PV penetration level Literature review

From Appropedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

QASlogo.png This page was developed by the Queen's University Applied Sustainability Research Group. QASlogo.png

Literature Search on PV Penetration[edit | edit source]

Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy

Keep alphabetized list of references with notes after in the following format: S. E. Shaheen, C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, F. Padinger, T. Fromherz, and J. C. Hummelen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 841 (2001) (hyperlinked title).

See also: User:J.M.Pearce/PV+CHP

This is a list of refs for PV penetration levels (also try solar, photovoltaic, intermittent, or distributed generation penetration/percent/) - this refers to the maximum amount of solar photovoltaic electricity able to be provided reliably on the grid.

Articles[edit | edit source]

  • P. Denholm and R. Margolis, "Very Large-Scale Deployment of Grid-Connected Solar Photovoltaics in the United States: Challenges and Opportunities", U.S. Department of Energy, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory), Conference Paper Preprint for Solar 2006 (2006)([[1]])
    • NOTES:
      • Figures of System Load with and without large PV systems on two summer and two spring days.
      • Model to analyze the impacts of large-scale PV deployment.
      • 'By increasing the system flexibility, it now becomes at least theoretically possible to provide 50% of the system's energy from PV - although this requires the ability to completely turn off all conventional generation for short periods of time without cost penalty.'
      • 'We found that increasing the flexibility of the electric power system in the simulated system could increase the contribution of PV to perhaps 20%-30%. Beyond this contribution, enabling technologies such as fuel switching in "smart" appliances, dispatchable load from plug-in hybrid or other electric vehicles, or stationary energy storage would be required to enable very high levels of PV contribution to the electric power system.'

  • R. Perez, S. Letendre, and C. Herig, "PV and Grid Reliability: Availability of PV Power during Capacity Shortfalls", University of Albany (2001)([[2]])
    • NOTES:
      • Figure of PV Availability during major summer 1999-2000 outages.
      • 'it would take very little in terms of back-up storage or end-use load management associated with PV to provide the equivalent of firm PV capacity up to significant load penetration levels.'

  • P. Denholm, R.M. Margolis, "Evaluating the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in traditional electric power systems", Energy Policy, vol.35, Iss.5, pp. 2852-2861 (2007). ([[3]])
    • NOTES:
      • 'we evaluate the ability of PV to provide a large fraction (up to 50%) of a utility system’s energy by comparing hourly output of a simulated large PV system to the amount of electricity actually usable.'
      • 'The limited flexibility of base load generators produces increasingly large amounts of unusable PV generation when PV provides perhaps 10–20% of a system’s energy.'

  • M. Thomson and D.G. Infield, "Network Power-Flow Analysis for a High Penetration of Distributed Generation", IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol.22, Iss. 3, pp.1157-1162 (2007). ([[4]])
    • NOTES:
      • This paper discusses and analyses the impact of micro-generation (in particular, PV+CHP hybrid residential systems) on the voltage rise in a test-network in the UK.
      • The authors created an unbalanced load-flow engine using Matlab, which takes modelled load and generation data and saves the calculated voltages as minute-by-minute data for all nodes across the network.
      • 'we considered the European Standard, EN 50160, which states that, under normal operating conditions, all ten-minute mean values shall be within the range 195.5 V to 253 V. The 50% PV and 100% CHP scenarios, already discussed, lead to voltages that exceed this range, and thus, accommodating penetrations of this order would require some adjustment or re-engineering of network voltage control systems. The next two rows of Table I (30% PV and 23% CHP, respectively) show scenarios that would be acceptable under EN 50160 without any changes to voltage control systems.' (pp.1161)