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{{Template:WetLand student projects header}}
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[[File:Final_poster.jpg|thumb|400px|left|Team X's poster.]]
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[[File:Wetland.jpg|thumb|right|Sample photo caption.]]
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<center>''ABSTRACT: The Water Meter is a water quality meter designed by the Humboldt State University Engineering 215 - Intro to Design class, and implemented on the WetLand mobile habitat.''</center>
+
== Abstract ==
 
+
The Water Meter is a water quality meter designed by the Humboldt State University Engineering 215 - Intro to Design class, and implemented on the WetLand mobile habitat.
 
+
 
+
== Water Meter ==
+
 
+
=== Project Background ===
+
  
 +
== Background ==
 
WetLand is a mobile self-sustainable island-based ecosystem started in summer of 2014 on a barge located on the Delaware River in Philadelphia, PA.  The goal of WetLand is to offer a workspace for artists; a stage for forums on our shared future; and to combine art, life on the water, architecture, and environmental technologies.
 
WetLand is a mobile self-sustainable island-based ecosystem started in summer of 2014 on a barge located on the Delaware River in Philadelphia, PA.  The goal of WetLand is to offer a workspace for artists; a stage for forums on our shared future; and to combine art, life on the water, architecture, and environmental technologies.
  
=== OBJECTIVE ===  
+
== Objective ==  
 
The water meter is designed to monitor the volume, flow, and quality of water which is collected and stored on the WetLand habitat. Water on the WetLands habitat is collected through desalination of water from the Delaware river and through rainwater catchment. This water is filtered for use onboard, but requires monitoring to insure its quality for use.
 
The water meter is designed to monitor the volume, flow, and quality of water which is collected and stored on the WetLand habitat. Water on the WetLands habitat is collected through desalination of water from the Delaware river and through rainwater catchment. This water is filtered for use onboard, but requires monitoring to insure its quality for use.
  
=== Criteria ===
+
== Criteria ==
  
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
Line 56: Line 50:
  
 
== Design ==
 
== Design ==
 +
The water meter, designed by Team X, tests the water quality for the WetLand project.  The design is composed of five sensors that read the volume, pH, salt water content  via conductivity, temperature (Fahrenheit), and the flow of the  water into the water tank of the drinking water on the barge.  All of the values the sensors take are read by an Arduino programmable microchip and displayed on a liquid crystal display (LCD) screen.  While displaying these values it will be saving those values to an  SD card that is incorporated into the Arduino microchip.   
  
The water meter, designed by Team X, tests the water quality for the WetLands project. The design is composed of five sensors that read the volume, pH, salt water content  via conductivity, temperature (Fahrenheit), and the flow of the  water into the water tank of the drinking water on the barge. All of the values the sensors take are read by an Arduino programmable microchip and displayed on a liquid crystal display (LCD) screen.  While displaying these values it will be saving those values to an  SD card that is incorporated into the  Arduino microchip.   
+
<gallery caption="components of the water meter">
 
+
File:Flow_Gauge.jpg| The flow meter
<!-- Here is a sample gallery. -->
+
File:Ibctote.jpg| The IBC Tote
<gallery caption="Sample gallery">
+
File:Sonarsensor.jpg| The sonar sensor
File:Imageneeded.png|Sample caption text.
+
File:Samplingcompartment.jpg| A section of the sampling compartment with the pH sensor integrated  
File:Imageneeded.png|More sample caption text. This would look better with different images. :)
+
File:PHsensor.jpg| The pH sensor
File:Imageneeded.png|Even more sample caption text.  
+
File:Salinitysensor.jpg| The saline sensor
 +
File:Temperaturesensor.jpg| The temperature sensor
 +
File:Arduino.jpg| The Arduino
 +
File:Sensorshield.jpg| The sensor shield
 +
File:SDcardshield.jpg| The SD card shield
 +
File:LCDscreen.jpg| The LCD screen
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 +
 +
=== Flow Meter ===
 +
The flow meter is to be placed at the inlet of the water take so the amount of water the barge is taking on is known in liters/hour. Another flow meter will be placed near the outlet and used to trigger the monitoring system to test quality of water while being the water is being pumped through the pipes.
 +
 +
=== Intermediate Bulk Container (IBC) Tote ===
 +
The IBC tote is where the water for the WetLand habitat is stored.  The tank can hold a total of 275 gallons.
  
 
=== Volume Sensor ===
 
=== Volume Sensor ===
Line 77: Line 83:
  
 
The saline sensor is derived from a small volume/conductivity sensor.  The probe will read a conductivity value and through a conversion find the parts per million of the salt concentration on the barge.
 
The saline sensor is derived from a small volume/conductivity sensor.  The probe will read a conductivity value and through a conversion find the parts per million of the salt concentration on the barge.
 
=== Flow Meter ===
 
 
The flow meter is to be placed at the inlet of the water take so the amount of water the barge is taking on is known in liters/hour. Another flow meter will be placed near the outlet and used to trigger the monitoring system to test quality of water while being the water is being pumped through the pipes.
 
  
 
=== Temperature ===
 
=== Temperature ===
 
 
The temperature sensor is used to display the temperature of the water when it is being stored. This will be displayed in Fahrenheit.
 
The temperature sensor is used to display the temperature of the water when it is being stored. This will be displayed in Fahrenheit.
  
 +
=== Arduino ===
 +
The entire system runs off of an Arduino Uno programmable microchip. The Arduino is programmed with a specific code located
 +
[[Team X Water Meter Arduino Code|here]].  Due to the limited amount of input pins on the Arduino a sensor shield is incorporated to expand the amount of sensors that can be utilized.
  
 
=== LCD Screen ===
 
=== LCD Screen ===
 
 
The LCD screen is where all of the data that is read and calculated by the Arduino is displayed.  This is designed to be easy to read and comprehend.  the reader should right away know if that water they have is potable or if it needs to further be purified.
 
The LCD screen is where all of the data that is read and calculated by the Arduino is displayed.  This is designed to be easy to read and comprehend.  the reader should right away know if that water they have is potable or if it needs to further be purified.
  
 
=== Data Shield ===
 
=== Data Shield ===
 
+
The Data Storage Shield uses an SD or micro SD memory card to track and store data trends that are being measured by each sensor.  The data stored here can be saved and allow the inhabitants of the barge to see how the water is over time.
The Data Storage Shield uses an SD or micro SD memory card to track and store data trends that are being measured by each sensor.
+
  
 
== Costs ==
 
== Costs ==
 +
Material costs:
  
You may describe your costs here.
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
|-
Line 122: Line 124:
 
| 112.00
 
| 112.00
 
|-
 
|-
| Flow Rate Sensor
+
| Flow Rate Sensor(2)
| 12.00
+
| 24.00
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Data Storage Shield
 
| Data Storage Shield
Line 136: Line 138:
 
| Plumbing
 
| Plumbing
 
| 47.00
 
| 47.00
 +
|-
 +
| Redwood Electronic soldering
 +
| 10.00
 
|-
 
|-
 
| '''Total'''
 
| '''Total'''
| '''249.50'''
+
| '''271.50'''
 
|}
 
|}
  
== Conclusions ==
+
== Instructions ==
 +
The instructions on how to build the water meter can be found here: [[WetLand water meter instructions]]
  
 +
The code for the Arduino can be found here: [[Team X Water Meter Arduino Code]]
 +
 +
=== Video ===
 +
{{#widget: YouTube|id=_zeXVwBS9nk}}
 +
 +
== Conclusions ==
 +
Team X has designed a water meter to test for volume, flow into the storage tank, pH, salinity, and temperature that is displayed on an easy to read LCD screen all while allowing the inhabitants of the barge to track the water over time on an SD card. While there are other water quality monitoring systems out on the market, the water meter designed by Team X is relatively inexpensive when compared to other comparable systems such as [http://www.instrumart.com/products/39566/extech-wq510-water-quality-meter?gclid=CMCEhvfZprsCFQlafgodKHsA1A Extech's WQ510] water quality meter that is listed at $629.00. 
 
The water meter designed by Team X for the WetLand Project has fulfilled the criteria as laid out above
 
The water meter designed by Team X for the WetLand Project has fulfilled the criteria as laid out above
 +
 +
== Maintenance ==
 +
This system is designed to have easy access to the sensors.  The pH and saline sensors will need to be cleaned of debris once a week.  This is a result of being constantly submerged in the water.  The pH sensor must be wet at all times and cannot dry out because the pH sensor will break and need to be replaced.  To prevent this, the pH sensor should be stored in a buffer solution if the sensor is not being used.  To clean off debris a soft brush such as a toothbrush can be used to brush off the buildup.
  
 
== References ==
 
== References ==
 +
*(15 Aug. 2012.) "Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics Research." SunShot Initiative:
 +
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/sunshot/pv_crystalline_silicon.html (02 Oct. 2013.)
 +
 +
*(1998). Food Equipment Materials. American National Standard/NSF International Standard,
 +
January, 1-5.
 +
 +
*(2010). “River Facts” Delaware Riverkeeper Network,
 +
<http://www.delawareriverkeeper.org/delaware-river/estuary.asp>(2010).
 +
 +
*(2011) “Operating Systems” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operating_system
 +
 +
*(2013) “Arduino.” <http://www.arduino.cc/ > (2013)
 +
 +
*(2013) “programming language)” <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C_(programming_language)>
 +
(2013)
 +
 +
*(2013) Stroustrup B. “The C++ Programming Language.” Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.
 +
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Java_(programming_language)> (2013)
 +
 +
*(Aug. 11, 2013). “Dirty Rainwater and Contaminated Rainwater.” Tankworks,
 +
<http://watertactics.com.au/blog/rainwater/dirty-rainwater-and-contaminated-rainwater/> (Aug.
 +
11, 2013).
 +
 +
*(Dec. 4, 2012). “Water Treatment”
 +
<http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/drinking/public/water_treatment.html> (Dec. 4, 2012).
 +
 +
*(Field, Simon.) "Electrochemistry -- Make Homemade Batteries." Chapter 3: Electrochemistry
 +
-- Make Homemade Batteries in Your Kitchen. <http://scitoys.com/scitoys/scitoys/echem/batteries/batteries.html> (02 Oct. 2013.)
 +
 +
*“National Water-Quality Assessment Program.” USGS,
 +
<http://nj.usgs.gov/nawqa/delr/reports/fs-056-99.pdf>
 +
 +
*“NOAA Forecasts Larger Than Normal "Dead Zone" for Gulf This Summer.” NOAA,
 +
<http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2006/s2669.htm>.
 +
 +
*Anonymous (2007) “Beginning AutoCAD 2007”
 +
 +
*Brain, M. (n.d.). How Water Towers Work. December 10, 2013,
 +
http://www.howstuffworks.com/water.htm
 +
 +
*Chapman, Peter. (Nov. 3, 2009). “Assessing Sediment Contamination in Estuaries.” Wiley
 +
Online Library, <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/etc>(Nov. 3, 2009).
 +
 +
*Downey, N. (2010). Harvest the rain: how to enrich your life by seeing every storm as a
 +
resource. Santa Fe, N.M.: Sunstone Press.
 +
 +
*Energy Star (2013). “LCD Basics” <http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=monitors.lcd>
 +
(2013)
 +
 +
*Evision, L., & Sunna, N. (2001). Microbial Regrowth in Household Water Storage Tanks.
 +
American Water Works Association, 93(9), 85-94.
 +
 +
*FDA Food Code 2009: Chapter 5 - Water, Plumbing & Waste. (n.d.). December 10, 2013,
 +
http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/RetailFoodProtection/FoodCode/ucm186352.ht
 +
m
 +
 +
*Gibbons, Jack; Whit, Jones; Root, Ellen; Schwarz, Bessie. (Nov. 22, 2004). “Rainwater
 +
 +
*Chemistry Across the United States.”
 +
<http://www.people.carleton.edu/~bhaileab/environmentalgeology/RainWater.pdf>(Nov. 22,
 +
2004).
 +
 +
*Hambrice, K. (2004, December 1). A Dozen Ways to Measure Fluid Level and How They
 +
Work. Sensors. Retrieved December 11, 2013. http://www.sensorsmag.com/sensors/leaklevel/
 +
a-dozen-ways-measure-fluid-level-and-how-they-work-1067
 +
 +
*Heath, Alan. (1995). Water Pollution and Fish Physiology, 2nd Ed., CRC Press, Florida.
 +
 +
*“Indoor water use in the United States” EPA. Retrieved December 10, 2013, from
 +
http://www.epa.gov/WaterSense/pubs/indoor.html
 +
 +
*Karre, A (2005) “The complete Guide to home wiring” Creative Publishing International,
 +
Minneapolis, Minnesota
 +
 +
*Lewis ZL, Douglas GP, Monaco V, Crowley RS, 2010) “Touchscreen task efficiency and
 +
learnability in an electronic medical record at the point-of-care”
 +
Magnet (2013) “Alternating Current”
 +
<http://www.magnet.fsu.edu/education/tutorials/java/ac/index.html> (2013)
 +
 +
*Lowe, Mary (2005). 3D Printing. Appliance Design, October, 35-39.
 +
 +
*Nordblom, O., & Bergdahl, L. (2004). Initiation of Stagnation in Drinking Water Storage Tanks.
 +
Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 130(1), 49-57.
 +
 +
*Plastic Water Tank Design Considerations and Specifications. (n.d.). December 10, 2013,
 +
http://www.tanksystems.com/H2OTankspec.htm
 +
 +
*Scott, C.(2012). “HC-SR04 Ultrasonic Sensor” Arduino Basics
 +
http://arduinobasics.blogspot.com/2012/11/arduinobasics-hc-sr04-ultrasonicsensor.
 +
html>(2012).
 +
 +
*Veraart, R. (n.d.). www.foodcontactmaterials.com; the free legislative internet resource for
 +
food contact materials. December 10, 2013, http://www.foodcontactmaterials.com/
  
 
<!-- This code is for placing the citation you included above.  If you did not use the <ref> code, please delete this. -->
 
<!-- This code is for placing the citation you included above.  If you did not use the <ref> code, please delete this. -->
Line 152: Line 261:
 
== Contact details ==
 
== Contact details ==
  
Add your contact information.   
+
[[User:Skc224|Solomon Clark]]: skc224@humboldt.edu
 +
 
 +
[[User:Pad177|Peter Duin]]: pad177@humboldt.edu
 +
 
 +
[[User:Jhinojosa|Javier Hinojosa]]: jh2593@humboldt.edu
 +
 
 +
Matthew Small: mas1311@humboldt.edu  
  
<!-- Don't change the next line unless you intend to change the categorization -->
 
<!-- Do add additional, appropriate categories.  See http://www.appropedia.org/Appropedia:CategoryTree for ideas. -->
 
 
[[Category:Projects]]
 
[[Category:Projects]]
 
[[Category:Engr215 Introduction to Design]]
 
[[Category:Engr215 Introduction to Design]]
 +
[[Category:Water]]
 +
[[Category:WetLand]]
 +
[[Category:Monitoring and evaluation]]

Latest revision as of 20:28, 20 December 2017

WetLand Engr215 Student Projects

Water Meter - Energy Monitor - Pyramidal Water Desalinator - Aquaponic System - Edible Railing - Spiral Rainwater Catchment



Team X's poster.

Abstract[edit]

The Water Meter is a water quality meter designed by the Humboldt State University Engineering 215 - Intro to Design class, and implemented on the WetLand mobile habitat.

Background[edit]

WetLand is a mobile self-sustainable island-based ecosystem started in summer of 2014 on a barge located on the Delaware River in Philadelphia, PA. The goal of WetLand is to offer a workspace for artists; a stage for forums on our shared future; and to combine art, life on the water, architecture, and environmental technologies.

Objective[edit]

The water meter is designed to monitor the volume, flow, and quality of water which is collected and stored on the WetLand habitat. Water on the WetLands habitat is collected through desalination of water from the Delaware river and through rainwater catchment. This water is filtered for use onboard, but requires monitoring to insure its quality for use.

Criteria[edit]

Criteria Constraint
Budget less than 400.00
Reliability Must be reliable.
Safe Must pose no threat to the occupants of the WetLands barge.
Aesthetics Must look concise and simple.
Durability Must with stand weather and day to day use by the passengers.
Maintainability Easily maintained and accessed
Reproducibility Has the ability to be reproduced by using the design plans
Ease of Use Able to be used by the everyday citizen
Power Consumption Consumes as little power as possible

Design[edit]

The water meter, designed by Team X, tests the water quality for the WetLand project. The design is composed of five sensors that read the volume, pH, salt water content via conductivity, temperature (Fahrenheit), and the flow of the water into the water tank of the drinking water on the barge. All of the values the sensors take are read by an Arduino programmable microchip and displayed on a liquid crystal display (LCD) screen. While displaying these values it will be saving those values to an SD card that is incorporated into the Arduino microchip.

Flow Meter[edit]

The flow meter is to be placed at the inlet of the water take so the amount of water the barge is taking on is known in liters/hour. Another flow meter will be placed near the outlet and used to trigger the monitoring system to test quality of water while being the water is being pumped through the pipes.

Intermediate Bulk Container (IBC) Tote[edit]

The IBC tote is where the water for the WetLand habitat is stored. The tank can hold a total of 275 gallons.

Volume Sensor[edit]

The volume sensor is an ultrasonic ping sensor. The sensor emits ultrasonic sound waves that bounces of the water in the tank and reflects back to the sensor. From the time it takes to be emitted and the time it takes to return to the sensor depends on how far away the water is from the sensor. using a conversion factor that varies depending on the distance the volume is calculated and displayed to the LCD screen. All measurements will be displayed in gallons.

pH Sensor[edit]

The pH sensor is an Atlas pH sensor that tests for acidity or basicity of the water in the tank. This sensor MUST be constantly stored in water or else it will break and need to be replaced. Also this sensor needs to be calibrated approximately once a week because it is constantly being stored in the testing solution and will need to be cleaned; however, if it is not being constantly used it can be stored and may last up to a year with out being calibrated.

Saline Sensor[edit]

The saline sensor is derived from a small volume/conductivity sensor. The probe will read a conductivity value and through a conversion find the parts per million of the salt concentration on the barge.

Temperature[edit]

The temperature sensor is used to display the temperature of the water when it is being stored. This will be displayed in Fahrenheit.

Arduino[edit]

The entire system runs off of an Arduino Uno programmable microchip. The Arduino is programmed with a specific code located here. Due to the limited amount of input pins on the Arduino a sensor shield is incorporated to expand the amount of sensors that can be utilized.

LCD Screen[edit]

The LCD screen is where all of the data that is read and calculated by the Arduino is displayed. This is designed to be easy to read and comprehend. the reader should right away know if that water they have is potable or if it needs to further be purified.

Data Shield[edit]

The Data Storage Shield uses an SD or micro SD memory card to track and store data trends that are being measured by each sensor. The data stored here can be saved and allow the inhabitants of the barge to see how the water is over time.

Costs[edit]

Material costs:

Material Cost ($)
Arduino Uno Microchip 25.00
LCD Screen 11.00
Sensor Shield 10.00
Salinity Sensor 9.00
Temperature Sensor 6.50
pH Sensor 112.00
Flow Rate Sensor(2) 24.00
Data Storage Shield 8.50
Sonar Sensor 5.50
Wiring 12.00
Plumbing 47.00
Redwood Electronic soldering 10.00
Total 271.50

Instructions[edit]

The instructions on how to build the water meter can be found here: WetLand water meter instructions

The code for the Arduino can be found here: Team X Water Meter Arduino Code

Video[edit]

Conclusions[edit]

Team X has designed a water meter to test for volume, flow into the storage tank, pH, salinity, and temperature that is displayed on an easy to read LCD screen all while allowing the inhabitants of the barge to track the water over time on an SD card. While there are other water quality monitoring systems out on the market, the water meter designed by Team X is relatively inexpensive when compared to other comparable systems such as Extech's WQ510 water quality meter that is listed at $629.00. The water meter designed by Team X for the WetLand Project has fulfilled the criteria as laid out above

Maintenance[edit]

This system is designed to have easy access to the sensors. The pH and saline sensors will need to be cleaned of debris once a week. This is a result of being constantly submerged in the water. The pH sensor must be wet at all times and cannot dry out because the pH sensor will break and need to be replaced. To prevent this, the pH sensor should be stored in a buffer solution if the sensor is not being used. To clean off debris a soft brush such as a toothbrush can be used to brush off the buildup.

References[edit]

  • (15 Aug. 2012.) "Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics Research." SunShot Initiative:

http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/sunshot/pv_crystalline_silicon.html (02 Oct. 2013.)

  • (1998). Food Equipment Materials. American National Standard/NSF International Standard,

January, 1-5.

  • (2010). “River Facts” Delaware Riverkeeper Network,

<http://www.delawareriverkeeper.org/delaware-river/estuary.asp>(2010).

(2013)

  • (2013) Stroustrup B. “The C++ Programming Language.” Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.

<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Java_(programming_language)> (2013)

  • (Aug. 11, 2013). “Dirty Rainwater and Contaminated Rainwater.” Tankworks,

<http://watertactics.com.au/blog/rainwater/dirty-rainwater-and-contaminated-rainwater/> (Aug. 11, 2013).

  • (Dec. 4, 2012). “Water Treatment”

<http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/drinking/public/water_treatment.html> (Dec. 4, 2012).

  • (Field, Simon.) "Electrochemistry -- Make Homemade Batteries." Chapter 3: Electrochemistry

-- Make Homemade Batteries in Your Kitchen. <http://scitoys.com/scitoys/scitoys/echem/batteries/batteries.html> (02 Oct. 2013.)

  • “National Water-Quality Assessment Program.” USGS,

<http://nj.usgs.gov/nawqa/delr/reports/fs-056-99.pdf>

  • “NOAA Forecasts Larger Than Normal "Dead Zone" for Gulf This Summer.” NOAA,

<http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2006/s2669.htm>.

  • Anonymous (2007) “Beginning AutoCAD 2007”
  • Brain, M. (n.d.). How Water Towers Work. December 10, 2013,

http://www.howstuffworks.com/water.htm

  • Chapman, Peter. (Nov. 3, 2009). “Assessing Sediment Contamination in Estuaries.” Wiley

Online Library, <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/etc>(Nov. 3, 2009).

  • Downey, N. (2010). Harvest the rain: how to enrich your life by seeing every storm as a

resource. Santa Fe, N.M.: Sunstone Press.

(2013)

  • Evision, L., & Sunna, N. (2001). Microbial Regrowth in Household Water Storage Tanks.

American Water Works Association, 93(9), 85-94.

  • FDA Food Code 2009: Chapter 5 - Water, Plumbing & Waste. (n.d.). December 10, 2013,

http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/RetailFoodProtection/FoodCode/ucm186352.ht m

  • Gibbons, Jack; Whit, Jones; Root, Ellen; Schwarz, Bessie. (Nov. 22, 2004). “Rainwater
  • Chemistry Across the United States.”

<http://www.people.carleton.edu/~bhaileab/environmentalgeology/RainWater.pdf>(Nov. 22, 2004).

  • Hambrice, K. (2004, December 1). A Dozen Ways to Measure Fluid Level and How They

Work. Sensors. Retrieved December 11, 2013. http://www.sensorsmag.com/sensors/leaklevel/ a-dozen-ways-measure-fluid-level-and-how-they-work-1067

  • Heath, Alan. (1995). Water Pollution and Fish Physiology, 2nd Ed., CRC Press, Florida.
  • “Indoor water use in the United States” EPA. Retrieved December 10, 2013, from

http://www.epa.gov/WaterSense/pubs/indoor.html

  • Karre, A (2005) “The complete Guide to home wiring” Creative Publishing International,

Minneapolis, Minnesota

  • Lewis ZL, Douglas GP, Monaco V, Crowley RS, 2010) “Touchscreen task efficiency and

learnability in an electronic medical record at the point-of-care” Magnet (2013) “Alternating Current” <http://www.magnet.fsu.edu/education/tutorials/java/ac/index.html> (2013)

  • Lowe, Mary (2005). 3D Printing. Appliance Design, October, 35-39.
  • Nordblom, O., & Bergdahl, L. (2004). Initiation of Stagnation in Drinking Water Storage Tanks.

Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 130(1), 49-57.

  • Plastic Water Tank Design Considerations and Specifications. (n.d.). December 10, 2013,

http://www.tanksystems.com/H2OTankspec.htm

  • Scott, C.(2012). “HC-SR04 Ultrasonic Sensor” Arduino Basics

http://arduinobasics.blogspot.com/2012/11/arduinobasics-hc-sr04-ultrasonicsensor. html>(2012).

  • Veraart, R. (n.d.). www.foodcontactmaterials.com; the free legislative internet resource for

food contact materials. December 10, 2013, http://www.foodcontactmaterials.com/


Contact details[edit]

Solomon Clark: skc224@humboldt.edu

Peter Duin: pad177@humboldt.edu

Javier Hinojosa: jh2593@humboldt.edu

Matthew Small: mas1311@humboldt.edu