This involves the use of natural enemies (bred specificly for this purpose) to fight pests and diseases. The natural enemies do this as follows:

  • They suck the plague organism empty , such as the larva of the lacewing and the gall midge and the predatory mite
  • They lay an egg in the plague organism, such as the parasitic wasp.
  • They eat the pest organism, such as the larvae of the ladybug and the predatory bug
  • They secrete toxic compounds into the plague or pest organism to make it ill in one or another way, such as nematodes and bacteria
Pest Natural enemy
aphid parasitic wasp, ladybird, gall midge
Agromyzidae Ichneumonidae
Thrips predatory mite, assassin bug
whitefly parasitic wasp, assassin bug, fungus
spider mite predatory mite, gall midge
caterpillar parasitic wasp, bacteria
Sciaridae predatory mites, nematodes
mealybugs parasitic wasp, predatory beetle
vine weevil nematodes

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Literature[edit | edit source]

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