23. D. Kumar, Economic Assessment of Photovoltaic Energy Production Prospects in India Procedia Earth and Planetary Science 2015 Volume 1 425-436[edit | edit source]

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeps.2015.06.042 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1878522015000934/pdf?md5=25df09e754ab52c1c74a238deb174ec8&pid=1-s2.0-S1878522015000934-main.pdf

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Over the past decade, the electricity generation landscape around the globe has changed severely with rapid multiplying of renewable generation. The 21st century has numerous points of power injection as well as millions of points of consumption. The power system in India has coarsely folded in the last decade and similarly in the previous decade. Alternative sources of energy are being sought after in the world today as the availability of fossil fuels and other non-renewable resources are declining. Photovoltaic energy offers an encouraging solution to this search as it is a less polluting renewable energy resource. The proposed work focuses on the Economic Assessment models while estimates the economic impacts of constructing and operating power generation at the local and state levels. The work considers many aspects of the problem including the energy and economic ones which is of basic importance for evaluating real outcomes of investments. The result of the assessment screens the economic feasibility of photovoltaic systems and the consequent production of electricity, recovering costs of installation and maintenance of the system. Additional economic aspects includes evaluation of costs of the PV systems (investment costs and costs for maintenance, servicing and insurance against damage) and benefits due to the gains for the avoided bill costs, the incentives and the sold electricity; analysis of cash flows; estimation of the energy cover factor related to the results of the economic analysis; sensitivity analysis for the most significant physical and economic parameter.

24. A. Ferreira, S. S. Kunh, K. C. Fagnani, T. A. De Souza, C. Tonezer, G. R. D. Santos, C. H. Coimbra-Araujo, Economic overview of the use and production of photovoltaic solar energy in brazil Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2018 Volume 81(1) 181-191[edit | edit source]

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.06.102

Abstract[edit | edit source]

The technology of photovoltaic power generation has been increasingly regarded in many countries as an alternative to reduce the environmental impacts associated with climate changes and dependence on fossil fuels. Countries such as Germany and other European countries have been developed specific regulatory mechanisms to encourage its use either by government programs or by financial and/or tax incentives. In Brazil, despite the large existing solar potential, the encouragement to technology is still incipient. This paper aims to demonstrate the key aspects of the evolution of regulatory incentives to use photovoltaic solar energy in Brazil and present the technologies and characteristics of photovoltaic power generation.

25. A. C. Goodrich, D. M. Powell, T. L. James, M. Woodhouse and T. Buonassisi, Assessing the drivers of regional trends in solar photovoltaic manufacturing Energy & Environmental Science 2013 Volume 6 2811-2821[edit | edit source]


Abstract[edit | edit source]

The photovoltaic (PV) industry has grown rapidly as a source of energy and economic activity. Since 2008, the average manufacturer-sale price of PV modules has declined by over a factor of two, coinciding with a significant increase in the scale of manufacturing in China. Using a bottom-up model for wafer-based silicon PV, we examine both historical and future factory-location decisions from the perspective of a multinational corporation. Our model calculates the cost of PV manufacturing with process step resolution, while considering the impact of corporate financing and operations with a calculation of the minimum selling price that provides an adequate rate of return. We quantify the conditions of China's historical PV price advantage, examine if these conditions can be reproduced elsewhere, and evaluate the role of innovative technology in altering regional competitive advantage. We find that the historical price advantage of a China-based factory relative to a U.S.-based factory is not driven by country-specific advantages, but instead by scale and supply-chain development. Looking forward, we calculate that technology innovations may result in effectively equivalent minimum sustainable manufacturing prices for the two locations. In this long-run scenario, the relative share of module shipping costs, as well as other factors, may promote regionalization of module-manufacturing operations to cost-effectively address local market demand. Our findings highlight the role of innovation, importance of manufacturing scale, and opportunity for global collaboration to increase the installed capacity of PV worldwide.

26. D. Yue, F. You, S. B. Darling, Domestic and overseas manufacturing scenarios of silicon-based photovoltaics: Life cycle energy and environmental comparative analysis, Solar Energy, 2014, Volume 105, 669-678[edit | edit source]

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2014.04.008

Abstract[edit | edit source]

While life cycle assessment (LCA) has been recognized as an invaluable tool to assess the energy and environmental profiles of a photovoltaic (PV) system, current LCA studies are limited to Europe and North America. However, today most PV modules are outsourced to and manufactured in non-OECD countries (e.g., China), which have a substantially different degree of industrialization and environmental restriction. To investigate this issue, we perform a comparative LCA between domestic and overseas manufacturing scenarios illustrated by three kinds of silicon-based PV technologies, namely mono-crystalline silicon, multi-crystalline silicon and ribbon silicon. We take into account geographic diversity by utilizing localized inventory data for processes and materials. The energy payback time, energy return on investment and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for both scenarios are calculated and analyzed. Compared to the domestic manufacturing scenario, the energy use efficiency is generally 30% lower and the carbon footprint is almost doubled in the overseas manufacturing scenario. Moreover, based on the LCA results, we propose a break-even carbon tariff model for the international trade of silicon-based PV modules, indicating an appropriate carbon tariff in the range of €105–€129/ton CO2.

27. G. A. Keoleian, G. McD Lewis,Application of life-cycle energy analysis to photovoltaic module design, Progress in Photovoltaics, 1997, Volume 5(4), 287-300[edit | edit source]

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-159X(199707/08)5:4<287::AID-PIP169>3.0.CO;2-S


Abstract[edit | edit source]

This paper highlights results from a collaborative life‐cycle design project between the University of Michigan, the US Environment Protection Agency and United Solar Systems Corporation. Energy analysis is a critical planning and design tool for photovoltaic (PV) modules. A set of model equations for evaluating the life‐cycle energy performance of PV systems and other electricity‐generating systems are presented. The total PV life‐cycle, encompassing material production, manufacturing and assembly, use and end‐of‐life management, was investigated.

Three metrics—energy payback time, electricity production efficiency and life‐cycle conversion efficiency—were defined for PV modules with and without balance‐of‐system (BOS) components. These metrics were evaluated for a United Solar UPM‐880 amorphous silicon PV module based on average insolation in Detroit, Boulder and Phoenix. Based on these metrics, a minimum condition for assessing the sustainability of electricity‐generating systems was proposed and discussed. The life‐cycle energy analysis indicated that the aluminum frame is responsible for a significant fraction of the energy invested in the UPM‐880 module.

28. V. M. Fthenakis, H. C. Kim, Photovoltaics: Life-cycle analyses, Solar Energy, 2011, Volume 85(8), 1609-1628[edit | edit source]

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2009.10.002 https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/1891/62ebb29561bd28dacc5c1898a168441754d5.pdf

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Life-cycle analysis is an invaluable tool for investigating the environmental profile of a product or technology from cradle to grave. Such life-cycle analyses of energy technologies are essential, especially as material and energy flows are often interwoven, and divergent emissions into the environment may occur at different life-cycle-stages. This approach is well exemplified by our description of material and energy flows in four commercial PV technologies, i.e., mono-crystalline silicon, multi-crystalline silicon, ribbon-silicon, and cadmium telluride. The same life-cycle approach is applied to the balance of system that supports flat, fixed PV modules during operation. We also discuss the life-cycle environmental metrics for a concentration PV system with a tracker and lenses to capture more sunlight per cell area than the flat, fixed system but requires large auxiliary components. Select life-cycle risk indicators for PV, i.e., fatalities, injures, and maximum consequences are evaluated in a comparative context with other electricity-generation pathways.

29. S. Pacca, D. Sivaraman, G. A. Keoleian, Parameters affecting the life cycle performance of PV technologies and systems, Energy Policy, 2007, Volume 35(6), 3316-3326[edit | edit source]

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2006.10.003

Abstract[edit | edit source]

This paper assesses modeling parameters that affect the environmental performance of two state-of-the-art photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation technologies: the PVL136 thin film laminates and the KC120 multi-crystalline modules. We selected three metrics to assess the modules' environmental performance, which are part of an actual 33 kW installation in Ann Arbor, MI. The net energy ratio (NER), the energy pay back time (E-PBT), and the CO2 emissions are calculated using process based LCA methods. The results reveal some of the parameters, such as the level of solar radiation, the position of the modules, the modules' manufacturing energy intensity and its corresponding fuel mix, and the solar radiation conversion efficiency of the modules, which affect the final analytical results. A sensitivity analysis shows the effect of selected parameters on the final results. For the baseline scenario, the E-PBT for the PVL136 and KC120 are 3.2 and 7.5 years, respectively. When expected future conversion efficiencies are tested, the E-PBT is 1.6 and 5.7 years for the PVL136 and the KC120, respectively. Based on the US fuel mix, the CO2 emissions for the PVL136 and the KC120 are 34.3 and 72.4 g of CO2/kW h, respectively. The most effective way to improve the modules' environmental performance is to reduce the energy input in the manufacturing phase of the modules, provided that other parameters remain constant. Consequently, the use of PV as an electricity source during PV manufacturing is also assessed. The NER of the supplier PV is key for the performance of this scheme. The results show that the NER based on a PV system can be 3.7 times higher than the NER based on electricity supplied by the traditional grid mix, and the CO2 emissions can be reduced by 80%.

30. V. Baharwani, N. Meena, A. Dubey, U. Brighu, J. Mathur, Life Cycle Analysis of Solar PV System: A Review, International Journal of Environmental Research and Development, 2014, Volume 4, 183-190[edit | edit source]


Abstract[edit | edit source]

Electricity generation is a key source to global emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and their related environmental impact. Sustainable development requires methods and tools to measure the environmental impacts of human activities for various products such as goods, services, etc. Life-cycle analysis is a valuable tool for evaluating the environmental profile of a product or technology from cradle to grave. Such life-cycle analysis of energy technologies are essential, especially as material and energy flows are often intermingled, and divergent emissions into the environment may occur at different life-cycle-stages. Photovoltaic system is a technology for the production of electricity from renewable sources that is rapidly growing thanks to its potential to reduce the energy consumption from traditional sources and to decrease the air pollution. During the operational phase, there are no emissions and the only input is solar power. However, it should be noted that, considering the entire life cycle of a plant, photovoltaic systems, like any other means of electricity production, give rise to emissions that focus especially in the manufacturing stage and installation of components. In this study, the environmental load of photovoltaic power generation system (PV) during its life cycle by energy payback time (EPT) and Greenhouse Gas emissions are reviewed through LCA study to the state of art of the photovoltaic technologies.

31. R. Garcia-Valverde, J.A. Cherni, A. Urbina, Life cycle analysis of organic photovolatic technologies,Progress in Photovoltaics, 2010, Volume 18(7), 535-558[edit | edit source]

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/pip.967


Abstract[edit | edit source]

Organic solar cells, both in the hybrid dye sensitized technology and in the full organic polymeric technology, are a promising alternative that could supply solar electricity at a cost much lower than other more conventional inorganic photovoltaic technologies. This paper presents a life cycle analysis of the laboratory production of a typical bulk heterojunction organic solar cell and compares this result with those obtained for the industrial production of other photovoltaic technologies. Also a detailed material inventory from raw materials to final photovoltaic module is presented, allowing us to identify potential bottlenecks in a future supply chain for a large industrial output. Even at this initial stage of laboratory production, the energy payback time and CO2 emission factor for the organic photovoltaic technology is of the same order of other inorganic photovoltaic technologies, demonstrating that there is plenty of room for improvement if the fabrication procedure is optimized and scaled up to an industrial process.

32. C. J. Mulligan, M. Wilson, G. Bryant, B. Vaughan, X. Zhou, W. J. Belcher, P. C. Dastoor,A projection of commercial-scale organic photovoltaic module costs, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 2014, Volume 120 (A), 9-17[edit | edit source]

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2013.07.041

Abstract[edit | edit source]

Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are a recent technology that has gained much attention as a potential low cost power source. Despite this promise, there is a lack of published studies that address the likely cost of commercial-scale OPV modules. In this work, an engineering study estimate has been performed to determine the projected cost of mass-manufactured OPV modules. The materials, production capital and operating costs have been calculated and sensitivity analyses performed to determine the parameters of greatest economic influence. Significantly, the model includes a calculation of the costs required to establish bulk manufacturing of the current high cost speciality materials components, encompassing synthesis and associated chemical plant design. The economic modelling reveals that the calculated mass-manufactured OPV module costs are considerably lower than current literature estimates, with OPV modules costed at $7.85 per square metre with a

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