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This product enables the utilisation of pineapple peels, which are usually discarded during the processing or consumption of the fruit. The product has a distinct, very light pineapple flavour and has the same uses as any commercial vinegar.
Raw material preparation[edit | edit source]
The peels should be from very well washed ripe pineapples (damaged, rotten or infected fruits should not be used as a source of peels). Use only the peels, not the leaves or stems. The water used should be potable water, boiled if necessary. All the equipment should be well cleaned, as well as the bottles, which should also be steam-sterilised before use.
Processing[edit | edit source]
The peels should be cut into thin strips and put into clay or pewter pots. Aluminium or iron pots should not be used.
Sugar and clean water are added. Each pot is then inoculated and covered with a clean cotton cloth, held around the pot with an adhesive tape, to prevent contamination by insects or dust. The inoculated pineapple is fermented at room temperature (about 20-220C) for about eight days. The acidity should be checked daily. The water level should be maintained during this period. The product should be increasingly acid and by the eighth day it should have the required concentration of 4 per cent acetic acid in vinegar. If higher acidity is desired the product is left to ferment for another one or two days. The development of acidity should be checked by tasting the product during fermentation. The residual bacteria removed may be reused as a residue inoculum two or three times more.
The traditional process may be improved by a two-stage fermentation in which alcohol is first formed by yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and the ‘must’ is then inoculated with acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter pasteurianus). In outline, the process involves liquidising the peels and diluting with water (water:pulp is 4:1), adjusting the pH to 4.0 using sodium bicarbonate and adding yeast nutrient (ammonium phosphate) at 0.14g per litre. A starter culture is added at 2.7g per litre and the fermentation allowed to take place at 250C for two days. The ‘must’ is then filtered and inoculated with acetic acid bacteria and allowed to ferment for eleven days with aeration of the ‘must’. Other parts of the process are similar. Additional equipment includes a pH meter, refractometer, liquidiser, fermentation locks and equipment for preparing the starter cultures.
|Pineapple⇓||Well washed in clean water.|
|Peel the fruit⇓||Take care not to damage hands.|
|Cut the peel⇓||Cut into thin strips and put into clay or pewter pots.|
|Mix with sugar⇓||Sugar is dissolved in clean water|
|Ferment⇓||Each pot is then inoculated and covered with a clean cotton cloth.|
|Filter⇓||Strain through a cheese cloth|
Packaging and storage[edit | edit source]
The vinegar is bottled in clean glass bottles and stored in a cool dark place.
References and further reading[edit | edit source]
Fruit Vinegar, (Practical Action Technical Brief)
Pineapple Jam, Practical Action Technical Brief
Fruit Waste Utilisation, Practical Action Technical Brief
Useful addresses and contacts[edit | edit source]
Please note this is a selective list of suppliers and does not imply endorsement by Practical Action.
Bellingham + Stanley Ltd.
Longfield Road, North Farm Industrial Estate
Tunbridge Wells, Kent TN2 3EY United Kingdom
Tel: +44 1892 500400
Fax: +44 1892 543115
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://web.archive.org/web/20150706041130/http://www.bs-ltd.com:80/ Refractometer producers