Electric car

Electric vehicles are vehicles powered by an electric motor. They include:

  • Electric water vehicles — Includes supersurface water vehicles (regular or hydrofoiling), subsurface vehicles (regular or supercavitating)
  • Electric ground vehicles — Includes supersurface ground vehicles, subsurface ground vehicles
  • Electric air vehicles — Includes lighter-than-air air vehicles and heavier-than-air air vehicles

Privately owned vehicles include:

Electric cars[edit | edit source]

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Electric carsW are generally better for the environment than regular cars. The emissions benefit of electric vehicles is strongly enhanced when they are charged by low carbon electricity sources. However, even if an electric car is charged from a predominantly coal and fossil methane powered electric grid, the lifetime emissions of the vehicle are very likely to be less than from an equivalent size and capability internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle.

Burning a gallon of gasoline results in ~9000 gCO2 in direct tailpipe emissions,[1] but the extraction, refining, transport, and marketing of that gallon of gasoline requires at least ~3300 gCO2-eq of additional emissions, or ~12200gCO2 total per gallon.[2] Since mpg divided by mi / kWh for an equivalent ICE vehicle is approximately a factor of 10, we can conclude that an electric grid would need to be ~1220 gCO2/kWh to make operating an EV as "dirty" as burning gasoline in an ICE vehicle. Only electric grids that are nearly exclusively fueled by oil burning power plants, such as on the Canary Islands, approach this level of emissions.[3]

Put more simply, an EV charged from low carbon sources such as solar, wind, geothermal, hydro, and nuclear will emit less per mile in operation than the fossil fuel industry wastes getting their fuel to market.

Regarding pollution while driving, electric vehicles create only 1% of the pollution generated from even the cleanest gasoline vehicles.[4]

Embodied emissions of an electric vehicle and its battery will vary by manufacturing technique, sources of battery materials, and the emissions of the energy sources used in the manufacturing process. Volvo and Fisker have produced detailed reports about the life cycle emissions of their vehicles. Based on these reports, battery manufacturing requires ~76 kgCO2-eq of emissions per kWh of installed gross battery capacity, though this number is decreasing over time. In regions with moderate electric grid emissions (e.g. ~400 gCO2-eq /kWh[5]), gross pack Wh divided by 3 will roughly result in the number of miles of operation needed to "break even" on lifetime emissions with an equivalent ICE vehicle. For example, a Tesla Model Y with 80,000 Wh of installed capacity would need to be driven approximately ~27,000 miles to have a total life cycle emissions of an equivalent ICE vehicle. Of course, the break even mileage will decrease substantially when the EV is charged from an electric grid with lower emissions. Only if an electric vehicle's lifespan is cut short via damage will the embodied energy emissions from their production not be offset by reduced emissions from their operations.

Electric cars running costs can be significantly more affordable than diesel or petrol, especially if charged from low cost residential or commercial electricity. For example, if electricity costs $0.15/kWh, this would be the equivalent of $1.50/gallon cost for gasoline. If the electricity comes from your own photovoltaic system, then recharging costs only what the "levelized cost of electricity" for the solar PV system was, often well below $0.10/kWh. Costs for charging from public DC fast charging (DCFC) stations can vary dramatically, from free at the low end to $0.75/kWh or more on the high end. EVs usually require less ongoing maintenance than ICE vehicles, as they do not require oil changes, regenerative braking cuts friction brake wear substantially, etc. Lower running costs are somewhat offset by slightly higher (~10-20%) costs to acquire the vehicle initially (though cost parity is expected circa 2025), possibly higher costs to insure versus an equivalent ICE vehicle, and possibly higher replacement costs for a battery and other electronic modules.

Modern EVs have ranges varying between 100 and 400 miles per charge, depending on model. As around 80% of drivers will drive less than 40 miles in a day , this range will suffice for most people's daily driving needs. As the popularity of electric vehicles continues to grow, it has become increasingly important to develop and maintain an adequate charging infrastructure. Unfortunately, more robust charging infrastructure is still lacking in many areas, especially rural areas, making route planning for long trips a greater requirement than in ICE vehicles.

To address this problem, we need to invest more resources into developing new charging stations that are reliable and cost-effective. This requires creating optimal locations for these stations as well as setting up a system of payment and support services to ensure their continued use. Overall, this issue deserves greater attention from policymakers and businesses alike. Providing adequate EV charging infrastructure can help improve access to clean transportation for millions of people.[6]

History[edit | edit source]

The electric motor was after the steam engine, the second mechanical drive for vehicles. Later came as a drive yet added the internal combustion engine. In the 1830s, Robert Anderson is said to have built a "electro barrow". First electric vehicles for rail transport were tested and operated in 1842 by Robert Davidson on the route Edinburgh - Glasgow, 1851 by Charles Grafton Page in Washington DC and in 1879 by Werner Siemens in Berlin.

The first three-wheeled electric vehicle for the road, the Trouvé tricycle was built by Gustave Trouvé in Paris in 1881. It is often confused with the later built Ayrton and Perry Electric Tricycle. While the Trouvé Tricycle still had the pedal drive (and thus in the narrow sense represents a moped), the Ayrton and Perry Electric Tricycle could only be operated by purely electrically.

The first four-wheeled electric vehicle is the Flocken electric car, which was developed in 1888 by the Coburger fabricant Andreas Flocken. This first " real" electric car developed by integration of an electric drive in a horse-carriage. The carriage wheels were about a decade later replaced by wheels with rubber tires, which up to today in electric cars the usual tires has remained.

In the 1930s, National City Lines, which was a partnership of General Motors,Firestone, and Standard Oil of California purchased many electric tram networks across the country to dismantle them and replace them with GM buses.

In the 21th century the industry developed more and more vehicle which is able to use green Energy form the socket. The car industry knows that this step is important, because when they miss this step other companies or manufactures came and do this. Furthermore green energy is the further of our world. If you looked at the big company like BMW for example, you can see that they create tow new cars for the customers. In the year 2014 they present the i8 and the i3. This two cars have the best and the highest technology in there.

The BMW i8, first introduced as the BMW Concept Vision Efficient Dynamics, is a plug-in hybrid sports car developed by BMW. The 2015 model year BMW i8 has a 7.1 kWh lithium-ion battery pack that delivers an all-electric range of 37 km under the New European Driving Cycle. Under the United States Environmental Protection Agency cycle, the range in EV mode is 24 km with a small amount of gasoline consumption.

The BMW i3, previously Mega City Vehicle, is a five-door urban electric car developed by the German manufacturer BMW. The i3 is part of BMW's "Project i" and was launched as a new brand, BMW i. The i3 is BMW's first zero emissions mass-produced vehicle due to its electric power train, and BMW is the first company to launch a volume production vehicle on the market featuring carbon-fiber reinforced plastic to improve the vehicle's energy consumption.

See also[edit | edit source]

FA info icon.svg Angle down icon.svg Page data
Keywords sustainable transport gallery fuels
Authors Jonas Siebertz, Stephan Schüller, KVDP
License CC-BY-SA-3.0
Language English (en)
Related 0 subpages, 10 pages link here
Aliases Electric vehicle
Impact 1,003 page views
Created August 23, 2012 by KVDP
Modified April 17, 2024 by Kathy Nativi
  1. Gasoline Explained - Gasoline and the Environment. US Energy Information Agency (EIA). Updated 2022 Dec 29. Accessed 2024 Apr 04. https://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/gasoline/gasoline-and-the-environment.php
  2. Emissions from Oil and Gas Operations in Net Zero Transitions, IEA, May 2023, accessed 2024 April 04. https://www.iea.org/reports/emissions-from-oil-and-gas-operations-in-net-zero-transitions
  3. Electricity Maps http://app.electricitymaps.com
  4. American Lung Association
  5. Carbon intensity of electricity generation by Our World in Data. Updated 2023 Dec 12. Accessed 2024 Apr 04. https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/carbon-intensity-electricity?tab=chart
  6. We need more electric vehicle charging stations. The Green Living Guyhttp://greenlivingguy.com/2022/05/we-need-more-electric-vehicle-charging-stations/
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