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Hybrid and smart Solar PV application
38. Study of a Standalone Wind and Solar PV Power Systems
Shafiqur Rehman, Center of Engineering Research, Research Institute and Ibrahim M. El-Amin Electrical Engineering Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), Dhahran-31261, Saudi Arabia. 2010 IEEE International Energy Conference 
- Estimations based for stand alone 6kW wind and 6kW solar photovoltaic power systems.
- Study of seasonal and annual summary of climatic changes and their influence.
- Yield estimation saperately for wind energy and solar energy.
39. REVIEW ON WIND-SOLAR HYBRID POWER SYSTEM
Wagh, S. and Walke, P.V., 2017. Review on wind-solar hybrid power system. International Journal of Research In Science & Engineering, 3. 
- Steps to design and planning of hybrid system
- Requirements: Meteorological data, Load Demand, System Configuration.
40. An innovative wind–solar hybrid street light: development and early testing of a prototype
Ricci, R., Vitali, D. and Montelpare, S., 2014. An innovative wind–solar hybrid street light: development and early testing of a prototype. International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies, 10(4), pp.420-429. 
- A Savonius-type rotor has been studied through wind tunnel tests and designed for the purpose. This type of wind turbine exhibits several advantages with respect to this application, mainly due to its relatively low speed of rotation and its ‘vertical’ geometry, well incorporated in a slender object such as a street light.
- Basic parts: wind turbines; drive train; PV panel; LED lamp; structure design; electronic devices and battery.
- Prototype design and making.
- Selection of Wind turbine
- Field Experimentation and testing: Although the low mean wind speed (3.7 m/s), the wind generator plays a fundamental role in winter as expected, when the solar energy on the horizontal panel falls drastically at medium/high latitudes.
41. High Efficiency Graphene Solar Cells by Chemical Doping
Miao, X., Tongay, S., Petterson, M.K., Berke, K., Rinzler, A.G., Appleton, B.R. and Hebard, A.F., 2012. High efficiency graphene solar cells by chemical doping. Nano letters, 12(6), pp.2745-2750. 
- graphene-based Schottky junction solar cells have been demonstrated on various semiconducting substrates such as Si,(4, 5) CdS,(6) and CdSe(7) with power conversion efficiencies (PCE) ranging from 0.1 up to 2.86%.
- The work function difference between the graphene and the n-Si results in electrons transferred from the Si to the graphene yielding a Schottky junction with its associated depletion layer in the Si and built-in potential across it..
- Improved light harvesting in chemically doped graphene/n-Si Schottky junction solar devices.
- Doping with TFSA overlayers results in an ∼3–5 times increase in power conversion efficiencies of the graphene/n-Si Schottky junction solar cell junctions from 1.9 to 8.6%.
42. Polymer solar cells
Li, G., Zhu, R. and Yang, Y., 2012. Polymer solar cells. Nature photonics, 6(3), p.153. 
- OPVs are divided into two different categories according to whether their constituent molecules are either small or large (polymers). These two classes of materials are rather different in terms of their synthesis, purification and device fabrication processes.
- PSC polymers is poly[2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV), which was developed by Wudl
- Morphology: Control is critical in bulk-heterojunction PSCs. Thermal annealing and solvent annealing are currently the most popular methods for controlling morphology
- Interface and device structure
43. Organic photovoltaics
Kippelen, B. and Brédas, J.L., 2009. Organic photovoltaics. Energy & Environmental Science, 2(3), pp.251-261. 
- Requires low-temperature processing of organic small molecules.
- Exciton dissociation at the donor–acceptor interface
- Various device parameters for solar cells
44. An energy efficient pedestrian aware Smart Street Lighting system
Müllner, R. and Riener, A., 2011. An energy efficient pedestrian aware Smart Street Lighting system. International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, 7(2), pp.147-161. 
- Conventional street lighting systems in areas with a low frequency of passersby are online most of the night without purpose
- Design methodology and approach
45. Intelligent Street Lighting System Using Gsm
Rajput, K.Y., Khatav, G., Pujari, M. and Yadav, P., 2013. Intelligent street lighting system using gsm. International Journal of Engineering Science Invention, 2(3), pp.60-69. http://www.idc-online.com/technical_references/pdfs/electronic_engineering/Intelligent%20Street%20Lighting.pdf
- Not helpful.
46. Photovoltaic materials, past, present, future Adolf Goetzberger, Christopher Hebling, Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Oltmannsstrasse 5, D-79100 Freiburg, Germany Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells Volume 62, Issues 1–2, 15 April 2000, Pages 1-19 
- thin Film technology
47. Penetration of solar power without storage
Stodola, N. and Modi, V., 2009. Penetration of solar power without storage. Energy Policy, 37(11), pp.4730-4736.
- Baseload Power plants: That run on coal, nuclear, and some very large oil and gas plants.
Dispatchable power plants: That run on small gas turbines, diesel generators, and hydroelectric dams.
- Dispatchable power can be at minimum zero, so baseload and solar together must always be less than the load.
- The elevation angle of the azimuth-tracking and fixed panels was designed to maximize the annual output of electricity for a given solar panel capacity. he fixed panel elevation was set at 5° less than the latitude of the region and the azimuth-tracking at 12° more.
- Demanding greater than 95% usability severely restricts the share of energy, and decreasing below 90% provides a small increase in share while rapidly increasing the cost of energy..
- photovoltaic panels could produce a significant share of US electricity needs, due to the synchronicity of power demand with sunshine.
About 196 GW of peak solar panel capacity could be installed to reduce the energy currently provided by dispatchable power plants by 23% and would cover ober 7% of total electrical load in US.
48. A review of particle swarm optimization and its applications in Solar Photovoltaic system.
Khare, A. and Rangnekar, S., 2013. A review of particle swarm optimization and its applications in solar photovoltaic system. Applied Soft Computing, 13(5), pp.2997-3006. 
- Particle swarm optimization is a stochastic optimization, evolutionary and simulating algorithm derived from human behaviour and animal behaviour.
- Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is an evolutionary computation technique, developed for optimization of continuous non linear, constrained and unconstrained, non differentiable multimodal functions .
- PSO is used for optimal sizing of the system. The aim of sizing methodology is to determine the optimal number and types of devices being used.
- Cost function includes investment, operation, maintenance cost, along with cost of losses and cost of selling energy to grid, if it is a grid connected system
- the particle swarm can improve the convergence rate and precision, and enhance the ability of global optimization. Thus new algorithm can be applied to predict the maximum power point (MPP) of the photovoltaic cell.
- PSO is an interesting and intelligent computational technique for finding global minima and maxima with high capability or multimodal functions and practical applications