Get our free book (in Spanish or English) on rainwater now - To Catch the Rain.

Industrial symbiosis literature review

From Appropedia
Jump to: navigation, search

QASlogo.png This page was developed by the Queen's University Applied Sustainability Research Group. QASlogo.png

Topical Journals[edit]

  1. Progress in Industrial Ecology
  2. Journal of Industrial Ecology
  3. The Open Environmental Journal

Literature Reviews[edit]

Guidelines on the maintenance of literature reviewed in my research are found here: User:J.M.Pearce/Literature_review

I am keeping notes of searches and literature reviews in addition to maintaining a laboratory notebook. Where possible, hyperlinks are provided to reviewed articles.

Industrial symbiosis background[edit]

Chertow, M.R. "Industrial Symbiosis: Literature and Taxonomy" Ann. Rev. Energy and Env. 25: 313-37 (2000).

  • This article reviews previous papers in the field of industrial symbiosis. Efforts and successes in the establishment of eco-industrial parks as applications of industrial symbiosis are also reviewed. In the article's concluding sections, it is emphasized that the cooperation required for industrial symbiosis "develops over time". This cooperation "can possibly be sped up through information sharing". Furthermore, it is noted that "the private sector could grab hold of industrial symbiosis as a logical extension of resource productivity".The existing and considered eco-industrial parks are grouped into five types, distinguishing their geographical proximity and corporate structure. The types are as follows:
  1. Through waste exchanges
  2. Within a Facility, Firm or Organization
  3. Among Firms Co-located in a Defined Eco-Industrial Park
  4. Among Local Firms That Are Not Co-located
  5. Among Firms Organized Virtually Across a Broader Region
  • Three tools abstracted from previous and existing efforts in industrial symbiosis are described. The tools are as follows:
  1. Input-Output Matching
  2. Stakeholder Processes
  3. Material Budgeting
  • Additionally, two approaches are described for the development of eco-industrial parks. They are as follows:
  1. Stream-Based or Business-Based
  2. New or Existing Operations
  • Key Definitions
    • Industrial Symbiosis: "engages traditionally separate industries in a collective approach to competitive advantage involving physical exchange of materials, energy, water and/or by-products. The keys to industrial symbiosis are collaboration and the synergistic possibilities offered by geographic proximity"

Eckelman, M.J., Chertow, M.R. "Quantifying life cycle environmental benefits from the reuse of industrial materials of Pennsylvania, USA" Submitted to Environmental Science and Technology(2008).

  • This article quantifies the environmental benefits which are being attained or could be attained through the local reuse of industrial processes.

Schwarz, E.J., Steininger, K.W."Implementing nature's lesson: The industrial recycling network enhancing regional development" Journal of Cleaner Production 5(1-2): 47-56 (1997).

  • This article elaborates the concept of inter-company matching of production processes to help reduce virgin material and energy input to sustainable levels while reducing waste. Such efforts are described in Kalundborg, Denmark. An analogy is developed to compare the functioning of a natural ecosystem in their production and waste deposition to the manner in which industrial recycling could be developed. A mathematical model is explained for use calculating the cost optimization of waste recycling and disposal. From these equations it can be understood that there is a minimum rate of recycling which is economically attractive for a firm.

Commonwealth of Pennsylvania "Residual Waste Management" Solid Waste Management Act Chapter 287(1992).

  • The Residual Waste Management provision was enacted under Pennsylvania's Solid Waste Management Act in 1992. The provision states that entities producing greater than one ton of waste per month must report the waste to Pennsylvania's Department of Environmental Protection.

William E Thacker and Douglas J Hermann, “Beneficial use of industrial by-products ” BioCycle 42, no. 9 (September 2001): 63-4.

  • Description of a meeting with industry heads from many industries in the Chicago area. They discussed possible By-Product Synergies as well as barriers to entry, which were classified under the five E's environmental, engineering, economic, education, end users

Some of the identified barriers are:

  • "waste" label creates stigma and regulatory hurdles
  • Regulations not designed for beneficial use
  • Regulators and generators do not like co-mingling wastes
  • Shared liability
  • trace chemicals, which are hard to trace
  • Variability in characteristics and quality control can effect usefulness of the product
  • Lack of understanding of technical aspects of other industries results in unrecognized opportunities
  • Successful programs must reduce generator costs, at a minimum
  • Transportation distance is key
  • Generators usually have hidden costs of their waste disposal, which disguises the true costs of wastes
  • lack of capital for process changes required for IS integration

Jason Brown, Daniel Gross, and Lance Wiggs, “The MatchMaker! System: Creating Virtual Eco-Industrial Parks,” Developing Industrial Ecosystems: Approaches, Cases and Tools.

  • Current mechanicms
  • Waste exchanges: Scrap metal, plastics, Traded commodities with real value, Can Evolve into an intermediary company linking producer with consumer. These usually form into classified style databases, funded by governments, ad fees, and matching fees
  • Limitations:Short range, lack of standardization, general categories of waste, long listings,Cannot recommend matches to non listed companies
  • Eco industrial parks: Co-locate companies in order to facilitate by-product exchanges, and allow symbiotic usage of other resources (administration, common areas, etc.)
  • limitations Co-location for IS means generating a critical mass of interested industries, if one leaves then everyone suffers. Can be rigid
  • Virtual eco industrial parks
   1) allowing companies to disengage from the virtual community
   without economic penalty beyond lost opportunity, 2) providing greater
   varieties of possible exchanges, 3) lessening the reliance on individuals for
   system stability, and 4) not requiring high initial capital investment.
  • Allows companies to include IS decisions for their locations
  • Allow entrepreneurial insight into IS possibilities
  • A system called matchmaker has been developed which matches companies based on their SIC code and a material classification code

Murat Mirata, “Experiences from early stages of a national industrial symbiosis programme in the UK: determinants and coordination challenges,” Journal of Cleaner Production 12, no. 8 (2004): 967-983.

  • Experience is presented from the introduction of a national industrial symbiosis program (NISP) in the UK. This article emphasized the role of a "coordinating body" in the successful implementation of an industrial symbiosis scheme. The coordinating body should provide organizational (organizing meetings, conferences etc.) and informational (studies for possible savings through IS, identifying partnerships) support.
  • This paper identified some British policy instruments which were helpful in the adoption of IS projects. The first is the landfill tax, which encourages companies to divert wastes from landfills. The second is the climate change levy, which taxes the use of energy streams. However, heat and steam are not taxable energy streams, and so it encourages CHP and waste heat exchanges, and thirdly end of life legislation, encouraging recycling. Some policy barriers are waste regulations which can prevent the mixing of waste streams and substitute fuels protocols, which increase the effort in using substitute fuels
  • This paper finally gives an overview of the evolution of the National Industrial Symbiosis Programme, NISP. It started off as a project in Humber region, HISP, which was focused around a CHP plant. It started off with initial studies and awareness raising about IS. However, because the project was specialized to a CHP plant, only those directly effected showed up, stifling innovation. enthusiasm was not spread, and the project stagnated for a while. WISP, in another region was then started, taking the approach of finding desired champions to attempt to grow an IS area. Much more successful as the champions were trustworthy, and enthusiasm and innovation spread. MISP built on this strategy and was a success. Finally, everything combined together into NISP

Judy Kincaid and Michael Overcash, “Industrial Ecosystem Development at the Metropolitan Level,” Journal of Industrial Ecology 5, no. 1 (February 2008): 117-126.

  • Describes the development of an IS system in North Carolina by conducting surveys of companies to identify waste streams, and matching them with input streams through databases and GIS. 182 firms participated, 48% of which were linked with another company. A survey was first conducted, which gave recommendations of possible IS waste streams for the company to choose from. the booklet was collected in person by an interviewer, who once they spoke to the plant manager, was usually able to identify even more possible exchanges.
  • this paper includes lists of possible IS matchings, and an estimation of their feasibility. It also gives a good idea of the types of companies to look for when trying to find matchings.

Pierre Desrochers, “Industrial symbiosis: the case for market coordination” Journal of Cleaner Production 12, no. 8 (2004): 1099-1110.

  • This article outlines the failures of a centrally planned IS scheme by showing two contrasting examples. The first is Victorian England in the 19th century, where IS projects were widespread and well documented under a free market economy. The contrasting example of this in in Hungary under the iron curtain, where a centrally planned waste exchange which created waste quotas and state run waste receiving companies resulted in wasteful production as companies attempted to meet their quotas and the re-use of wastes into products which were not desired. builds teh hypothesis that organically formed IS systems are more stable

Guojun Ji and Ruxiu Zhang, “Ecological supply chain based on by-product exchange,” (2008). 2008 International Conference on Service Systems and Service Management (ICSSSM 2008)(pp.1-6). Piscataway: 1-6.

  • Increased scrutiny forces companies to become more socially responsible. Use of an Ecological supply chain ensures that all wastes are recycled, moving towards a closed-loop economy. ESC involves looking at a product and determining how it can be produces in such a way that all the by-products of its production are also valuable. Additionally, looks into the recyclability of a product and its ability to use recycled components.
  • Economic benefits of ESC include decreased costs, creates a green corporate image, improves competitive advantage through flexible plant configuration, lowers exposure to risks through resource scarcity
  • Guangxi Guitang Group adopted waste and water reduction programs. It sells fertilizer produced from residual products back to farmers to ensure environmentally responsible farming. Found economic benefits because the "green" sugar is of better quality than competitors.

R. R. Heeres, W. J. V. Vermeulen, and F. B. de Walle, “Eco-industrial park initiatives in the USA and the Netherlands: first lessons,” JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION 12, no. 2004 (2004): 985-995.

  • Compares US and Netherlands EIP development. In the states, they are seen as a method of obtaining large amounts of government funding, and therefore have large government presence. In the Netherlands, they are instigated by companies with the advice of local and regional governments. In general, programmes in the Netherlands are more successful because of this.

US EPA definition of an EIP: ‘‘An EIP is a community of manufacturing and service businesses seeking enhanced environmental and economic performance by collaborating in the management of environmental and reuse issues. By working together, the community of businesses seeks a collective benefit that is greater than the sum of the individual benefits each company would realize if it optimized its individual performance only’’

  • Contains a good literature review and definitions of industrial ecology, vs. Integrated chain management. ICM looks at the chain of suppliers related to a given product, whereas IE looks at regional relationships between dissimilar (or similar) firms. EIP's are common in chemical production, where by-products are re-used by similar companies.
  • outlines the steps to be taken to create a successful EIP, including securing active participation from all stakeholders, generating information related to symbiotic relationships, and overcoming boundaries. Does not touch on difficulties with generating the 'critical mass' required to begin an EIP project.
  • Differences between both projects, and in general highlight differences in methodologies for establishing EIP's:
  • Objectives: The US objective was job creation and economic gain, with environmental concerns secondary, whereas the Dutch projects valued economic gain with environmental gain
  • Initiator: The US projects were initiated through local government attempting to entice businesses, whereas the Dutch projects were imitated by local businesses
  • public participation: The public is more highly encouraged to participate in the US EIP
  • Financing: US studies are initially financed primarily through Local government, Dutch are funded 50/50 between government and industry. both expect companies to take up costs of implementation
  • Local Champions: In dutch cases, the local entrepreneurs association takes the place of the local champion/anchor tenant. in US cases, there are two parks that are missing their anchor tenant.
  • material exchanges: Did not play a huge role in EIP development, focus was rather on pollution prevention through utility sharing. in the US, there was a much larger focus on direct material exchanges, however this was later abandoned because of financial risks.
  • lessons learned : Company involvement is critical, funding should come from individual companies in the initial planning stages, The initial focus should be on utility sharing projects eg. CHP, which require low risk investments initially

Rebekah Young and Susana Hurtado Baker, “BY-PRODUCT SYNERGY: A CASE STUDY OF TAMPICO, MEXICO.” (Source Record): 459.

Demonstration of By-product synergy in Tampico, Mexico, initiated through an existing trade network with existing relationships. Steps to initiate a by-product synergy exchange.

  • Awareness: Use previous successes, backgrounds on industrial ecology, estimates of available resources. Asked to sign on to a one year demonstration where possible synergies would be found. Communication with all involved parties was necessary

  • Data collection : Determination of in-and-out flows, difficult to obtain real information, as companies felt it was proprietary information
  • Analysis : Bechtel analyzed data and listed possible synergies. Also, companies were brought together, assisted by hatch, to brainstorm synergies, which came up with all the ones Bechtel had come up with plus 10 more.
  • Results : 19 internal synergies located, with an additional 44 external uses of the waste stream. This was narrowed down to 13 that were economically feasible and could be done on a short time frame.


  • Technical, Economic (polluting is cheap), Business (rates of return of environmental processes versus other investment opportunities), Corporate practice (is the company focused on environmental concerns), Regulatory (classification of something as a waste), Risk (who is responsible for the transportation of the wastes), Geographic (are the companies close enough), Trust, Time(are there enough human resources to carry out the study)

Geographic Information Systems[edit]

William Doyle and Joshua M. Pearce, “Utilization of Virtual Globes for Open Source Industrial Symbiosis”, Open Environmental Sciences, 3, pp. 88-96, 2009.

Pearce, J.M. et al "3D-mapping optimization of embodied energy of transportation" Resources, Conservation and Recycling 51: 435-53 (2007). open access

  • This article describes the potential for the development of the Google Earth program to conserve fuel resources through the reduction of embodied energy of transportation and to optimize and facilitate the method of industrial symbiosis.
  • Key Definitions:
    • Embodied Energy: "quantity of energy required to manufacture and supply to the point of use of a product, material or service."
    • Aggregate Ecological Footprint: "a measure of the productive land area needed to support indefinitely in a sustainable manner all the material input and disposal needs of that transportation mode."
    • Life Cycle Analysis: "quantifies how much energy and raw materials are used and how much (solid, liquid, and gaseous) waste is generated at each stage of a product's life."

Foresman, T.W."Evolution and implementation of the Digital Earth vision, technology and society" International Journal of Digital Earth 1 (1): 4-16 (2008).

  • This article...

Waldman, P. "Google's Pursuit of Green Energy" Portfolio Magazine (March 2009).

  • This article discusses Google's efforts in the development of its role in green energy. Its recently formed partnership with General Electric is described as a combination of GE's technology investments (power monitoring gadgets, windmills, power plants) and Google's brand around consumer interface. The companies have a shared vision of computer network which monitors the electricity grid and informs consumers in real time of the current prices based on supply and demand. Consumers could set up automatic systems which shut off power-hungry appliances at times of peak demand, and sell electricity from their previously charged electric vehicles back into the grid at higher prices.

Nourbakhsh, I. et al. "Mapping Disaster Zones" Nature 439: 787-788 (2006).

  • This article describes the initiatives stemming from Google Earth's role in 2005's Hurricane Katrina. The Global Connection project partners an American University, National Geographic and Google to develop means for public users to act as e-volunteers, stitching together more recent aerial and satellite photographs taken following natural disasters to assist in guiding relief efforts. A significant future challenges is also described- the accuracy of contributions need be validated as the misplacement of geographical landmarks by even a few miles can result in a hindrance rather than a help.

Blom, M. "Masters of Science Thesis: Investigating the Spatial Variation of Renewable Energy Potential in the UK" City University, London (September, 2008).

  • This thesis utilizes GIS tools to integrate weather station data with Google Earth as a visualization tool, providing a means for individuals to gauge the potential for solar and wind energy throughout the year at defined regions throughout the United Kingdom. A detailed explanation of the Google Earth Keyhole Markup Language is included.

Kincaid, J., Overcash, M. "Industrial Ecosystem Development at the Metropolitan Level" Journal of Industrial Ecology 5(1): 117-126 (2001).

  • This article discusses the results of a project investigating potential by-product partnerships within a six-county metropolitan area in North Carolina encompassing a population of approximately 1 million. A list of large industries and institutions who were deemed to be able to benefit from such partnerships were approached for participation in the project. Of 343 facilities which were contacted, 182 (53%) took part in the project which offered confidentiality and the potential for economic savings. Surveys were performed at participating companies to identify lists of potentially reusable items as well as lists of the inputs used for processes which might be sourced from the byproducts of other facilities. This database was coupled with a GIS system (ArcView GIS) to identify potential partners within a particular radius of any of the facilities. The GIS maps displayed the amount and type of inputs used and by-products produced from each facility. Partnerships identified at this stage were further pursued by researching literature and facilitating discussions and negotiations. Of the 182 participating facilities, potential partnerships were identified for 87 (48%) of them. The article includes a detailed economic analysis of the impacts of nine potential partnerships, calculating potential cost savings by considering the value of existing materials and the cost of transportation. The article concludes with a discussion of the importance of an agent to promote the vision of such webs of material exchanges. Such a web requires the gathering of local information about available by-products or raw materials.

Massard, G., Erkman, S. "A regional Industrial Symbiosis methodology and its implementation in Geneva, Switzerland" Conference paper presented at Life Cycle Management 2007 (2007).

  • This conference paper presents the methodology and implementation of industrial symbiosis in Geneva, Switzerland. In 2002 an Advisory Board for Industrial Ecology and Industrial Symbiosis was established involving relevant government agencies. The Geneva regional program for Industrial Symbiosis collaborates with the University of Lausanne to apply, develop and improve the systematic methodology for detecting and implementing by-product synergies. From a government department detailing the name, activity, industrial sector, number of employees and geographical positioning of companies in the Geneva region, the program invited 40 companies to take part in empirical and systematic assessments of which 19 companies accepted. Empirical approaches involved meeting with companies to inform them of the goals of IS, and confidentially completing surveys on physical inputs and outputs. The collected data is analyzed using an algorithm for IS identification within a database management tool called Presteo, developed by Systemes Durables in Toulouse, France. The next stage of analysis is done by experts who consider aspects including geographic, qualitative, quantitative and economic to judge the potential of the identified synergies. Remaining potential synergies which have overcome the technical, economic and environmental constraints are presented to the companies. By this point in the methodology relatively few opportunities remain. The use of a GIS tool in development at the University of Lausanne is cited as a means to improve the detection of potential industrial partners through a search of companies using sector of activity and geographical data.

Plancherel, A. "Valorisation des SIG pour la detection de synergies éco-industrielles" Master of Science thesis presented for Swiss Institute of Technology / University of Lausanne (2006).

  • (title translation: "Valorization of GIS for the detection of eco-industrial synergies") This thesis develops a tool for the detection of eco-industrial synergies using Manifold as the base GIS program. A number of participating companies in the Geneva region provided input and output data of great detail including energy, pressure, concentration, temperature, quantity and market value. The author compiled this information along with geographic information in a specific format and devised code which analyses potential partnerships. This code was integrated into a user interface with two types of searches. In one type, a user selects their own company or all companies from one drop down menu and can choose a single company or all companies from a second drop down menu which has already filtered out companies which do not contain synergies from the first-selected company. If multiple potential synergies exist, the user can further filter to one synergy type. A map is produced showing the potential synergies and the direction and euclidean distance of this material flow. The second interface type allows a single company to search for synergies (input or output) within a certain radius- this can allow the company to identify potential partners which are located within a shorter distance than their current partner.

Goodchild, M.F. "Citizens as sensors: the world of volunteered geography" GeoJournal 69: 211-221 (2007).

  • This article discusses the increased public participation in web-based geographic information systems. The author questions what drives these volunteers to create applications to interact with these systems, the accuracy of the results and their improvement over conventional resources.

Slag from steel for cement mix[edit]

Tüfekçi, M. et al "Evaluation of steel furnace slags as cement additives" Cement and Concrete Research 27: 1713-17 (1997).

  • This article compares the performance of concrete using steel slag obtained from six different aspects of the steel manufacturing process to that of traditional limestone aggregates. It is noted that at the time of publishing in Europe, steel aggregate concrete constituted 20% of total concrete production compared to 1% in the United States. The study concludes that steelmaking by-products can be utilized along with limestone aggregates without substantially reducing the concrete's compressive strength, and that the water requirements for the steel slag-containing mixes require comparable amounts of water.

Maslehuddin, M. et al "Comparison of properties of steel slag and crushed limestone aggregate concretes" Construction and Building Materials 17: 105-112 (2003).

  • This article compares the performance of concrete using steel slag obtained from the direct reduction of iron ore to that of traditional limestone aggregates. While the article concludes that the steel slag aggregates result in a concrete of superior mechanical performance, it comes at the cost of increased weight. The evaluations were performed with concretes of equivalent mix designs- cement ratio, water to cement ratio and aggregate size. The ration of slag aggregate to limestone aggregate was varied to provide a sub-comparison of the performance of these ratios.

Iron scrap for virgin steel[edit]

Dahlström, K., Ekins, P. "Combining economic and environmental dimensions: Value chain analysis of UK iron and steel flows" Ecological Economics 58: 507-19 (2006).

  • This article presents a means of valuing iron and steel in the United Kingdom at each stage in its chain of order. The high value of scrap is noted as well as the substantial costs of terminating the scrap's life cycle in waste form. The economic benefit of steel produced in electric arc furnaces- which primarily use scrap material as a material source- is explained as it ties to the current market value of the lower grade steel which they produce. While most of the scrap steel in the UK is recycled in country or sent elsewhere for reuse, the amounts which are sent to landfills are considerable and increasingly costly. Relatively crude calculations are conducted to describe the value of five different residual materials from the steel making process as well as the value of scrap products.

Dahlström, K., Ekins, P. "Eco-efficiency Trends in the UK Steel and Aluminum Industries: Differences between Resource Efficiency and Resource Productivity" Journal of Industrial Ecology 9 (4): 171-188 (2005).

  • This article discusses the effects of the implementation of eco-efficiency principles in the steel and aluminum industries in the United Kingdom. The research found that while these industries have improved the efficiency of their use of natural resources, there has been a decline in the economic output per unit of matierial or energy consumed in the products' production. A distinction is noted between the measurement of value output per unit of physical input, and the measurement of physical output per unit of physical input.

Koros, P.J. "Dusts, Scale, Slags, Sludges. . . Not Wastes, But Sources of Profits" Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B 34 (6): 769-779 (2003).

  • This article...

Waste oil for fuel oil[edit]

Al-Omari, S.B. "Used engine lubrication oil as a renewable supplementary fuel for furnaces" Energy Conversion and Management 49: 3648–53 (2008).

  • This article describes the potential for used engine lubrication oil to be used in conjunction with traditional fuel sources in industrial furnaces and radiation steam generators to enhance the radiation heat transfer from the flames. While the author's experimental results express optimism for the economic advantages of reusing this oil, it is noted that further tests are needed to determine the environmental impacts of the combustion products.

"Materials Characterization Paper In Support of the Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking – Identification of Nonhazardous Materials That Are Solid Waste - Used Oil" Environmental Protection Agency (December 16, 2008).

  • This article provides a definition for used oil in the United States and specifications, quantities and trends for its reuse. It is noted that an estimated 70 percent of used oil is recovered for further use, of which approximately 90 percent is used in energy recovery (ie. reusing as a fuel) and 10 percent converted to lubricating oil (as cited in Svizzero, Michael. 2008. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, personal communication, citing American Petroleum Institute data, October 22, 2008). The value of used oil to certain recyclers are cited, and it is noted that the value varies depending on current market value for crude oil and the quantity and frequency of sale to the recyclers.

Brinkman, D.W., Whisman, M.L., Weinstein, N.J., Emmerson, H.R. "Environmental, resource conservation, and economic aspects of used oil recycling" US Department of Energy (April 1, 1981).

  • (Note: Not available online. Copy has been requested.) This article...

Flue-gas desulfurization residue for gypsum[edit]

Oman, J. et al "Solutions to the problem of waste deposition at a coal-fired power plant" Waste Management 22: 617-23 (2002).

  • This article...

Malhotra, V.M., Chugh, Y.P. "Tile, Countertops, and Structural Materials from Sulfate-Rich FGD Scrubber Sludge" Ashlines 6: 1-8 (2005).

  • This article describes the efforts of the researchers to establish technology for the conversion of FGD residue to architectural products such as bathroom tiles and counter tops. The current life cycle of the millions of tons of FGD residue in the United States are described, noting that the majority ends up in landfills. It is said that gypsum wall board manufacturers can only make use of a portion of the higher grade FGD residue. The economic benefits of such architectural reuses are described, while also describing the further research needed for FGD residue to take a stronger foothold in structural products.

Ritchey, K.D. et al. "Potential for utilizing coal combustion residues in co-utilization products" In Beneficial Co-Utilization of Agricultural, Municipal and Industrial By-Products, Brown, S. et al. Kluwer Academic Publishers : 139–147 (1998)

  • This article describes the uses and potential markets for the variety of byproducts of coal combustion totaling approximately 90 million tons a year in the US. These byproducts include fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag and flue gas desulfurization material. Agricultural applications for each of the byproducts are described. It is indicated that 25% of the produced fly ash is re-utilized beneficially while only 8% of the FGD reside is re-utilized. A distinction is made between FGD residue high in calcium sulphite and in calcium sulphate; the former is appropriate for mixing in low-strength cement while the latter is appropriate for wallboard manufacturing.

Industrial Waste heat[edit]

Incorporated Energetics, “Energy Loss Reduction and Recovery in Industrial Energy Systems” (U.S DOE, November 2004).

Document prepared by the US DOE to analyze the potentials for energy waste reductions in the United States. The report determined those companies with the largest fraction of waste heat available to be petroleum, chemicals, forest products, Iron and steel and food and beverage. Glass and aluminum were much smaller, but had a similar distribution. Two major process types were identified: Fluid heating , Boiling and cooling and Melting, smelting, etc.. Both categories listed as their top priority the recovery of waste heat from steam and flue gasses.

The report estimates that there is a possible savings of 828 Trillion BTU of energy in the united sates with an economic value of $2210 MM, and is number one on the top twenty opportunities in the report.

States the challenges of flue gas heat transfer being Adequate materials, Cost efficient designs and defining industry needs.

"Waste Heat Management in the Glass Industry Abstracts"

"Using waste gas from a glass furnace in a waste heat boiler" 30% of glass furnace heat lost thru stack 430-148

"Chapter 6. Waste-Heat Boilers for Flat Glass Furnaces"

Case examples, need to order through RACER

"A Feasibility Assessment of Cogeneration from a Regenerative Glass Furnace"

1/3 of heat is available minimum temperature of 400f before fouling 700-1000F flue gas temp

"Utilization of the heat from waste gasses of the glass making furnace"

inlet temp:600-640 outlet temp:220-230 Natural gas heaters for greenhouses

See also : Joshua M. Pearce, “Industrial Symbiosis for Very Large Scale Photovoltaic Manufacturing”, Renewable Energy 33, pp. 1101–1108, 2008.