traditional designs, in which all slurry is purposely mixed together in a single pit or tank.

F - generateur a effet bouchon
S - generador de flujo
POLL ENDS[edit | edit source]

(arc) (wind). (See: CANISTER)

F - bouts de mats
S - puntas
POLYSACCHARIDE[edit | edit source]

(chem). (See: STARCH)

F - polysaccharide
S - polisacarido
POLYURETHANE FOAM[edit | edit source]

(constr). A very lightweight plastic or other synthetic insulating material.

F - mousse de polyurethanne
S - espuma de poliuretano
POLYVINYL ACETATE[edit | edit source]

(chem) (sol). A clear plastic made of CELLULOSE ACETATE and used as GLAZING on SOLAR COLLECTORS.

F - acetate de polyvinyle
S - acetato de polivinilo
PONCELET WHEEL[edit | edit source]

(hydr). An UNDERSHOT WATER WHEEL made with curved metal BLADES.

F - roue Poncelet
S - rueda hidraulica Poncelet
POST MILL[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). This is the earliest type of European WINDMILL. The body of the windmill is balanced on a large post and trestle. The entire body revolves to turn the BLADES into the wind.

F - moulin pivot
S - molino de poste
POTENTIAL HYDROGEN[edit | edit source]

(chem) (meas). (See: pH)

F - potentiel d'hydrogene
S - potencial de hidrogeno
POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH[edit | edit source]

(meas). A measurement of gas pressure. Commonly abbreviated as psi.

F - livres par pouce carre
S - libras/[pulgada.sup.2]
POWER[edit | edit source]

(gen). The rate at which ENERGY is consumed or produced.

F - puissance
S - potencia
POWER COEFFICIENT[edit | edit source]

(wind) (meas). The ratio of the POWER extracted by a WIND MACHINE ROTOR to the power available in a wind stream.

F - coefficient de puissance
S - coeficiente de potencia
POWER DENSITY[edit | edit source]

(wind) (meas). The amount of POWER per unit of a cross-sectional area of a wind stream.

F - puissance volumique
S - densidad de potencia
PRECULTURE[edit | edit source]

(alc). A method for reducing the time and increasing the EFFICIENCY of FERMENTATION. The preculture process involves CONCENTRATING the ALCOHOL-producing YEAST before introducing it into the FERMENTATION TANK.

F - preculture
S - precultivo
PREPARED ORGANIC WASTE[edit | edit source]

(biocon). BIOMASS mixed with water for use in a BIOGAS DIGESTER. (Syn: SLURRY)

F - dechets organiques prepares
S - desperdicio organico preparado
PREVAILING WIND[edit | edit source]

(wind). The direction from which the wind blows most often. This is an important consideration in selecting a site for a WINDMILL.

F - vent dominant
S - viento dominante
PRODUCER GAS[edit | edit source]

(prod). A combination of COMBUSTIBLE GASES created through the combustion of wood or coal in a controlled-air environment. Producer gas may be used to drive gasoline or diesel engines.

F - gaz de gazogene
S - gas pobre
PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR[edit | edit source]

(gen). A furnace in which COMBUSTIBLE GASES are produced for use as a fuel.

F - gazogene
S - generador de gas pobre
PROOF[edit | edit source]

(alc) (meas). A unit measurement of the strength of ALCOHOL. The proof is twice the percentage of the alcohol in the liquid. Alcohol that is 90 proof contains 45 percent alcohol. (See also: PROOF-GALLON)

F - degre en alcool
S - graduacion normal
PROOF-GALLON[edit | edit source]

(alc) (meas). A standard U.S. gallon of a mixture that is 50 percent ALCOHOL and 50 percent water (i.e., that is 100 proof). An alcohol/water mixture that contains a different ratio of each may be translated into proof-gallons by moving the decimal point of the proof two places to the left and multiplying by the total number of gallons of the mixture.

F - proof-gallon
S - proof-gallon
PSI[edit | edit source]

(meas). Abbreviation for POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH.

F - psi
S - lb/[pulg.sup.2]
PYRANOMETER[edit | edit source]

(meas) (sol). A device that measures total GLOBAL RADIATION.

F - pyranometre
S - piranometro
PYROHELIOMETER[edit | edit source]

(meas) (sol). An instrument that measures SOLAR RADIATION from the sun, or from a small portion of the sky that surrounds the sun.

F - pyroheliometre
S - piroheliometro
PYROLYSIS[edit | edit source]

(chem). The DECOMPOSITION of a substance subjected to very high heat.

F - pyrolyse
S - pirolisis

Q[edit | edit source]

QUAD[edit | edit source]

(meas). One quadrillion BTUs. It is expressed as either [10.sup.15] or 1,000,000,000,000,000 BTus. A quad is used to measure any large unit of energy such as wood, gasoline, coal, etc. For example, a quad can be used to describe the amount of THERMAL ENERGY that is potentially available from burning a certain acreage of trees in WOODSTOVES.

F - quad
S - cuad
QUARTERING[edit | edit source]

(wind). The action of turning a WINDMILL broadside to the WIND.

F - larguage
S - venteo

R[edit | edit source]

RACE[edit | edit source]

(hydr). An AQUEDUCT or CHANNEL that carries water to and from the place where it is used to drive a HYDROPOWER device.

F - chenal
S - canal de trabajo
RADIAL FLOW[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A type of HYDROPOWER device in which the water flows out radially from the power shaft. (See also: FRANCIS TURBINE)

F - ecoulement radial
S - flujo radial
RADIANT ENERGY[edit | edit source]

(sol). ENERGY in the form of electromagnetic waves that travels outward in all directions from its source.

F - energie rayonnante
S - energia radiante
RADIANT PANELS[edit | edit source]

(sol). SOLAR COLLECTORS with integral passages for the FLOW of HEAT TRANSFER FLUID. Heat from the fluid is conducted into a room or building by THERMAL RADIATION.

F - panneaux rayonnants
S - paneles radiantes
RADIATION[edit | edit source]

(sol). Electromagnetic waves that directly transport ENERGY through space. Sunlight is a form of radiation.

F - rayonnement
S - radiacion
RATED POWER CAPACITY[edit | edit source]

(wind) (meas). The expected POWER output of a WIND MACHINE. It is equal to either the maximum power of the machine or to an output at some WIND SPEED less than the maximum speed, but at which GOVERNING controls start to reduce the power.

F - puissance nominale
S - capacidad de potencia tasada
RATED WIND SPEED[edit | edit source]

(meas) (wind). The WIND SPEED at which a WIND MACHINE delivers its RATED POWER CAPACITY.

F - vitesse nominale du vent
S - velocidad eolica tasada
RATE LIMITING STEP[edit | edit source]

(biocon). Whichever stage in the ANAERIOBIC process that is slowest. Since each step in the digestion process requires the preceeding one to be completed before it can begin, the overall gas production rate is limited by the slowest step.

F - stage limitant la cadence
S - etapa de velocidad limitadora
RAW SLUDGE[edit | edit source]

(biocon). Fresh, undried, uncomposted EFFLUENT from a DIGESTER. Also residue in the same condition from the bottom of a digester.

F - boues brutes
S - cienos sin tratar
RAYLEIGH DISTRIBUTION[edit | edit source]

(wind). Standard WIND SPEED DISTRIBUTION that is useful in wind site analysis. It is a probability density function that allows one to model the wind speed distribution based on a single input parameter. (See also: WEIBULL DISTRIBUTION)

F - distribution de Rayleigh
S - distribucion de Rayleigh
REACTION TURBINE[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A WATER TURBINE that uses the mass or weight of water hitting the RUNNER as opposed to being driven by the velocity of the water.

F - turbine a reaction
S - turbina a reaccion
REACTION WATER WHEEL[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A WATER WHEEL that uses the mass or weight of water falling onto it rather than the FLOW.

F - roue hydraulique a reaction
S - rueda hidraulica reactiva
RECIPROCATING ENGINE[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A device that converts the potential ENERGY in a FLUID to mechanical energy by expanding the FLUID against a piston.

F - moteur a pistons
S - maquina alternativa
RECIPROCATING PUMP[edit | edit source]

(wind). A type of water pump commonly used with WINDMILLS. Motion and pressure are applied to the water by a piston moving up and down in a CYLINDER. The piston is powered by the WINDMILL.

F - pompe alternative
S - bomba aspirante e impelente
RECLAIMED OIL[edit | edit source]

(heat). (See: USED OIL)

F - huile de recuperation
S - aceite recuperado
RECOVERED ENERGY[edit | edit source]

(gen). Heat or other ENERGY that normally would be lost during a process, but instead is captured and reused. For example, FLUE gases may be used for drying purposes.

F - energie recuperee
S - energia recobrada
RECTIFIER]] [1][edit | edit source]

(alc) (impl). A second column on an ALCOHOL STILL that is used to further remove water from the ALCOHOL VAPOR, thus increasing the PROOF of the alcohol. This increase in CONCENTRATION is achieved by the repeated interaction of the rising vapor with the liquid DISTILLATE. [2] (elec). A device that converts ALTERNATING CURRENT (ac) into DIRECT CURRENT (dc).

F - [1] colonne de rectification; [2] redresseur
S - [1] rectificadora; [2] rectificador
RECTIFYING COLUMN[edit | edit source]

(alc) (impl). [See: RECTIFIER (alc)]

F - colonne de rectification
S - columna de rectificar
REDUCING SUGAR[edit | edit source]


F - sucre reducteur
S - azucar reductora
REEFING[edit | edit source]

(wind). Rolling and tying down a portion of a WINDMILL SAIL to reduce the area exposed to the wind.

F - prendre les ris
S - recoger las velas
REFLECTANCE[edit | edit source]

(sol). The ratio of RADIATION reflected from a surface to that incident on the surface. [See also: REFLECTIVITY (2)].

F - facteur de reflexion
S - reflectancia
REFLECTED RADIATION[edit | edit source]

(sol). SOLAR RADIATION that has been reflected from such surfaces as the ground or buildings, and which ultimately becomes INCIDENT RADIATION.

F - rayonnement reflechi
S - radiacion reflejada
REFLECTIVITY[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). [1] The ability to reflect SOLAR RADIATION, which is possessed to some degree by all materials. It is called the ALBEDO in atmospheric references. [2] The ratio of RADIANT ENERGY reflected by a body to that falling upon it.

F - pouvoir reflecteur
S - reflectividad
REFLECTOMETER[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). A PHOTOMETER or other electronic device that measures REFLECTANCE or RADIANT ENERGY.

F - reflectometre
S - reflectometro
REFLECTOR[edit | edit source]

(sol). A device that can be used to reflect and focus SOLAR RADIATION.

F - reflecteur
S - reflector
REFLECTOR BACKING[edit | edit source]

(sol). The material used on the rear part of a SOLAR REFLECTOR. (See also: MASONITE)

F - renfort de reflecteur
S - revestimiento reflector
REFLECTOR COOKER[edit | edit source]


F - cuiseur a reflecteur
S - hornillo reflector

(sol). A SOLAR COOKER in which a REFLECTOR concentrates the sun's rays on a cooking device.

F - cuiseur solaire a reflecteur
S - hornillo solar reflector
REFLUX[edit | edit source]

(alc). Liquid ALCOHOL that is condensed in a DISTILLATION COLUMN, and then reintroduced into the column to increase its CONCENTRATION.

F - reflux
S - reflujo
REFRIGERANT[edit | edit source]

(refrig). A VOLATILE substance that can be used as a working FLUID in a cooling system.

F - refrigerant
S - refrigerante
REFRIGERATION[edit | edit source]

(refrig). The act or process of making or keeping something cool or cold. It especially applies to the use of artificial means for cooling.

F - refrigeration
S - refrigeracion
RENEWABLE ENERGY[edit | edit source]

(gen). ENERGY produced from regenerative or virtually inexhaustible resources such as BIOMASS, SOLAR RADIATION, the wind, water, or heat from the Earth's interior.

F - energie renouvelable
S - energia renovable
RENEWABLE RESOURCES[edit | edit source]


F - ressources renouvelables
S - recursos renovables
RESISTANCE VALUE[edit | edit source]

(constr) (meas). A rating of a substance's thermal resistance to summer HEAT GAIN or winter heat loss. It is used as a measure of insulation efficiency. (Syn: R-VALUE) (See also: U-VALUE)

F - resistance thermique
S - valor de resistencia
RETORT[edit | edit source]

(alc) (gen). [1] A vessel in which substances are subjected to heat for the purpose of DISTILLATION or DECOMPOSITION. A retort is distinguished from a STILL in that it is more often used for the treatment of solid or semisolid substances. [2] A closed container used in CHARCOAL production in which COMBUSTIBLE GASES are captured and made into liquids, generally through CONDENSATION.

F - cornue
S - retorta
RETROFITTING[edit | edit source]

(sol). The installation of SOLAR HEATING or SOLAR COOLING systems in existing structures.

F - readaptation
S - modificacion retroactiva
RETURN TIME[edit | edit source]

(wind) (meas). The length of time during which low winds prevent a WINDMILL from reaching its CUT-IN SPEED or START-UP SPEED. The "down time" or time period when the wind is too low to enable a WINDMILL to reach its cut-in speed or start-up speed.

F - temps mort
S - tiempo de restablecimiento
NUMBER[edit | edit source]

(meas) (sol) (wind). The ratio of material forces to VISCOUS forces in any FLUID FLOW. The Reynolds' number is determined through the following equation: (PVD)/U where:

P (rho) = density
V = velocity
D = length of flow distance
U (mu) = viscosity.
F - nombre de Reynolds
S - numero de Reynolds
RICE HUSK STOVE[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A stove designed to use rice husks as its primary fuel.

F - poele a paille de riz
S - estufa de cascaras de arroz
RIGGING[edit | edit source]

(wind) (impl). Collectively, all the ropes and cords used to support the mast of the WINDMILL, and to FURL or unfurl the SAILS.

F - haubanage
S - cordaje
RIPARIAN RIGHTS[edit | edit source]

(hydr). The right of a landowner to the water on or bordering his or her property, including the right to prevent diversion or misuse of upstream water.

F - droits de riverainete
S - derechos riberenos
RISER[edit | edit source]

(alc). A tube that penetrates a plate in a STILL COLUMN, allowing ALCOHOL VAPORS to move up the column. A perforated cap or cup is placed on top of each riser to distribute the vapor into the column section and to prevent water from dripping into the riser.

F - colonne montante
S - tubo de subida
RIVER GENERATOR[edit | edit source]

(elec) (hydr). A HYDROELECTRIC GENERATOR that gets its power from a river or other FLOWING water.

F - generateur riverain
S - generador fluvial
ROCKBED[edit | edit source]

(sol). A heat storage container filled with rocks or pebbles that is used in SOLAR HEATING and SOLAR COOLING systems.

F - lit de pierres
S - fondo de roca
ROCKBED COOLING SYSTEM[edit | edit source]

(sol). A passive air-conditioning system that circulates a building's air through a bed of rocks that has cooled during the night or early morning.

F - refroidissement par lit de pierres, systeme de
S - sistema de enfriamiento con lecho de roca
ROCKER ARM[edit | edit source]

(wind) (impl). A support mechanism that rotates on a shaft at one end while moving up and down at the other. It is used to convert the rotating motion of a WINDMILL to an up-and-down motion, usually for pumping.

F - culbuteur
S - balancin
ROLLER REEFING SAIL[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). A ROTOR BLADE that is fitted with canvas strips (SAILS) wound on ROLLERS. The rollers are used for REEFING the sails.

F - aile a rouleaux de prise de ris
S - aspa con rodillos
ROLLERS[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). BEARINGS between the CURB and the CAP of a TOWER MILL or SMOCK MILL. The rollers allow the top of the MILL to turn into the wind.

F - rouleaux
S - rodillos
ROTOR[edit | edit source]

(wind). The assembly of SAILS or BLADES that rotate about an AXIS created by the WIND SHAFT of a WINDMILL.

F - rotor
S - rotor
ROTOR SHAFT[edit | edit source]

(wind). (See: WIND SHAFT)

F - arbre de rotor
S - eje del rotor
RUNG[edit | edit source]

(hydr) (wind). [1] The BLADES of a WATER WHEEL. [2] The transverse iron rods that hold the SAIL CLOTHS in a WINDMILL.

F - [1] palette; [2] barreau
S - paleta
RUNNER[edit | edit source]

(hydr). The TURBINE wheel.

F - roue de turbine
S - rueda movil
R-VALUE[edit | edit source]


F - resistance thermique
S - valor R

S[edit | edit source]

SACCHARIFICATION[edit | edit source]

(alc). A conversion process using ACIDS, BASES, or ENZYMES in which CARBOHYDRATES are broken down into FERMENTABLE SUGARS. (See also: FERMENTATION)

F - saccharification
S - sacarificacion
SAIL[edit | edit source]

(wind). A piece of cloth attached between each of the SPARS of a WINDMILL for the purpose of catching the wind. Also used to define windmill sails collectively.

F - aile
S - vela
SAIL BACK[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). A single SPAR that replaces the STOCK and WHIP in WINDMILLS that are fitted with iron crosses instead of POLL ENDS.

F - bras d'aile
S - barra del aspa
SAILCLOTH[edit | edit source]

(wind). Very strong cotton or canvas that may be used for SAILS on WINDMILLS.

F - toile a voile
S - lona
SAILWING WINDMILL[edit | edit source]

(wind). A WINDMILL that has a small number of cloth SAILS. Sailwing windmills are usually simple designs, and are most commonly used for water pumping.

F - moulin a volants
S - molino de viento con vela de lona
SALT[edit | edit source]

(chem). A product formed by the neutralization of an ACID by a BASE.

F - sel
S - sal
DIGESTER SYSTEM[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A BIOGAS system that combines METHANE production with facilities to dispose of human excreta. This also is an effective way to eliminate dangerous PATHOGENS.

F - systeme sanitaire/digesteur
S - sistema de saneamiento/digestor
SAVONIUS ROTOR[edit | edit source]

(wind). A WIND MACHINE with a VERTICAL AXIS, often made from split oil drums. It is a DRAG-TYPE device with relatively low EFFICIENCY, but with high starting TORQUE.

F - rotor de Savonius
S - rotor Savonius
SAWDUST STOVE[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A stove designed to use sawdust as its primary fuel.

F - poele a sciure de bois
S - estufa de aserrin
SCOOP WHEEL[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). A vertical, cast-iron wheel with wooden BLADES or scoops that lift water from one level to another. Scoop wheels usually are driven by WINDMILLS.

F - roue a godets
S - rueda de cangilones
SCRUBBING[edit | edit source]

(biocon). [1] Removing unwanted gases from BIOGAS or PRODUCER GAS. [2] The process of removing an undesirable, and usually corrosive, component or components from a COMBUSTIBLE GAS mixture. This is done by passing the mixture upwards and counter to a stream of liquid that is capable of selectively ADSORBING the undesirable components. Gases can also be scrubbed by passing them through iron filings.

F - epuration
S - proceso de lavado
SCUM[edit | edit source]

(biocon). In BIOGAS DIGESTION, a mixture of coarse, fibrous material floating on the surface of the SLURRY. The accumulation of scum may inhibit METHANE production.

F - ecume
S - nata espumosa
SCUM CONTROL DEVICE[edit | edit source]

(biocon) (impl). A mechanism, usually some type of STIRRING device, that is used to break up the layer of SCUM that rises to the surface in a BIOGAS DIGESTER.

F - dispositif pour le controle de l'ecume
S - aparato controlador de la nata

(gen). The law stating that ENERGY FLOWS from a higher CONCENTRATION to a lower concentration.

F - seconde loi de la thermodynamique
S - segunda ley termodinamica
SEED[edit | edit source]

(biocon). (See: INOCULUM)

F - germe
S - semilla
SELECTIVE SURFACE[edit | edit source]

(sol). A specially adapted surface coating for a COLLECTOR that has high SOLAR RADIATION ABSORPTANCE and low THERMAL EMITTANCE. It is used on the surface of ABSORBER PLATES to increase collector EFFICIENCY.

F - vitrage selectif
S - superficie selectiva
SELF-SUPPORTING TOWER[edit | edit source]

(wind). A TOWER, usually made of steel, which supports a WINDMILL without the use of GUY WIRES.

F - pylone autoporteur
S - torre autoportante
SENSIBLE HEAT[edit | edit source]

(heat). That heat, which, when added or subtracted, results only in a temperature change (as opposed to a chemical or other reaction).

F - chaleur sensible
S - calefaccion termosensible
SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE[edit | edit source]

(heat). A heat storage medium in which the addition or removal of heat results only in a temperature change (as opposed to a chemical or other reaction). The storage medium often consists of water or gravel.

F - stockage de chaleur sensible
S - almacenaje termosensible
SHADING COEFFICIENT[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). A method for determining reductions in solar HEAT GAIN caused by certain kinds of GLAZING. It is determined by dividing the solar heat gain through a sheet of glazing under specific conditions by the solar gain through a single-color DOUBLE-GLAZING under the same conditions. The lower the number, the greater the reduction in solar heat gain.

F - coefficient de vitrage
S - coeficiente de sombra
SHEAR[edit | edit source]

(wind). Variations in horizontal WIND SPEED due to the distance of the wind from the ground. The higher the wind is above the ground, the faster it moves because of the reduced friction.

F - cisaillement
S - gradiente transversal de la velocidad del viento
SHOT CURB[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). (See: LIVE CURB)

F - chemin de roulement
S - reborde movil
SHROUD[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc) (hydr). [1] A structure used to concentrate or deflect a stream of wind. [2] A deep rim partially enclosing the BUCKETS in OVERSHOT WATER WHEELS or BREAST WHEELS.

F - [1] carenage; [2] bache
S - refuerzo
SHROUDED WINDMILL[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). A WINDMILL with a funnel-like structure around the outside edge of the SWEPT AREA that forces wind from a larger area to pass through the BLADES.

F - eolienne carenee
S - molino de viento reforzado
SHUTTERS[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). Pivoting slats that are used instead of SAILCLOTH in SPRING SAILS and PATENT SAILS.

F - volets
S - hojas basculantes
SIEVE PLATE[edit | edit source]

(alc). A component of an ALCOHOL STILL COLUMN. It is one of a series of perforated plates that is used to promote the contact of liquid with vapor in the column.

F - plateau perfore
S - placa perforada
SILICON SOLAR CELL[edit | edit source]

(sol). A SOLAR CELL made with the crystalline element SILICON as part of its conductor.

F - cellule solaire a la silicone
S - celula solar de silicio
SILVICULTURAL BIOMASS[edit | edit source]

(biocon). BIOMASS from trees.

F - biomasse de sylviculture
S - biomasa de silvicultura

(sol). A SOLAR COLLECTOR that follows the path of the sun on only one AXIS.

F - capteur a poursuite du soleil autour d'un seul axe
S - colector de seguimiento monoaxial
SINGLE SHUTTERED[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). A SAIL having SHUTTERS on only one side of the WHIP.

F - a obturation simple
S - aspa de monohoja
SITE SELECTION[edit | edit source]

(gen). The process of locating the best available site to build or place a WlND MACHINE, HYDROPOWER device, or SOLAR POWER device.

F - choix du site
S - seleccion del emplazamiento
SKY DOME[edit | edit source]

(sol). The sky above the horizon in all directions, as seen from a particular area.

F - dome du ciel
S - domo aereo
SKYLIGHT[edit | edit source]

(sol). A roof opening that is covered with GLAZING and that allows sunlight to enter a house or room.

F - lucarne
S - tragaluz
SKYSCRAPERS[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). (See: AIR BRAKES)

F - freins a vent
S - rascacielos
SLOPE[edit | edit source]

(hydr) (meas). A CHANNEL FLOW calculation equal to the number of feet a surface "drops" or inclines downward per 1,000 feet of horizontal distance; also expressed in meters of drop per kilometer.

F - pente
S - pendiente
SLUDGE[edit | edit source]

(biocon). Solid material that collects at the bottom of a DIGESTER.

F - boues
S - sedimentos
SLUDGE GAS[edit | edit source]

(biocon). An alternative name used for BIOGAS, particularly when the gas is produced by sewage.

F - gaz de vidange
S - gas de lodo
SLUICE[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A manmade CHANNEL or waterway to conduct water to a HYDROPOWER device. It generally has one or more adjustable gates to regulate the FLOW of water.

F - canal a vannes
S - esclusa
SLUICEWAY[edit | edit source]

(hydr). (See: SLUICE)

F - chenal d'ecluse
S - saetin
SLURRY[edit | edit source]

(biocon). The semisolid material in a BIOGAS DIGESTER consisting of BIOMASS mixed with water.

F - boue
S - fango
SMOCK MILL[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). The timber-framed counterpart to the TOWER MILL. The smock mill frame generally is covered with boarding to protect it from the weather.

F - moulin a calotte pivotante
S - molino a la holandesa
SMOKE CHAMBER[edit | edit source]

(heat). The section in a fireplace FLUE that is directly above the DAMPER.

F - conduite de fumee
S - camara de humo
SODIUM CARBONATE[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A BASE used to control pH (POTENTIAL HYDROGEN). It is useful in maintaining the pH balance in a BIOGAS DIGESTER, and to a somewhat lesser degree in ALCOHOL STILLS.

F - carbonate de sodium
S - carbonato de sodio
SOLAR ABSORBER[edit | edit source]

(sol). A sheet of material, usually copper, aluminum, or steel that forms the surface of a SOLAR COLLECTOR. It collects and retains SOLAR RADIATION, which is passed to a HEAT TRANSFER MEDIUM.

F - absorbeur solaire
S - absorbente solar
SOLAR ABSORPTION[edit | edit source]

(sol). The absorption of SOLAR RADIATION by a material.

F - absorption solaire
S - absorcion solar
SOLAR ALTITUDE[edit | edit source]

(sol). The sun's angle above the horizon, as measured in a vertical plane.

F- hauteur du soleil
S- altura solar
SOLAR ARCHITECTURE[edit | edit source]


F - architecture solaire
S - arquitectura solar
SOLAR ARRAY[edit | edit source]


F - panneau solaire
S - conjunto solar
SOLAR AZIMUTH[edit | edit source]

(sol). The horizontal angle between the sun and due south in the northern hemisphere, or between the sun and due north in the southern hemisphere. (Syn: bearing angle)

F - azimut du soleil
S - azimut solar
SOLAR BATTERY[edit | edit source]

(sol). A BATTERY that is charged through PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS.

F - pile solaire
S - bateria solar
SOLAR CABINET DRYER[edit | edit source]

(sol). (See: SOLAR CROP DRYER)

F - chambre de sechage solaire
S - secador solar de gabinete
SOLAR CELL[edit | edit source]


F - cellule solaire
S - celula solar
SOLAR COATING[edit | edit source]

(sol). FLAT BLACK PAINT or some other ABSORPTIVE substance that is applied to the ABSORBER PLATE of a SOLAR COLLECTOR to help it absorb, rather than reflect, sunlight.

F - couche antireflet
S - revestimiento solar
SOLAR COLLECTOR[edit | edit source]

(sol). A device that gathers and accumulates SOLAR RADIATION to produce heat. Nearly all solar collectors have a layer of GLAZING on top to trap heat that has passed into the collector. Beneath the glazing is a solar ABSORBER PLATE, which transfers heat to a HEAT TRANSFER MEDIUM. The medium may be air, water, an antifreeze solution, or other substance(s).

F - capteur solaire
S - colector de radiacion solar

(sol). Inlets and outlets leading to and from SOLAR COLLECTORS and connecting the collectors with related apparatus. In the case of water tanks that run water through collectors, there will be an outlet near the bottom of the tank and an inlet near the top of the tank. Likewise, there will be an inlet near the bottom of the collector and an outlet near the top of the collector.

F - raccordements pour capteurs
S - conexiones del colector solar

(sol) (meas). The total SOLAR RADIATION that is incident on a COLLECTOR during a specific time period.

F - rendement radiatif
S - rendimiento del colector solar
SOLAR CONCENTRATOR[edit | edit source]

(sol). The part of a SOLAR COLLECTOR that focuses sunlight onto an ABSORBER surface.

F - concentrateur solaire
S - concentrador solar
SOLAR COOKER[edit | edit source]

(sol). A general term for the many types of SOLAR-POWERED cooking devices.

F - cuiseur solaire
S - cocina por calor solar
SOLAR COOLING[edit | edit source]

(sol). A SOLAR SYSTEM used to lower the temperature in a room or a device.

F - refroidissement solaire
S - enfriamiento solar
SOLAR CROP DRYER[edit | edit source]

(sol). An apparatus that uses SOLAR RADIATION to dry rice, grain, fruit, vegetables, or other foods.

F - sechoir solaire pour recoltes
S - secador solar para alimentos
SOLAR CROP DRYER[edit | edit source]

(sol). An apparatus that uses SOLAR RADIATION to dry rice, grain, fruit, vegetables, or other foods.

F - sechoir solaire pour recoltes
S - secador solar para alimentos
SOLAR DECLINATION[edit | edit source]

(sol). The angle of the sun north or south of the equatorial plane. It is plus if north of the plane, and minus if south of the plane.

F - declinaison solaire
S - declinacion solar
SOLAR DISH[edit | edit source]

(sol). (See: PARABOLIC DISH)

F - miroir solaire
S - reflector parabolico
SOLAR DISTILLATE[edit | edit source]

(sol). The product resulting from SOLAR DISTILLATION.

F - distillat solaire
S - destilado solar
SOLAR DISTILLATION[edit | edit source]

(sol). A process in which SOLAR ENERGY is trapped and used to evaporate impure or salty water. The water vapor CONDENSES as distilled water that can be used for drinking or for other uses.

F - distillation solaire
S - destilacion solar
SOLAR DRYER[edit | edit source]

(sol). Any device that uses SOLAR RADIATION to remove moisture from a substance. (See also: SOLAR CROP DRYER)

F - sechoir solaire
S - secador solar
SOLAR DRYING[edit | edit source]

(sol). (See: SOLAR DRYER)

F - sechage par energie solaire
S - secado por energia solar
SOLAR ELECTRICITY[edit | edit source]

(sol). Electricity that is produced from SOLAR ENERGY sources. (See also: PHOTOVOLTAIC PROCESS; PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL)

F - electricite solaire
S - electricidad solar
SOLAR ENERGY[edit | edit source]

(sol). The electromagnetic RADIATION generated by the sun. Solar energy may be converted to useful forms of ENERGY through the PHOTOVOLTAIC PROCESS, THERMAL CONVERSION, or through high temperature concentrators and COLLECTORS. Solar energy initially is usually captured in the form of heat, and is therefore best used for a variety of heating purposes. This may be done through the use of SOLAR COLLECTORS and SOLAR COOKERS. SOLAR RADIATION may also be converted directly into electrical energy through the use of PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS.

F - energie solaire
S - energia solar
SOLAR EYEBALL[edit | edit source]


F - bulbe solaire
S - foco solar
SOLAR FURNACE[edit | edit source]

(sol). A SOLAR CONCENTRATOR used to produce very high temperatures. Also a solar device used to obtain high temperatures by focusing the sun's rays onto a small receiver.

F - four solaire
S - horno solar
SOLAR GAIN[edit | edit source]

(sol). The part of a building's heat supply, or an additional load for cooling, that is provided by SOLAR RADIATION that strikes the building or passes into it through windows.

F - apport solaire
S - ganancia por la energia solar
SOLAR GRAIN DRYER[edit | edit source]

(sol). (See: SOLAR CROP DRYER)

F - sechoir solaire pour cereales
S - secador solar de granos
SOLAR GREENHOUSE[edit | edit source]

(sol). Specific greenhouse designs that take into account basic principles of PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING. Increasingly, solar greenhouses are being attached to dwellings. Excess heat from the greenhouse passes into the dwelling through air CONVECTION and THERMAL CONDUCTANCE from a mutual wall.

F - serre solaire
S - invernadero solar
SOLAR HEATING[edit | edit source]

(sol). The use of a SOLAR SYSTEM to raise the temperature in a room or a device.

F - chauffage solaire
S - calefaccion solar
SOLAR IRRADIANCE[edit | edit source]

(sol). The total amount of SOLAR RADIATION striking a given area.

F - irradiation solaire
S - irradiancia solar
SOLAR OVEN[edit | edit source]

(sol). An oven that relies on SOLAR RADIATION as its source of ENERGY.

F - four solaire
S - horno solar
SOLAR POND[edit | edit source]

(sol). A shallow body of salt water with a black or dark bottom. When incident SOLAR RADIATION penetrates the water, some of it is absorbed by the water. However, a large proportion of the radiation reaches the bottom of the pond. There it is absorbed, heating the bottom surface. The bottom surface in turn heats the water next to it, which then can be used as an ENERGY source through the use of HEAT EXCHANGERS. The pond's salinity should increase with its depth.

F - bassin solaire
S - charca solar
SOLAR POSITION[edit | edit source]

(sol). The location of the sun in the sky during the EQUINOXES, based on the latitude of the observer. Solar position is determined by the value of the SOLAR ALTITUDE and the SOLAR AZIMUTH.

F - position du soleil
S - posicion solar
SOLAR POWER[edit | edit source]

(sol). The rate at which SOLAR ENERGY falls on an area. The area is usually given in terms of the whole Earth.

F - puissance solaire
S - potencia solar
SOLAR PUMP[edit | edit source]

(sol). A pump that operates on SOLAR ENERGY, either by a PHOTOVOLTAIC process or by a thermal system in which a FLUID heated by the sun drives a TURBINE or piston that powers the pump.

F - pompe solaire
S - bomba solar
SOLAR RADIATION[edit | edit source]

(sol). RADIANT ENERGY received from the sun, from both direct exposure and diffuse or reflected sunlight.

F - rayonnement solaire
S - radiacion solar
SOLAR REFLECTOR[edit | edit source]

(sol). A device that reflects SOLAR RADIATION.

F - reflecteur solaire
S - reflector solar
SOLAR REFRIGERATION[edit | edit source]

(sol). A process in which SOLAR RADIATION is used to provide HEAT ENERGY to activate a cooling process.

F - refrigeration solaire
S - refrigeracion solar
SOLAR SALT[edit | edit source]

(sol). SALT obtained by SOLAR DISTILLATION of salt water.

F - sel solaire
S - sal solar
SOLAR SHOWER[edit | edit source]

(sol). A shower bath that uses a SOLAR WATER HEATER to provide hot water.

F - douche solaire
S - ducha solar
SOLAR SITE SELECTOR[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). A circular transparency, similar to a map, that is used to determine solar positions and calculate shading.

F - dispositif de selection de l'emplacement solaire
S - selector del emplazamiento solar
SOLAR SPACE HEATER[edit | edit source]

(sol). A SOLAR HEATING system that heats FLUID on a black metal surface that is under GLAZING. The heated fluid may be circulated during the day and stored at night.

F - appareil de chauffage solaire individuel
S - calentador espacial solar
SOLAR SPECTRUM[edit | edit source]

(sol). The total distribution of electromagnetic RADIATION emitted from the sun. It is usually listed minus those wavelengths that are absorbed by the atmosphere. On Earth, this amounts to about 420 trillion KILOWATT HOURS of SOLAR POWER annually.

F - spectre solaire
S - espectro solar
SOLAR STEAM COOKER[edit | edit source]


F - autoclave solaire
S - horno de vapor solar
SOLAR STILL[edit | edit source]

(sol). A device used for SOLAR DISTILLATION.

F - alambic solaire
S - alambique solar
SOLAR SYSTEM[edit | edit source]

(sol). Any heating, cooling, or POWER system that uses ENERGY generated by the sun.

F - systeme solaire
S - sistema solar
SOLAR WATER HEATER[edit | edit source]

(sol). A water heater that depends on RADIANT ENERGY from the sun as its source of power.

F - chauffage-eau solaire
S - calentador de agua solar
SOLIDITY[edit | edit source]

(wind) (meas). The ratio of the BLADE surface area to the SWEPT AREA of a ROTOR.

F - coefficient de solidite
S - solidez
SOLIDS RETENTION TIME[edit | edit source]

(biocon) (meas). (See: DETENTION TIME)

F - temps de retention des solides
S - periodo de retencion de los solidos
SOLID WASTE[edit | edit source]

(biocon). Waste material in a solid state, such as is found in households, commercial activities, municipal plants, etc. Many solid wastes are useful in BIOCONVERSION processes.

F - dechets solides
S - desperdicios solidos
SOLUBILIZATION[edit | edit source]

(biocon). The first of three stages in the ANAEROBIC DIGESTION of ORGANIC MATTER, in which the complex proteins, CARBOHYDRATES, CELLULOSE, fats, and oils are dissolved by ENZYMES. This HYDROLYSIS transforms the complex compounds into simple amino ACIDS, simple sugars, fatty acids, and glycerol. The simple compounds are rendered into a form that is dissolved easily and can pass through the cell walls of the acid-forming BACTERIA to be FERMENTED.

F - solubilisation
S - solubilizacion
SPARK ARRESTER[edit | edit source]

(impl). Screening, steel wool, or other porous substance(s) that is placed in the distribution pipes from a BIOGAS DIGESTER or PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR. They prevent a spark or flame from passing back up the pipe and causing an explosion.

F - pare-etincelle
S - parachispas
SPARS[edit | edit source]

(wind). The frames extending from the WIND SHAFT of a WIND MACHINE to support the SAILS.

F - bras [1]
S - [1] largueros; [2] varillaje
SPECIFIC GRAVITY[edit | edit source]

(gen). The ratio of the weight of a given volume of a substance to an equal volume of air or water at a given temperature and pressure. The specific gravity, which may be measured by a HYDROMETER, indicates the CONCENTRATION of a substance in a solution. (See also: PROOF).

F - densite
S - gravedad especifica
SPECIFIC SPEED[edit | edit source]

(hydr) (meas). The speed at which a given type of RUNNER in a TURBINE would operate if it were reduced proportionately in size to produce one HORSE-POWER under a one-foot (30.48 centimeter) HEAD. This speed or velocity is expressed in revolutions per minute. It is used to determine the proper type of turbine to install at a HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT under given conditions.

F - vitesse specifique
S - velocidad especifica
SPENT MASH[edit | edit source]

(alc). The semisolid MASH, without the ALCOHOL, following FERMENTATION and DISTILLATION.

F - residu de distillation
S - vinazas
SPENT SLURRY[edit | edit source]

(biocon). (See: EFFLUENT)

F - boue epuisee
S - fango usado
SPILLWAY[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A passage over or around a CHANNEL or DAM through which excess water may escape.

F - deversoir
S - vertedero
SPILLWAY APRON[edit | edit source]

(hydr). (See: SPILLWAY)

F - chenal du deversoir
S - paramento del vertedero
SPILLWAY CHANNEL[edit | edit source]

(hydr). (See: SPILLWAY)

F - canal du deversoir
S - canal vertedor
SPRING SAIL[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). A WINDMILL BLADE fitted with SHUTTERS that are controlled by springs.

F - aile a ressorts
S - aspa de resorte
SQUARE WAVE[edit | edit source]

(wind). A type of ALTERNATING CURRENT (ac), produced by low-cost, solid-state INVERTERS, which may be used for most, but not all, ac appliances.

F - onde rectangulaire
S - onda cuadrada
S-ROTOR[edit | edit source]

(wind). see: SAVONIUS ROTOR)

F - rotor de Savonius
S - rotor S
STACK[edit | edit source]

(constr). A CHIMNEY or other passageway designed to vent smoke from a stove, oven, furnace, etc.

F - corps de cheminee
S - canon
STACK EFFECT[edit | edit source]

(heat). The impulse of a heated gas to rise through a vertical passage, such as a CHIMNEY.

F - effet de cheminee
S - efecto de humero
STACK GAS[edit | edit source]

(heat). Gases resulting from combustion, which pass up a CHIMNEY.

F - gaz de cheminee
S - gases de la chimenea
STAGNATION[edit | edit source]

(sol). The condition that may be reached in a SOLAR COLLECTOR when the sun is shining on the device and no FLUID is flowing through it. The resulting high temperatures may damage the COLLECTOR.

F - stagnation
S - estancacion
STARCH[edit | edit source]

(alc) (chem). A white, tasteless, solid CARBOHYDRATE ([C.sub.6][H.sub.10][O.sub.5]). Starch is a major component of many agricultural crops, such as potatoes, grains, etc., that are used to produce GLUCOSE.

F - amidon
S - almidon
START-UP[edit | edit source]

(biocon). The process of adding INOCULUM to a BIOGAS DIGESTER so that the digester will begin to function.

F - mise en marche
S - puesta en marcha
START-UP SPEED[edit | edit source]

(wind) (meas). The WIND VELOCITY at which a WIND MACHINE begins to rotate.

F - vitesse de mise en marche
S - velocidad de puesta en marcha
STATIC HEAD[edit | edit source]

(hydr). The vertical height from the surface of a body of water to the water outlet of the DISCHARGE PIPE of a TURBINE.

F - hauteur d'elevation
S - altura de elevacion

(gen). (See: PEDAL POWER)

F - appareil stationnaire d'entrainement par pedales
S - unidad de rendimiento del pedal inmovil
STEAM ENGINE[edit | edit source]

(geo) (auto). An engine in which the mechanical force of steam is used as a motive POWER to drive machinery, etc.

F - moteur A vapeur
S - motor de vapor de agua
STEAM GAS[edit | edit source]

(geo). Superheated steam that is used as an ENERGY source. Steam gas is usually obtained from GEOTHERMAL sources.

F - vapeur surchauffee
S - gas de agua
STEAM TURBINE[edit | edit source]

(gen) (geo). A TURBINE that is driven by expanding steam or gas rather then by the velocity or weight of water.

F - turbine a vapeur
S - turbina de vapor
STILL[edit | edit source]

(gen) (alc). [1] An apparatus for DISTILLATION that consists primarily of a closed vessel in which the solution to be distilled is heated. It also includes mechanisms to condense the vapor that is produced. [2] An ALCOHOL distillation unit that consists of a container to heat MASH, a DISTILLATION COLUMN to separate the water from the alcohol, and a CONDENSER to convert ALCOHOL VAPORS into liquid.

F - alambic
S - alambique
STILLAGE[edit | edit source]

(alc). A mixture of non-FERMENTABLE SOLID WASTES and water that remains in a STILL after the ALCOHOL is removed by DISTILLATION. Stillage may be used as an animal feed.

F - residus de distillation non-fermentable
S - residuos
STILL CAP[edit | edit source]

(alc). (See: BUBBLE CAP)

F - calotte de barbotage
S - casquete de alambique
STILL COLUMN[edit | edit source]

(alc) (impl). A component of an ALCOHOL STILL that is used to separate ALCOHOL from the MASH and water. The still column consists of SIEVE PLATES, BUBBLE CAPS, and a DOWNCOMER.

F - colonne de distillation
S - columna de alambique
STIRLING ENGINE[edit | edit source]

(auto). An external combustion engine in which air is alternately heated and cooled to drive a piston up and down. Hydrogen is used instead of air in some newer models. The Stirling engine may in some cases be nonpolluting and more efficient than the internal combustion engine.

F - moteur de Stirling
S - motor Stirling
STIRRING[edit | edit source]

(biocon). Agitating or mixing the SLURRY in a BIOGAS DIGESTER. Stirring helps prevent SCUM buildup and promotes METHANE production.

F - vaguage
S - agitacion
STOCK[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). [1] A bar that is used to support a WINDMILL SAIL. [2] A tapered SPAR that passes through the POLL END of a windmill, supporting a pair of sails. (Syn: sailstock)

F - fut
S - barra
STORAGE[edit | edit source]

(gen). (See: ENERGY STORAGE)

F - stockage
S - almacenado
STORAGE CAPACITY[edit | edit source]

(gen). The total amount of ENERGY that a system is capable of holding for use at a later time. (See also: ENERGY STORAGE)

F - capacite de stockage
S - capacidad de almacenado
STRATIFICATION[edit | edit source]

(sol). In SOLAR HEATING, temperature variations that occur in a substance or an area. The highest temperatures are found higher up and cooler temperatures are found lower down.

F - stratification
S - estratificacion
STRIKING GEAR[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). The mechanism used with PATENT SAILS to apply pressure to SHUTTERS. It consists of a striking rod that passes through the length of the WIND SHAFT. The rod is operated by an endless chain upon which weights are hung. The number of weights is determined by the force of the wind.

F - embrayage
S - engranaje de contacto
STRIPPING COLUMN[edit | edit source]

(alc). The section of the STILL COLUMN in which the ALCOHOL CONCENTRATION in the DISTILLATE is increased and the starting solution is decreased. (Syn: beer column)

F - colonne a desessencier
S - columna de destilacion
SUBMERGED WEIR[edit | edit source]

(hydr). An underwater obstruction that diverts water into a CHANNEL.

F - barrage immerge
S - vertedero sumergido
SUBSTRATE[edit | edit source]

(bio) (biocon). [1] The particular FEEDSTOCK component that is used by bacteria to promote their growth and metabolism. The component often is one particular compound. [2] ORGANIC MATTER that is used to generate METHANE in a BIOGAS DIGESTER. (See: SLURRY)

F - substrat
S - subestrato
SUCROSE[edit | edit source]

(alc) (chem). A FERMENTABLE SUGAR ([C.sub.12][H.sub.22][O.sub.11]) that is commonly found in nature.

F - sucrose
S - sucrosa
SUCTION ANEMOMETER[edit | edit source]

(wind) (meas). A device that measures WIND VELOCITY according to the degree of exhaust caused when the wind is blown through or across a tube.

F - anemometre a aspiration
S - anemometro de succion
SULFURIC ACID[edit | edit source]

(alc) (chem). A strong ACID that is used to increase the acidity, and thus lower the pH (POTENTIAL HYDROGEN), in an ALCOHOL STILL.

F - acide sulfurique
S - acido sulfurico
SUN ANGLE CALCULATOR[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). A set of transparent curves and overlays that tells where the sun is in the sky and that gives other SOLAR ALTITUDES. (See: SOLAR SITE SELECTOR)

F - calculateur d'angle solaire
S - calculador del angulo solar
SUN BASKET[edit | edit source]

(sol). A SOLAR COOKER in the shape of a deep PARABOLA. This cooker may be a woven basket lined with a reflective material.

F - panier solaire
S - cesto solar
SUN EFFECT[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). The amount of heat from the sun that tends to heat an enclosed space.

F - effet solaire
S - efecto solar
SUN-TEMPERING[edit | edit source]

(sol). A heating system that involves a significant daytime SOLAR GAIN and an effective distribution system, but which generally lacks a STORAGE function.

F - dispositif de repartition de l'energie solaire
S - atemperacion solar
SUN-TRACKING DEVICE[edit | edit source]

(sol) (impl). A device attached to a SOLAR COLLECTOR that automatically turns the face of the collector towards the sun.

F - dispositif de poursuite du soleil
S - dispositivo de seguimiento solar
SUPERNATANT[edit | edit source]

(biocon). The liquid portion of the SLURRY that floats above the SLUDGE in a BIOGAS DIGESTER.

F - fraction surnageante
S - sobrenatatil
SWASH PLATE[edit | edit source]

(wind). A disk set obliquely on a rotating AXIS. It acts as a CAM to convert rotational movement into up-and-down movement.

F - plateau oscillant
S - plato oscilante
SWEEP[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). (See: SAIL)

F - balayage
S - barrer
SWEPT AREA[edit | edit source]

(wind) (meas). The area in a plane that is perpendicular to the wind through which a WINDMILL's BLADES pass. The area is defined by the circumference of the circle formed by the rotating blades, and is one factor in determining the amount of WIND POWER available from the wind.

F - zone balayee
S - area barrida
SWING POT[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). A pivoting bearing that is sometimes used to support the WIND SHAFT of a WINDMILL.

F - palier pivotant
S - cojinete pivotante
SWORD POINT[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). The amount that a SAILCLOTH is rolled up or REEFED to reduce its exposure to the wind. This term refers to the pointed end on a reefed SAIL. (See also: REEFING)

F - prise de ris
S - punto de recogida
SYNCHRONOUS INVERTER[edit | edit source]

(elec) (wind). An electronic device that can be used with a WIND GENERATOR, to convert DIRECT CURRENT (dc) to ALTERNATING CURRENT (ac), but which must be powered by another ac source.

F - inverseur synchrone
S - convertidor sincronico

T[edit | edit source]

TABOR SURFACE[edit | edit source]

(sol). A black nickel SELECTIVE SURFACE coating that typically absorbs 90 percent of the incoming SOLAR RADIATION but which radiates only about 10 percent as much radiation as would be emitted by a coat of FLAT BLACK PAINT.

F - surface de tabor
S - superficie tabor
TAIL[edit | edit source]

(wind). A flat piece of sheet metal that is attached to the extension of the WINDSHAFT of a WINDMILL. The plane of the tail is normally perpendicular to the wind so the tail may intercept changes in wind direction and turn the ROTOR around to face the wind. (Syn: vane)

F - empennage
S - punta del aspa
TAIL POLE[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). The projecting SPAR used to turn a WINDMILL that is not equipped with automatic WINDING gear.

F - barre de queue
S - saliente del aspa
TAILRACE[edit | edit source]

(hydr). The discharging CHANNEL of a HYDROPOWER system. It is that section of a RACE that is downstream of a hydropower device.

F - bief d'aval
S - canal de descarga
TAILWATER[edit | edit source]

(hydr). Water passing back into a discharging CHANNEL after being applied to a HYDROPOWER device.

F - eau d'aval
S - agua de descarga
TAILWATER LEVEL[edit | edit source]

(hydr) (meas). The depth of the TAILWATER as measured at a reference point on its surface.

F - niveau de l'eau d'aval
S - nivel de la descarga
TAILWINDED[edit | edit source]

(wind). The condition when a WINDMILL is caught by a sudden change in wind direction, which exerts pressure on the wrong side of the SAIL assembly.

F - a vent arriere
S - con viento de cola
THERMAL[edit | edit source]

(gen). Having to do with the use or production of heat. Also any reaction caused by heat.

F - thermique
S - termico
THERMAL ADMITTANCE[edit | edit source]

(heat) (meas). The total amount of BTUs that a square foot (929 square centimenters) of a surface will admit in one hour.

F - admittance thermique
S - admision termica
THERMAL COLLECTOR[edit | edit source]

(sol). (See: COLLECTOR)

F - capteur thermique
S - colector termico
THERMAL CONDUCTANCE[edit | edit source]

(heat) (meas). The amount of heat that will pass through a given amount of material in a given amount of time, and with a unit temperature difference maintained between the surfaces of the material under uniform and steady conditions.

F - conductance thermique
S - termoconductancia
THERMAL CONDUCTION[edit | edit source]

(heat). Heat transfer by direct contact from one substance to another of a lower temperature.

F - transmission de chaleur
S - termotransmision
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY[edit | edit source]

(heat) (meas). The ability of a material to conduct heat. It is commonly measured in units of THERMAL CONDUCTANCE.

F - conductivite thermique
S - termoconductibilidad
THERMAL EFFICIENCY[edit | edit source]

(heat) (meas). A percentage that indicates the available heat that is converted to useful purposes. Thermal efficiency is used to evaluate wood-conserving stoves and numerous other devices.

F - rendement thermique
S - termorendimiento
THERMAL ENERGY[edit | edit source]

(heat). ENERGY from heat.

F - energie thermique
S - termoenergia
THERMAL LAG[edit | edit source]

(meas). The time required for the temperature of an area to reach that of an adjacent area, either by heating or cooling. For example, the time required for indoor air temperature to reach the cooler outside air temperature when there is no additional heat added to the house; or the time required for the inside surface of a TROMBE WALL to reach the temperature of the outside surface, which is exposed to the sun.

F - retard thermique
S - retardo termico
THERMAL MASS[edit | edit source]

(gen). Material or mass of sufficient size and density to store heat. Thermal mass walls are often used in buildings that use PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING techniques and NIGHT SKY RADIATION. (See also: TROMBE WALL)

F - masse thermique
S - masa termica
THERMAL POWER[edit | edit source]

(gen). Any type of ENERGY generated or developed through the use of HEAT ENERGY.

F - puissance thermique
S - termopotencia
THERMAL WINDS[edit | edit source]

(wind). Winds that are caused by the heating of the ground by SOLAR RADIATION.

F - vents thermiques
S - vientos termicos
THERMOCOUPLE[edit | edit source]

(meas) (impl). A device used to measure temperature. It is based on the principle that an electrical current is produced when two dissimilar wires are joined together and the junction is heated. Thermocouples are often used to measure temperatures at different levels in BIOGAS DIGESTERS, WOOD STOVES, KILNS, or other devices where use of a conventional thermometer would be difficult.

F - thermocouple
S - termopar
THERMOPHILLIC BACTERIA[edit | edit source]

(biocon). BACTERIA that grow best in a temperature range between 122-131 [degrees] F (50-55 [degrees] C).

F - bacteries thermophiles
S - bacteria termofilica
THERMOSYPHON[edit | edit source]

(sol). A CLOSED LOOP SYSTEM in which water automatically circulates between a SOLAR COLLECTOR and a water storage tank above it. A solar collector based on the THERMOSYPHON PRINCIPLE uses the natural difference in density between the warmer and cooler portions of a liquid.

F - thermosiphon
S - termosifon


F - circulation de thermosiphon
S - circulacion por termosifon
THERMOSYPHON EFFECT[edit | edit source]

(sol). (See: THERMOSYPHON)

F - effet thermosiphon
S - efecto de termosifon
THERMOSYPHON PRINCIPLE[edit | edit source]

(gen) (sol). The tendency of heated liquids to rise. In a SOLAR WATER HEATER, this principle is used to lift water from a SOLAR COLLECTOR to a storage tank above it without the use of a pump.

F - principe du thermosiphon
S - principio de termosifon
THIN STILLAGE[edit | edit source]

(biocon). The water soluble fraction of FERMENTED MASH plus the mash water.

F - residu dilue de distillation
S - residuos liquidos
TIDAL ENERGY[edit | edit source]

(ocean). The KINETIC ENERGY existing in the tides by virtue of the moving mass of water.

F - energie des marees
S - energia mareal
TIDAL POWER[edit | edit source]

(ocean). Mechanical POWER generated by the rise and fall of ocean tides, which may be converted into electricity.

F - puissance maremotrice
S - fuerza mareal
TILT ANGLE[edit | edit source]

(sol). The angle at which a SOLAR COLLECTOR is tilted upward from the horizon for maximum solar exposure and maximum heat collection.

F - angle d'inclination
S - angulo de inclinacion
TIME LAG[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). (See: THERMAL LAG)

F - retard
S - tiempo de retardo
TIP SPEED[edit | edit source]

(wind) (meas). The speed of the outer end or tip of a BLADE of a WINDMILL ROTOR. This speed may be faster than the rotation rate of the WIND SHAFT, and may be faster or slower than the actual WIND SPEED.

F - vitesse peripherique
S - velocidad de giro de las aspas
TIP SPEED RATIO[edit | edit source]

(wind) (meas). The quotient of the TIP SPEED and the actual WIND SPEED.

F - quotient de vitesse peripherique
S - relacion de las velocidades de giro
TORQUE[edit | edit source]

(gen). Any force that acts to produce rotation. The measured ability of a rotating part, such as a gear or shaft.

F - couple
S - par
TOTAL ENERGY HOUSE[edit | edit source]

(gen). A house that is heated, cooled, and receives its cooking and lighting POWER, completely from ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES.

F - maison a energie integrale
S - casa energetica total
TOTAL SOLIDS[edit | edit source]

(biocon) (meas). The proportion in weight of solids in a sample of SLURRY or other EFFLUENT (e.g. MASH).

F - fraction solide
S - solidos totales
TOWER[edit | edit source]

(wind). The main supporting structure of a WIND MACHINE. Towers are usually made of wood or steel, and are suitably braced to withstand the stress to which they are subjected.

F - pylone
S - torre
TOWER MILL[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). A WINDMILL made of masonry or brickwork, and usually fitted with a REVOLVING CAP.

F - eolienne sur pylone
S - molino de torre
TOXIN[edit | edit source]

(bio) (biocon). A material that inhibits the growth and metabolism of or kills micro-organisms, often by interfering with the normal chemical or biochemical processes. A toxin may cause a BIOGAS DIGESTER to stop producing gas.

F - toxine
S - toxina

(sol). A PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAY that follows the path of the sun across the sky.

F - dispositif photovoltaique a poursuite solaire
S - conjunto fotovoltaico de seguimiento
TRACKING[edit | edit source]

(sol). Referring to adjustments that cause a SOLAR COOKER or a SOLAR COLLECTOR to "track" or follow the sun's path across the sky. Tracking is done either automatically or manually.

F - poursuite du soleil
S - seguimiento
TRACKING CONTROL[edit | edit source]

(sol) (impl). (See: AUTOMATIC TRACKING)

F - controle de la poursuite
S - control del seguimiento
TRAILING EDGE[edit | edit source]

(wind). The edge of a WINDMILL BLADE that lies on the side opposite the direction of rotation.

F - arete arriere
S - borde posterior
TRANSDUCER[edit | edit source]

(gen). A device that converts ENERGY from one form into another (e.g., PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL).

F - transducteur
S - transductor
TRANSFER MEDIUM[edit | edit source]

(sol). A substance that carries heat From a SOLAR COLLECTOR to a storage area or from a storage area to be warmed in a collector. Transfer mediums are usually either air, water, or antifreeze solutions.

F - agent de transfert
S - medio de transferencia
TRANSMITTANCE[edit | edit source]

(sol) (meas). The ratio of the RADIANT ENERGY transmitted through a substance to the total radiant energy falling on its surface. Transmittance is always affected by the thickness and composition of the substance, as well as by the INCIDENT ANGLE.

F - facteur de transmission
S - transmision
TRASH RACK[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A protective "screen" made of vertical bars that catches leaves, grass, and debris, keeping clear the intake of a HYDROPOWER device.

F - grille pare-bois
S - parrilla colectora
TREADLE MECHANISM[edit | edit source]

(gen). (See: TREADLE POWER)

F - mecanisme a pedale
S - mecanismo de pedal
TREADLE POWER[edit | edit source]

(gen). A use of foot POWER in which an up-and-down motion of the foot on a pedal produces a rotating motion on a machine.

F - puissance de pedale
S - energia producida por pedal
TREATED EFFLUENT[edit | edit source]

(biocon). Discharge from a BIOGAS DIGESTER that has been rendered harmless by reducing the number of PATHOGENS in it. The treatment often consists of either drying or COMPOSTING the EFFLUENT.

F - effluent traite
S - efluente tratado
TROMBE WALL[edit | edit source]

(constr) (heat) (sol). A masonry wall located directly inside windows that face the equator. The wall functions simultaneously as a structural element of the building and as a SOLAR COLLECTOR and HEAT STORAGE unit. (See also: THERMAL MASS)

F - mur de trombe
S - pared de trombe
TRUNION[edit | edit source]

(impl) (wind). A pin or pivot that is mounted on BEARINGS to rotate or turn something. It usually is used as a WINDMILL component. (See also: TURNTABLE)

F - tourillon
S - munon
TUBE-IN-PLATE ABSORBER[edit | edit source]

(sol). A metal ABSORBER PLATE with passages through which HEAT TRANSFER FLUID flows.

F - absorbeur a tubes internes
S - absorbedor con placa de tubos
TUBE-TYPE COLLECTOR[edit | edit source]

(sol). A COLLECTOR in which the TRANSFER MEDIUM FLOWS through metal tubes fastened to an ABSORBER PLATE.

F - capteur a tubes solidaires
S - colector con tubos
TURBINE[edit | edit source]

(gen). A device that converts the ENERGY in a stream of FLUID into mechanical energy. By passing the stream through a system of fixed and/or moving BLADES, a drive shaft is rotated.

F - turbine
S - turbina
TURBINE WHEEL[edit | edit source]

(hydr). The part of a WATER TURBINE that is attached to a drive shaft, and which holds the BLADES or CUPS that cause the wheel to rotate when struck by a stream of steam or water. The wheel rotates the shaft to produce mechanical or electrical POWER. (Syn: RUNNER)

F - roue de turbine
S - rueda turbina
TURBULENCE[edit | edit source]

(wind). Irregular motion and GUSTS in the WIND SPEED. (See also: MECHANICAL TURBULENCE)

F - turbulence
S - turbulencia
TURGO IMPULSE TURBINE[edit | edit source]

(hydr). An improved version of the PELTON WHEEL in which the JET is set at an angle to the face of the RUNNER. Water strikes the front of the BUCKETS and discharges at the opposite side.

F - turbine a impulsion turgo
S - turbina de impulsion turgo
TURNAROUND EFFICIENCY[edit | edit source]

(gen) (meas). The resulting EFFICIENCY when ENERGY is converted from one form to another and then changed back again into its original form or state.

F - rendement aller-retour
S - eficiencia resultante
TURNTABLE[edit | edit source]

(wind). A rotating platform on which the ROTOR, ROTOR SHAFT, and TAIL of a WINDMILL may move to orient the BLADES or SAILS into the wind.

F - plaque tournante
S - plataforma giratoria

U[edit | edit source]

ULTRA-VIOLET RADIATION[edit | edit source]

(sol). Electromagnetic RADIATION, usually from the sun, that consists of wavelengths that are shorter than the violet end of the visible spectrum.

F - rayons ultra-violet
S - radiacion ultravioleta
UNDERSHOT WATER WHEEL[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A WATER WHEEL driven by water that strikes the underside of the wheel.

F - roue en dessous
S - rueda hidraulica de admision inferior
UNDIGESTED SOLIDS[edit | edit source]

(biocon). Heterogenous BIOMASS, contained in either the SLURRY or EFFLUENT, which has not DECOMPOSED in a BIOGAS DIGESTER.

F - solides non-digeres
S - solidos sin digerir
UNGLAZED COLLECTOR[edit | edit source]

(sol). A COLLECTOR without a cover.

F - capteur non-vitre
S - colector no vidriado
UPDRAFT[edit | edit source]

(prod) (gen). [1] Referring to a PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR in which the air-gas mixture flows upward to the engine. [2] Any cooking or heating device (e.g., a KILN) in which air for CONVECTION or combustion flows upward through the device.

F - tirage vers le haut
S - corriente aerea ascendente
UPLONG[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). A longitudinal bar in the BACKSTAY of a SAIL.

F - barre longitudinale
S - varilla longitudinal
UPWIND[edit | edit source]

(wind). [1] On the same side as the direction from which the wind is blowing (i.e. , in the path of the oncoming wind). [2] A type of WINDMILL in which the ROTOR remains between the oncoming wind and the TOWER.

F - vent de proue
S - viento contrario
USED OIL[edit | edit source]

(heat). Automotive or other lubrication oil, which is "used up" or no longer useful for its original purpose. If mixed with water at a ratio of five to one, and then dripped onto a heated metal sheet, used oil will burst into flames. This makes it useful as a fuel. (Syn: waste oil)

F - huile epuisee
S - aceite usado
USEFUL ENERGY GAIN[edit | edit source]

(sol). The ENERGY absorbed by a SOLAR COLLECTOR that is not lost to the surrounding atmosphere and which may be used for space or water heating.

F - gain energetique utile
S - ganancia de energia util
USEFUL SOLAR HEAT[edit | edit source]

(sol). Heat delivered by a SOLAR COLLECTOR that can be applied for cooking, heating, or other purposes.

F - chaleur solaire utile
S - calor solar util
USEFUL WATER CAPACITY[edit | edit source]

(hydr) (meas). The volume of water that a reservoir can hold and usefully exploit, and which lies between the lowest and highest levels normally contained in the reservoir.

F - capacite utile en eau
S - capacidad aprovechable de agua
U-VALUE[edit | edit source]

(heat) (meas). The amount of heat that FLOWS in or out of a substance under constant conditions, in one hour, when there is a one degree difference in temperature between the air inside and outside the building. U-value is the inverse of RESISTANCE-VALUE.

F - valeur U
S - valor U

V[edit | edit source]

VACUUM DISTILLATION[edit | edit source]

(gen). DISTILLATION under reduced pressure. This lowers the boiling point of the distilled material so that it will not crack or decompose.

F - distillation sous vide
S - vacuodestilacion
VALVE ASSEMBLY[edit | edit source]

(gen). The assembled parts of a valve.

F - garniture de soupape
S - montaje de valvula
VANE]] [1][edit | edit source]

(hydr) (See: GUIDE VANE); [2] (wind) (See: TAIL)

F - aube
S - aspa
VAPOR LOCK[edit | edit source]

(auto). A blockage in a fuel line that is caused when the fuel vaporizes.

F - tampon de vapeur
S - obstruccion por vapor
VAPOR PRESSURE[edit | edit source]

(chem) (meas). The pressure of a vapor while in contact with its solid or liquid form. This is also referred to as saturated vapor pressure. The pressure rises with any increase in temperature.

F - tension de vapeur
S - presion del vapor
VERTICAL-AXIS WATER WHEEL[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A WATER WHEEL that drives a vertical axis instead of the more common horizontal axis

F - roue hydraulique a axe vertical
S - rueda hidraulica de eje vertical
VERTICAL-AXIS WIND MACHINE[edit | edit source]

(wind). A WIND MACHINE in which the WINDSHAFT is on a vertical axis. This type of device may accept wind from any direction. (See also: DARRIEUS ROTOR; SAVONIUS ROTOR)

F - eolienne axe vertical
S - generador eolico de eje vertical
VIOLET CELL[edit | edit source]

(sol). A type of SILICON SOLAR CELL that is more effective than conventional PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS in converting sunlight to electricity from the violet and ULTRA-VIOLET range of the light spectrum.

F - cellule violette
S - celula violeta
VISCOSITY[edit | edit source]

(chem). The resistance to FLOW or change of shape due to molecular cohesion and internal friction in FLUIDS. Viscosity varies inversely with temperature.

F - viscosite
S - viscosidad
VOLATILE[edit | edit source]

(gen) (refrig). [1] Easily burned, unstable, or explosive. [2] Liquids that are readily evaporated at a relatively low temperature.

F - volatile
S - volatil
VOLATILE ACIDS[edit | edit source]

(biocon). Fatty ACIDS of a low molecular weight. These acids are very SOLUBLE.

F - acides volatiles
S - acidos volatiles

W[edit | edit source]

WASTE CONVERSION TO ENERGY[edit | edit source]

(biocon). (See: BIOCONVERSION)

F - conversion des dechets en energie
S - conversion energetica de desperdicios
WASTE HEAT[edit | edit source]

(heat). Heat that is left after useful ENERGY generation.

F - chaleur perdue [1]
S - calor perdido
WATER-AIR HEAT EXCHANGER[edit | edit source]

(heat). A HEAT EXCHANGER in which FLUIDS may either be heated or cooled by water or air.

F - echangeur de chaleur eau/air
S - termopermutador de agua-aire
WATER BED[edit | edit source]

(sol). Shallow plastic bags that are filled with water and placed on roofs of homes or buildings. In cooler climates, the bags collect SOLAR ENERGY during the day, and radiate heat to the building during the day and radiate this heat to the sky at night, thus cooling the building. In warmer climates, panels are placed over the bags during the day and removed at night so the bags can draw off heat from the building and keep it cool.

F - lit d'eau
S - lecho de agua
WATER CHUTE[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A steep CHANNEL by which water descends in force. Water chutes are used to create or increase the HEAD for a HYDROPOWER system.

F - chute d'eau
S - caida de agua
WATER HYACINTHS[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A type of water plant with a high carbon content, which makes it very useful as FEEDSTOCK for BIOGAS production.

F - eichornia
S - jacinto de agua
WATER JACKET[edit | edit source]

(auto) (prod). A casing or compartment containing water that is placed around all or part of a device to keep it cool, as around the cylinders or cylinder head of an internal combustion engine.

F - chemise a eau
S - envuelta de agua
WATER MILL[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A MILL driven by a WATER WHEEL.

F - moulin hydraulique
S - molino hidraulico
WATERPOWER[edit | edit source]

(hydr). The ENERGY in water as derived from its weight or momentum, and which may be used to drive machinery, generate electricity, or for other purposes. (Syn: HYDROPOWER)

F - energie hydraulique
S - energia hidraulica
WATER PUMPING WINDMILLS[edit | edit source]

(wind). (See: WIND-POWERED PUMP)

F - eoliennes de pompage
S - molinos de viento con bombas hidraulicas
WATER SEAL[edit | edit source]

(biocon). The part of a GASHOLDER designed to prevent the METHANE from mixing with air and becoming potentially explosive. It generally is created by submerging a portion of the holder in water.

F - joint hydraulique
S - junta hidraulica
WATERSHED[edit | edit source]

(hydr). [1] the divide or crestline dividing two drainage areas. [2] The area draining into a river, stream etc.

F - [1] ligne de partage des eaux; [2] bassin hydrographique
S - divisoria de aguas
WATER TURBINE[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A device that converts the ENERGY of falling water into rotating mechanical energy. Water turbines are usually smaller than WATER WHEELS and operate at the higher speeds required to generate electricity.

F - turbine hydraulique
S - turbina hidraulica
WATER WHEEL[edit | edit source]

(hydr). A wheel with BUCKETS or BLADES that allow it to be turned by the weight or velocity of falling water or by water moving underneath it.

F - roue hydraulique
S - rueda hidraulica
WATT[edit | edit source]

(elec) (meas). The unit rate at which work is done in an electrical circuit. One watt equals one JOULE of work per second.

F - watt
S - vatio
WAVE POWER[edit | edit source]

(ocean). The production of electricity by harnessing ocean wave movements through the use of specialized TURBINES or other devices.

F - energie des vagues
S - energia de las olas
WEATHERED SAILS[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). SAILS with variable pitch from the inner to the outer edge.

F - ailes a airage
S - velas inclinadas
WEATHER STRIPPING[edit | edit source]

(gen). Narrow strips of rubber, felt, metal or other material that are used to conserve ENERGY by preventing air INFILTRATION around doors or windows.

F - bourrelets d'etancheite
S - moldura
W.E.C.S. or [[WECS


F - S.C.E.E. ou SCEE
S - S.C.E.E. o SCEE
WEIBULL DISTRIBUTION[edit | edit source]

(wind) (meas). A probability density function that allows one to model the WIND SPEED DISTRIBUTION for a given site, based on certain input parameters. A mathematical application of the Weibull probability density function gives the wind speed distribution. The Weibull distribution is a two-parameter function, whereas the RAYLEIGH DISTRIBUTION is a simplified Weibull that only uses one parameter. (See also: RAYLEIGH DISTRIBUTION)

F - distribution de Weibull
S - distribucion de Weibull
WEIR[edit | edit source]

(hydr). An obstruction placed across a stream to divert the water to make it FLOW through a desired CHANNEL, which may be a notch or opening in the weir itself. A weir also is that part of a dam, embankment, CANAL, etc. that contains gates, and over which surplus water flows. A calibrated rod can be placed before the opening in a weir to measure flow. Weirs are sometimes set up exclusively as flow-measuring devices. (Syn: waterweir)

F - deversoir
S - presa de aforo
WET-BULB TEMPERATURE[edit | edit source]

(meas). A measure of the relative humidity in a room. It is taken by a special thermometer whose bulb is kept wet.

F - temperature de bulbe humide
S - temperatura de bola humeda
WET SLURRY[edit | edit source]

(biocon). (See: LIQUID SLURRY)

F - boue humide
S - fango mojado
WET STEAM[edit | edit source]

(geo). Underground water that is hotter than the boiling point, but which remains liquid because of high surrounding pressures. Reservoirs of this superheated water may be tapped, producing a mixture of water and steam that flows to the surface and which may provide power for a TURBINE or other machinery.

F - vapeur humide
S - vapor saturado
WHEELS[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). (See: ROLLERS)

F - roues
S - muelas
WHIP[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). The principal longitudinal frame for the individual WINDMILL SAIL. It is strapped and bolted to the face of the BLADE.

F - bras [2]
S - varillaje
WIND CONCENTRATOR[edit | edit source]

(wind). A device or structure that is used to concentrate a wind stream.

F - concentrateur du vent
S - concentrador de viento
WIND DIRECTION[edit | edit source]

(wind). The forward course along which the wind is blowing.

F - direction du vent
S - direccion del viento
WIND ELECTRIC SYSTEM[edit | edit source]

(wind). A system in which a WINDMILL is used to generate electricity. A windmill can either be used with an ALTERNATOR or DYNAMO to provide electricity, which is either stored in batteries or used directly to run appliances.

F - electricite eolienne, systeme de
S - sistema electrogeno eolico
WIND ENERGY[edit | edit source]

(wind). ENERGY that is tapped from the natural movement of the air. Wind energy is considered a form of SOLAR ENERGY because wind is caused by variations in the amount of heat that the sun sends to different parts of the earth. It may be converted into electrical or mechanical POWER through the use of a WIND MACHINE.

F - energie du vent
S - energia eolica

(wind). The conversion of WIND ENERGY into electrical, mechanical, or thermal energy through the use of WIND MACHINES. Commonly abbreviated as W.E.C.S. or WECS.

F - conversion de l'energie eolienne, systeme de
S - sistema de conversion de la energia eolica
WIND FURNACE[edit | edit source]

(wind). A WIND MACHINE that converts WIND POWER into HEAT ENERGY.

F - four eolien
S - horno eolico
WIND GAUGE[edit | edit source]

(wind) (meas). Any instrument that measures WIND VELOCITY. (Syn: ANEMOMETER)

F - indicateur de vent
S - anemometro
WIND GENERATOR[edit | edit source]

(wind). A type of WINDMILL that extracts ENERGY from the wind to produce electricity by driving a GENERATOR. It generally has two or three narrow BLADES that turn at a high speed, often using gearing to multiply the number of revolutions per minute up to a range required by the generator.

F - eolienne generatrice
S - generador eolico
WINDING[edit | edit source]

(wind) (arc). The action of turning the WINDMILL CAP into the WIND. This is done either automatically or manually. (Pronounced to rhyme with finding.)

F - virer
S - venteamiento
WIND LOAD RATING[edit | edit source]

(wind) (meas). A specification used to indicate the resistance of a WINDMILL TOWER to the force of the wind.

F - puissance eolienne nominale
S - clasificador de la carga eolica
WIND MACHINE[edit | edit source]

(wind). Any of several types of wind-driven devices that are used to extract useful POWER from the wind.

F - eolienne
S - maquina eolica
WIND MEASUREMENT[edit | edit source]

(wind). (See: BEAUFORT SCALE)

F - mesure du vent
S - medicion eolica
WINDMILL[edit | edit source]

(wind). In a strictly technical sense, only those wind-powered MACHINES that drive MILLS to grind grain. However, the term is generally used to describe WIND MACHINES of all kinds. A windmill is powered by wind pressure, and usually has a slowly turning ROTOR with two or more BLADES attached to it. The blades are turned by the wind, thus rotating the rotor and the WIND SHAFT. In this way, WIND ENERGY is converted to mechanical energy. Some typical windmill applications include water pumping, milling or threshing, and electricity generation.

F - moulin a vent, eolienne
S - molino de viento
WIND POWER[edit | edit source]

(wind) (meas). Power available from the wind that can be used by various types of WIND MACHINES. It can be expressed as: P = E(.5)[[[#DAV|DAV]].sup.3], where:

A = SWEPT AREA in square meters
V = WIND VELOCITY in meters/sec
P = power in KILOWATTS
D = air density in kilograms/cubic meters
E = EFFICIENCY of the device expressed as a percentage
F - puissance du vent
S - potencia eolica
WIND-POWERED PUMP[edit | edit source]

(wind). A water-lifting device driven by a WIND MACHINE.

F - pompe a energie eolienne
S - bomba de aeromotor
WIND ROSE[edit | edit source]

(wind) (meas). A two-dimensional graph that shows monthly or yearly mean WIND SPEEDS as well as a distribution of wind speeds. It usually indicates the speed and the percentage of time that the wind blows from eight to 16 different directions.

F - rose des vents
S - rosa de los vientos
WIND ROTOR[edit | edit source]

(wind). (See: ROTOR)

F - rotor d'eolienne
S - rotor eolico
WIND SHAFT[edit | edit source]

(wind). The metal rod attached to and turned by the ROTOR to provide mechanical POWER.

F - arbre d'eolienne
S - eje eolico
WIND SPEED[edit | edit source]


F - vitesse du vent
S - caudal del viento
WIND SPEED DISTRIBUTION[edit | edit source]

(wind) (meas). A two-dimensional graph that shows the total time or the percentage of time that the wind blows at each WIND SPEED at a particular location. It differs from a WIND ROSE in that it can give a grand total of wind speeds, regardless of their directions.

F - distribution des vitesses du vent
S - distribucion del canal del viento
WIND TURBINE[edit | edit source]

(wind). (See: WIND MACHINE)

F - turbine A vent
S - turbina eolica
WIND VELOCITY[edit | edit source]

(wind) (meas). The speed of air movement measured in miles per hour or meters per second. The amount of POWER available from the wind depends in part on the WIND SPEED or velocity. It is a peculiarity of WIND POWER that the ENERGY available increases as the cube of the wind velocity. Wind velocity may be measured by an ANEMOMETER.

F - vitesse du vent
S - velocidad del viento
WINKLER PROCESS[edit | edit source]

(prod). A FLUIDIZED BED GASIFIER process, which produces a low or medium BTU gas from a wide variety of coals.

F - procede de Winkler
S - proceso de Winkler
WOOD ALCOHOL[edit | edit source]

(alc). (See: METHANOL)

F - alcool de bois
S - alcohol metilico
WOOD GAS[edit | edit source]

(prod). (See: PRODUCER GAS)

F - gaz de bois
S - gas metilico
WOOD STOVE[edit | edit source]

(biocon). A stove that uses wood and most wood residues as fuel.

F - poele a bois
S - estufa de lena
WORM[edit | edit source]

(alc) (impl) (wind) (arc). [1] A type of CONDENSER used in ALCOHOL STILLS. It is a coiled metal tube that leads from the still to a container holding cool water. It increases the rate of CONDENSATION and therefore the purity of the alcohol produced. [2] A cylindrical gear that supports a helical thread. It frequently is used in WINDMILL WINDING gears.

F - [1] serpentin; [2] vis sans fin
S - tornillo sin fin
WORT[edit | edit source]

(alc). The liquid portion of MASH that has not yet been inoculated with YEAST. It is a brewing term that describes the mash when it is between the BREWING MASH stage and the FERMENTATION period.

F - avoi
S - mosto no fermentado

X[edit | edit source]

Y[edit | edit source]

YAW AXIS[edit | edit source]

(wind). The vertical axis about which a HORIZONTAL AXIS WINDMILL rotates to align itself with the wind.

F - axe de lacet
S - eje vertical
YEAST[edit | edit source]

(alc) (bio). A single-celled micro-organism that can change simple sugars into ETHANOL and carbon dioxide by FERMENTATION. Yeasts are one type of FUNGI.

F - levure
S - levadura
YOKE[edit | edit source]

(ani) (impl). A contrivance that joins together a pair of draft animals, especially oxen, and which generally consists of a crosspiece with bow-shaped pieces that fit over the shoulders of the animals.

F - joug
S - yugo

Z[edit | edit source]

ZERO TILL[edit | edit source]

(agri). An ENERGY-CONSERVING method of agriculture that requires little or no plowing or turning of the soil.

F - labourage nul
S - cero arado
ZONAL WIND[edit | edit source]

(wind). Winds that blow approximately along the local perallel of the LATITUDE.

F - vent zonal
S - viento zonal
ZONE HEAT[edit | edit source]

(heat). A central heating system in which different temperatures may be maintained in two or more of the areas being heated.

F - chauffage par zone

Conversion Tables[edit | edit source]

acres 43,560 square feet
acres 4,047 square meters
acres 1.562 X [10-3] square miles
acres 0.004047 square kilometers
acres 4840 square yards
atmospheres 76.0 cms of mercury
atmospheres 29.92 inches of mercury
stmospheres 10,333 kgs/square meter
atmospheres 14.70 pounds/square inch
British thermal units 0.2530 kilogram-calories
B.t.u. 777.5 foot-pounds
B.t.u. 3.927 X [10-4] horsepower-hours
B.t.u. 1,054 joules
B.t.u. 107.5 kilogram-meters
B.t.u. 2.928 X [10-4] kilowatt-hours
B.t.u./min. 0.02356 horsepower
B.t.u./min. 0.01757 kilowatts
B.t.u./min. 17.57 watts
calories 0.003968 B.t.u.
calories 3.08596 foot-pounds
calories 1.1622 X [10-6] kilowatt-hours
centimeters 0.3937 inches
centimeters 0.01 meters
centimeters of mercury 0.1934 pounds/square inch
centimeters/second 1.969 feet/minute
centimeters/second 0.036 kilometer/hour
centimeters/second 0.6 meters/minute
centimeters/second 0.02237 miles/hour
cubic centimeters [10-6] cubic meters
cubic centimeters 6.102 X [10-2] cubic inches
cubic centimeters 3.531 X [10-5] cubic feet
cubic centimeters 1.308 X [10-6] cubic yards
cubic feet 1,728 cubic inches
cubic feet 0.02832 cubic meters
cubic feet 2.832 X [104] cubic centimeters
cubic feet 7.481 gallons
cubic feet 28.32 liters
cubic feet/minute 472.0 cubic cms/second
cubic feet/minute 0.1247 gallons/second
cubic feet/minute 0.4720 liters/second
cubic feet/minute 62.4 pounds water/min
cubic inches 5.787 X [10-4] cubic feet
cubic inches 1.639 X [10-5] cubic meters
cubic inches 2.143 X [10-5] cubic yards
cubic meters 35.31 cubic feet
cubic meters 264.2 gallons
cubic meters [103] liters
cubic yards 7.646 X [105] cubic centimeters
cubic yards 27.0 cubic feet
cubic yards 46,656 cubic inches
cubic yards 0.7646 cubic meters
cubic yards 202.0 gallons
cubic yards 764.6 liters
cubic yards/min. 0.45 cubic feet/second
cubic yards/min. 3.367 gallons/second
cubic yards/min. 12.74 liters/second
degrees (angle) 60 minutes
degrees (angle) 0.01745 radians
degrees (angle) 3,600 seconds
dynes 1.020 X [10-3] grams
dynes 2.248 X [10-6] pounds
ergs 9.486 X [1011] B.t.u.
ergs 1 dyne-centimeters
ergs 7.376 X [10-8 foot-pounds
ergs [10-7] joules
ergs 2.390 X [10-11] kilogram-calories
ergs 1.020 X [10-8] kilogram-meters
ergs/second 1.341 X [10-10] horsepower
ergs/second [10-10] kilowatts
feet 30.48 centimeters
feet 0.3048 meters
feet/second 18.29 meters/minute
foot-pounds 1.286 X [10-3] B.t.u.
foot-pounds 1.356 X [107] ergs
foot-pounds 5.050 X [10-7] horsepower-hours
foot-pounds 3.241 X [10-4] kilogram-calories
foot-pounds 0.1383 kilogram-meters
foot-pounds 3.766 X [10-7] kilowatt-hours
foot-pounds/minute 1.286 X [10-3] B.t.u./minute
foot-pounds/minute 0.01667 foot-pounds/second
foot-pounds/minute 3.241 X [10-4] kg-calories/min
foot-pounds/minute 2.260 X [10-5] kilowatts
foot-pounds/second 7.172 X [10-2] B.t.u./minute
foot-pounds/second 1.818 X [10-3] horsepower
foot-pounds/second 1.945 X [10-2] kg-calories/min
foot-pounds/second 1.356 X [10-3] kilowatts
gallons 0.1337 cubic feet
gallons 231 cubic inches
gallons 3.785 X [10-3] cubic meters
gallons 3.785 liters
gallons/minute 2.228 X [10-3] cubic feet/second
gallona/minute 0.06308 liters/second
grams [10-3] kilograms
grams [103] miligrams
grams 0.03527 ounces
grams 0.03215 troy ounces
grams/cubic centimeter 62.43 pounds/cubic feet
grams centimeters 9.297 X [10-8] B.t.u.
horsepower 42.44 B.t.u./minute
horsepower 33,000 foot-pounds/minute
horsepower 550 foot-pounds/second
horsepower 10.70 kg-calories/min
harsepower 0.7457 kilowatts
horsepower 745.7 watts
horsepower 1.014 horsepower(metric)
horsepower-hours 2547 B.t.u.
horsepower-hours 1.98 X [106] foot-pounds
horsepower-hours 641.7 kilogram-calories
horsepower-hours 2.737 X [105] kilogram-meters
horsepower-hours 0.7457 kilowatt-hours
horsepower-hours 2.684 X [106] joules
inches 2.540 centimeters
inches 254.0 millimeters
inches of mercury 0.03342 atmospheres
inches of mercury 1.133 feet of water
inches of mercury 345.3 kgs/sq meter
inches of mercury 70.73 pounds/sq foot
inches of mercury 0.4912 pounds/sq inch
inches of water 0.002458 atmospheres
inches of water 0.07355 inches of mercury
inches of water 25.40 kgs/square meter
inches of water 0.5781 ounces/square inch
inches of water 5.204 pounds/square foot
inches of water 0.03613 pounds/square inch
joules 0.0009458 B.t.u.
joules 0.73756 foot-pounds
joules 0.0002778 watt-hours
joules 1.0 watt-seconds
kilograms 980,665 dynes
kilograms [103] grams
kilograms 2.2046 pounds
kilograms 1.102 X [10-3] short tons
kilogram-calories 3.968 B.t.u.
kilogram-calories 3,086 foot-pounds
kilogram-calories 1.558 X [10-3] horsepower-hours
kilogram-calories 4,183 joules
kilogram-calories 426.6 kilogram-meters
kilogram-calories/min. 51.43 foot-pounds/second
kilogram-calories/min. 0.09351 horsepower
kilogram-calories/min. 0.06972 kilowatts
kilograms/hectare .893 pounds/acre
kilometers [105] centimeters
kilometers 0.6214 miles
kilometers 3,281 feet
kilometers 1,000 meters
kilometers 1093.6 yards
kilometers/hour 27.78 centimetere/sec
kilometers/hour 54.68 feet/minute
kilometers/hour 0.9113 feet/second
kilometers/hour 0.5396 knots/hour
kilometers/hour 16.67 meters/hour
kilometers/hour 0.6214 miles/hour
kilowatts 56.92 B.t.u./minute
kilowatts 4.425 X [104] foot-pounds/minute
kilowatts 737.6 foot-pounds/second
kilowatts 1.341 horsepower
kilowatts 14.34 kg-calories/min
kilowatts [103] watts
kilowatts-hours 3,412 B.t.u.
kilowatts-hours 2.655 X [106] foot-pounds
kilowatts-hours 1.341 horsepower-hours
kilowatts-hours 3.6 X [106] joules
kilowatts-hours 860.5 kilogram-calories
kilowatts-hours 3.671 X [105] kilogram-meters
meters 100 centimeters
meters 3.2808 feet
meters 39.37 inches
meters [10-3] kilometers
meters [103] millimeters
meters 1.0936 yards
meter-kilograms 9.807 X [107] centimeter-dynes
meter-kilograms [105] centimeter-grams
meter-kilograms 7.233 pound-feet
meters/minute 1.667 centimeters/second
meters/minute 3.281 feet/minute
meters/minute 0.05468 feet/second
meters/minute 0.06 kilometers/hour
meters/minute 0.03728 miles/hour
meters/second 196.8 feet/minute
meters/second 3.281 feet/second
meters/second 3.6 kilometers/hour
meters/second 0.06 kilometers/minute
meters/second 2.237 miles/hour
meters/second 0.03728 miles/minute
miles 1.609 X [105] centimeters
miles 5,280 feet
miles 1.6093 kilometers
miles 1,760 yards
miles/min 88.0 feet/second
miles/min 1.6093 kilometers/minute
miles/min 0.8684 knots/minute
ounces 8.0 drams
ounces 437.5 grains
ounces 28.35 grams
ounces 0.625 pounds
ounces/square inch 0.0625 pounds/square inch
pints (dry) 33.60 cubic inches
pints (liquid) 28.87 cubic inches
pounds 444,823 dynes
pounds 7,000 grains
pounds 453.6 grams
pounds 0.45 kilograms
pounds of water 0.01602 cubic feet
pounds of water 27.68 cubic inches
pounds of water 0.1198 gallons
pounds of water/min. 2.669 X [10-4] cubic feet/second
pounds/cubic foot 0.01602 grams/cubic cms.
pounds/cubic foot 16.02 kgs/cubic meter
pounds/cubic foot 5.787 X [10-4] pounds/cubic inch
pounds/square foot 4.882 kgs/sq meter
pounds/square foot 6.944 X [10-3] pounds/square inch
pounds/square inch 0.06304 atmospheres
pounds/square inch 703.1 kgs/square meter
pounds/square inch 144.0 pounds/square foot
quarts (dry) 67.20 cubic inches
quarts (liquid) 57.75 cubic inches
quadrants (angle) 90 degrees
quadrants (angle) 5,400 minutes
quadrants (angle) 1.571 radians
radians 57.30 degrees
radians 3,438 minutes
radians/second 57.30 degrees/second
raidans/second 0.1592 revolutions/second
revolutions 360.0 degrees
revolutions 4.0 quadrants
revolutions 6.283 radians
revolutions/minute 6.0 degrees/second
square centimeters 1.076 X [10-3] square feet
square centimeters 0.1550 square inches
square centimeters [10-6] square meters
square centimeters 100 square millimeters
square feet 2.296 X [10-5] acres
square feet 929.0 square centimeters
square feet 144.0 square inches
square feet 0.09290 square meters
square feet 3.587 X [10-8] square miles
square feet 0.1111 square yards
square inches 6.452 square centimeters
square inches 645.2 square millimeters
square meters 2.471 X [10-4] acres
square meters 10.764 square feet
square meters 3.861 X [10-7] square miles
square meters 1.196 square yards
square miles 640.0 acres
square miles 2.7878 X [107] square feet
square miles 2.590 square kilometers
square miles 3.098 X [106] square yards
square yards 2.066 X [10-4] acres
square yards 9.0 square feet
square yards 0.8361 square meters
square yards 3.228 X [10-7 square miles
temp (degs C) + 237 1.0 abs temp (degs K)
temp (degs C) + 17.8 1.8 temp (degs F)
temp (deqs F) - 32 5/9 temp (degs C)
tons (long) 1,016 kilograms
tons (long) 2,240 pounds
tons (metric) [103] kilograms
tons (metric) 2,205 pounds
tons (short) 907.2 kilograms
tons (short) 2,000 pounds
tons (short)/sq. foot 9,765 kgs/square meter
tons (short)/sq. foot 13.89 pounds/square inch
tons (short)/sq. inch 1.406 X [106] kgs/square meter
tons (short)/sq. inch 2,000 pounds/square inch
yards 0.9144 meters





This publication was made possible, in part, through the generous support of the United States Agency for International Development and the United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization

VITA 1600 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 500 Arlington, Virgnia 22209 USA Tel: 703/276-1800 * Fax: 703/243-1865 Internet:

Copyright [C] 1982 Volunteers in Technical Assistance

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system without the written permission of the publisher.

Manufactured in the United States of America.

Designed by Margaret Crouch.

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Renewable energy dictionary Bibliography: p. 479 1. Renewable energy sources--Dictionaries. 2. Power (Mechanics)--Dictionaries. I. Volunteers in Technical Assistance. TJ163.16.R48 1982 333.79 82-50309 ISBN 0-86619-161-5

Preface[edit | edit source]

Soon after beginning a major program in renewable energy in 1979, VITA (Volunters in Technical Assistance) found that many of the technical terms commonly used in renewable energy literature were not understood by many of the laypeople for whom the information was meant. VITA also realized that it was no easy task to find definitions for many of these terms. There were specialized glossaries for the various areas of renewable energy, but there was no one source devoted to defining renewable energy terminology. The Renewable Energy Dictionary is designed to meet this need.

This encyclopedic dictionary is comprised of up-to-date and authoritative definitions of terms used in renewable energy. Definitions are presented in the clearest and most concise language possible without detracting from their technical accuracy. They are thoroughly cross-referenced for ease of use.

The terms that were selected for this dictionary are primarily those not commonly defined in their renewable energy context in conventional dictionaries. Some of the terms are now considered to be archaic. Mostly related to wind energy, they are included because of their usefulness in developing an overall understanding of the field.

VITA's 22 years in international development and technology transfer have brought a sensitivity to the need in developing countries for technical materials in languages other than English. This dictionary is translated into French and Spanish in an effort to help meet this need.

In addition to 1,000 entries in each language, many with illustrations, the dictionary includes comprehensive conversion tables and a bibliography.

Our research indicates that this is the only published reference work of its kind available. We feel it is a significant resource for those working with renewable energy technologies and concepts.

This document is being distributed by CD3WD and added to by Appropedia.

Acknowledgements[edit | edit source]

No work of this scope and magnitude could be completed without the assistance and contributions of many individuals. Along with Dr. William Sorsby, our primary contributor, we wish to acknowledge the invaluable contributions made by VITA Volunteers who gave their time freely to make this book a reality. Our deepest thanks go out to: Dr. Sam Baldwin, Thomas J. Beckman, Richard A. Boettcher, Jean-Claude Bruffaerts, Jerome E. Dobroski, George S. Erskine, H. Speer Ezzard, Hal Finkelstein, Dr. Peter B. Hammond, Robert W. Hawthorn, James L. Hogan, and Dr. Norbert J. Kreidl.

We also wish to thank the following members of VITA's technical staff for their reviews, contributions, and constant support: John M. Downey, Alan Wyatt, Dr. Gary L. Garriott, Stephen H. Hirsch, Fred Hopman, William R. Breslin, Dr. William A . Gross, Richard J. Fera, O. Christopher Ahrens, Balla Sidibe, and Hector Reyes, and research assistant Vandana Malhotra.

Special thanks go to artist Christopher P. Schmidt for the excellent illustrations.

Finally, we acknowledge the editorial and production contributions of Kristine Stroad Ament, Julie Badger, Margararet Crouch, Bonnie Duley, Gregory James, and David Jarmul, who put the whole thing together.

Translations[edit | edit source]

This dictionary was translated into French and Spanish by Berlitz International Translation Service.

Bibliography[edit | edit source]

Abbott, Ira H. and A. E. Von Doenhoff. Theory of Wing Sections. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1949.

Abelson, Phillip H., ed. Energy: Use, Conservation and Supply. Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1974.

A Glossary of Energy Terms in Appropriate Technology. Norman, Oklahoma: Science and Public Policy Program, University of Oklahoma, 1975.

Angrist, Stanley W., ed. Direct Energy Conversion (3rd. ed.). Boston, Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon, Inc., 1976.

Anderson, Bruce and Michael Riordan, The Solar Home Book; Heating, Cooling and Designing with the Sun. Harrisville, New Hampsh ire: Cheshire Books, 1976.

Anderson, Russell E., Biological Paths to Self-Reliance. Environmental Engineering Service. New York: Von Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1979.

Application of Solar Technology to Today's Energy Needs. Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Energy. 1978.

Backus, Charles E. Solar Cells. Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1976.

Beedell, Suzanne. Windmills. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1975.

Bente, Paul F. Bio-Energy Directory. Washington, D.C.: Bio-Energy Council, 1980.

Block, C. and W. Jezewski. Illustrated Automobile Dictionary in Six Languages. Boston, Massachusetts: Kluwer-Boston, Inc., 1978.

Beeckman, W. B. Elsevier's Wood Dictionary (vol. 3: Research, Manufacture, Utilization). New York: Elsevier-North Holland Publishing Co., 1968.

Clark, Wilson. Energy Survival: The Alternative to Extinction. New York: Doubleday and Co., Inc., 1975.

Clason, W. E. Elsevier's Dictionary of Measurement and Control. New York: Elsevier-North Holland Publishing Co., 1977.

Clean Fuels from Biomass and Wastes, Symposium II, January 1977. Chicago: Institute of Gas Technology, 1977.

Coe, Gigi. Present Value: Constructing a Substantial Future. Friends of the Earth. San Francisco, California: State of California Office of Appropriate Technology. 1979.

Clegg, Peter D. and Ralph Wolfe. Home Energy for the Eighties. Charlotte, Vermont: Garden Way Publishing Co., 1979.

Collazo, Javier L., ed., Encyclopedic Dictionary of Technical Terms (3 vols.). New York: McGraw-Hill Books, Inc., 1980.

Congdon, R. J. Introduction to Appropriate Technology. Emmaus, Pennsylvania: Rodale Books, Inc., 1977.

Crawley, Gerald M. Energy. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1975.

Dancy, Rev. Harold K. Manual on Building Construction. London: Intermediate Technology Publications, 1977.

Daniels, Farrington. Direct Use of the Sun's Energy. New York: Ballantine Books, Division of Random House, Inc., 1964.

Darrow, Ken and Rick Pam. Appropriate Technology Sourcebook (2 vols.). Stanford, California: Volunteers in Asia, 1976.

Davis, C. V. and K. E. Sorenson. Handbook of Applied Hydraulics. New York: McGraw-Hill Books, Inc., 1968.

Duffie, John A. and William A. Beckman. Solar Energy Thermal Processes. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1974.

Earl, Derek E. Forest Energy and Economic Development. New York: Oxford University Press, 1975.

Eccli, Sandy, ed. Alternative Sources of Energy: Practical Technology and Philosophy for a Decentralized Society. New York: Seabury Press, Inc., 1974.

Energy Alternatives: A Comparative Analysis. Norman Oklahoma: The Science and Public Policy Program, University of Oklahoma, 1975.

Energy Audit Workbook. Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Energy, 1979.

Energy Information Data Base: Subject Thesaurus. Washington, D.C.: Technical Information Center, United States Department of Energy, 1979.

Energy Microthesaurus. Springfield, Virginia: National Technical Information Service, 1976.

Fact Sheet #18--Alternative Energy Sources: A Glossary of Terms. Washington D.C.: United States Department of Energy, 1981.

Fisher, R. and B. Yanda. The Food and Heat Producing Greenhouse: Design, Construction and Operation. Santa Fe, New Mexico: John Muir Publications, 1979.

Fraenkel, Peter. Food from Windmills. London: Intermediate Technology Publications, 1977.

Fraenkel, Peter. The Power Guide: A Catalogue of Small-Scale Power Equipment. London: Intermediate Technology Publications, 1979.

Freeman, Christina and Leo Pyle. Methane Generation by Anaerobic Digestion: An Annotated Bibliography. London: Intermediate Technology Publications, 1977.

Freese, Stanley. Windmills and Millwrighting. North Pomfret, Vermont: David and Charles, Inc., 1971.

Fry, L. John. Practical Building of Methane Power Plants for Rural Energy Independence. Santa Barbara, California: L. J. Fry, 1974.

Fuel From Farms--A Guide to Small-Scale Ethanol Production. Solar Energy Data Bank. Golden, Colorado: SoIar Energy Research Institute, United States Department of Energy, 1980.

Golding, E. W. The Generation of Electricity by Wind Power. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1977.

Gray, T. J. and O. K. Gashus. Tidal Power. New York: Plenum Publishing Corp., 1972.

Hackleman, Michael and David House. Wind and Windspinners. Sangus, California: Earthmind, 1974.

Handbook of Homemade Power. The Mother Earth News Staff, New York: Bantam Books Inc., 1974.

Hand, Jackson. Solar Heating and Cooling. New York: Harper and Row Publishers, Inc., 1978.

Havens, David. The Woodburner's Handbook. Brunswick, Maine: Harpswell Press, 1975.

Hays, Denis. Enerqy for Development: Third World Options. World Watch Institute. New York: Unipub, 1977.

House, D. The Compleat Biogas Handbook, Aurora, Oregon: At Home Everywhere, 1978.

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