Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) is a crop production method that uses technology to precisely control plant growth conditions and optimize use of resources. CEA production takes place in indoor growing spaces such as greenhouses and repurposed buildings. Electronic sensors and machinery are used control a variety of growth variables including temperature, humidity, light, carbon dioxide, nutrient concentration, and PH.
CEA can increase the sustainability of crop production by efficiently using water, nutrients, energy, and space. However, there are approaches to CEA that have high energy use for artificial lighting, ventilation, and heating systems. Utilization of sustainable energy and energy efficient technologies, like LED grow lights, may be able to offset some of the costs and environmental impact of energy intensive CEA operations.