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Renewable Energy Dictionary
RENEWABLE ENERGY DICTIONARY
DICCIONARIO DE ENERGIA RENOVABLE
DICTIONNAIRE DE L'ENERGIE RENOUVELABLE
This publication was made possible, in part, through the generous support of the United States Agency for International Development and the United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization
VITA 1600 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 500 Arlington, Virgnia 22209 USA Tel: 703/276-1800 * Fax: 703/243-1865 Internet: email@example.com
Copyright [C] 1982 Volunteers in Technical Assistance
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system without the written permission of the publisher.
Manufactured in the United States of America.
Designed by Margaret Crouch.
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
Renewable energy dictionary Bibliography: p. 479 1. Renewable energy sources--Dictionaries. 2. Power (Mechanics)--Dictionaries. I. Volunteers in Technical Assistance. TJ163.16.R48 1982 333.79 82-50309 ISBN 0-86619-161-5
Soon after beginning a major program in renewable energy in 1979, VITA (Volunters in Technical Assistance) found that many of the technical terms commonly used in renewable energy literature were not understood by many of the laypeople for whom the information was meant. VITA also realized that it was no easy task to find definitions for many of these terms. There were specialized glossaries for the various areas of renewable energy, but there was no one source devoted to defining renewable energy terminology. The Renewable Energy Dictionary is designed to meet this need.
This encyclopedic dictionary is comprised of up-to-date and authoritative definitions of terms used in renewable energy. Definitions are presented in the clearest and most concise language possible without detracting from their technical accuracy. They are thoroughly cross-referenced for ease of use.
The terms that were selected for this dictionary are primarily those not commonly defined in their renewable energy context in conventional dictionaries. Some of the terms are now considered to be archaic. Mostly related to wind energy, they are included because of their usefulness in developing an overall understanding of the field.
VITA's 22 years in international development and technology transfer have brought a sensitivity to the need in developing countries for technical materials in languages other than English. This dictionary is translated into French and Spanish in an effort to help meet this need.
In addition to 1,000 entries in each language, many with illustrations, the dictionary includes comprehensive conversion tables and a bibliography.
Our research indicates that this is the only published reference work of its kind available. We feel it is a significant resource for those working with renewable energy technologies and concepts.
No work of this scope and magnitude could be completed without the assistance and contributions of many individuals. Along with Dr. William Sorsby, our primary contributor, we wish to acknowledge the invaluable contributions made by VITA Volunteers who gave their time freely to make this book a reality. Our deepest thanks go out to: Dr. Sam Baldwin, Thomas J. Beckman, Richard A. Boettcher, Jean-Claude Bruffaerts, Jerome E. Dobroski, George S. Erskine, H. Speer Ezzard, Hal Finkelstein, Dr. Peter B. Hammond, Robert W. Hawthorn, James L. Hogan, and Dr. Norbert J. Kreidl.
We also wish to thank the following members of VITA's technical staff for their reviews, contributions, and constant support: John M. Downey, Alan Wyatt, Dr. Gary L. Garriott, Stephen H. Hirsch, Fred Hopman, William R. Breslin, Dr. William A . Gross, Richard J. Fera, O. Christopher Ahrens, Balla Sidibe, and Hector Reyes, and research assistant Vandana Malhotra.
Special thanks go to artist Christopher P. Schmidt for the excellent illustrations.
Finally, we acknowledge the editorial and production contributions of Kristine Stroad Ament, Julie Badger, Margararet Crouch, Bonnie Duley, Gregory James, and David Jarmul, who put the whole thing together.
This dictionary was translated into French and Spanish by Berlitz International Translation Service.
How to use this Dictionary
This dictionary is thoroughly cross-referenced for ease of use and to provide for the most thorough understanding of each term.
The terms are organized alphabetically in each language. Each term is printed in bold type and capital letters. Some terms are hyperlinked to pages with more information. The term is followed by a parenthetical classification reference. Some terms have more than one reference, which helps to clarify the ways in which they can be used. These references are defined at the beginning of each language section.
Some words within the definition are also in capital letters. These are words that are defined elsewhere in the dictionary. Subsequent use of these words within the same definition is in lower case letters.
At the end of each definition are translations of the term itself into French and Spanish. The preferred usage is listed first, with secondary or less common usages following. The preferred term is the one that appears in the other language section.
ABSORPTANCE (sol) (meas). The ratio between the SOLAR RADIATION absorbed by a surface and the total amount of solar radiation that strikes it.
- F - absorptance; coefficient d'absorption
- S - coeficiente de absorcion
This is a measurement (meas) term used in the field of solar (sol) energy. The term "Solar Radiation" is defined in the "S" section of the dictionary. The primary translation of this term into French is "absorptance," though in some French documents, the term "coefficient d'absorption" may be found. The translation of this term into Spanish is "coeficiente de absorcion."
Definition of Abbreviations
agri Relating to agriculture.
alc Alcohol production or alcohol fuels.
ani Relating to animal power.
arc Archaic. Terms that are outdated but are still useful.
auto Relating to internal combustion engines or automobiles.
bio Relating to the field of biological science or a biological substance.
biocon Relating to bioconversion. Includes methane and woodfuel.
chem Relating to the field of chemical science or a chemical substance.
constr Relating to construction methods, materials, and structures.
elec Relating to the production and use of electricity.
fos Relating to fossil fuels.
gen General terms, which may apply to various areas of energy, particularly renewable energy technologies.
geo Geothermal power concepts and applications.
heat Relating to heating or the use of heat for space heating and to produce other forms of energy.
hydr Relating to water and the application of water power. Also closed hydraulic systems, which may use fluids other than water.
impl Implement. Tools, utensils, or devices that work in conjunction with other equipment.
meas Measuring instruments, scales, or types of measurement.
ocean Methods or devices for extracting energy from the ocean.
prod Relating to producer gas.
refrig Relating to refrigerants or methods of refrigeration.
sol Relating to the field of solar energy.
wind Relating to wind power or other aspects of air movement.
ABSORBENT (refrig). The less VOLATILE of the two working FLUIDS used in an absorption cooling device.
- F - absorbant
- S - absorbente
ABSORBENT OIL (refrig). A type of oil used in an absorption cooling device.
- F - huile absorbante
- S - aceite absorbente
ABSORBER PLATE (sol). A dark surface that absorbs SOLAR RADIATION and converts it into heat; a component of a FLAT-PLATE SOLAR COLLECTOR.
- F - plaque d'absorption
- S - placa de absorcion
ABSORPTANCE (sol) (meas). The ratio between the SOLAR RADIATION absorbed by a surface and the total amount of solar radiation that strikes it.
- F - taux d'absorptivite
- S - coeficiente de absorcion
ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONER (sol). An air conditioner designed to use a SOLAR HEATED liquid. Such a system provides space cooling through use of ABSORBER PLATES, VOLATILE FLUIDS, HEAT EXCHANGERS, and CONDENSERS.
- F - climatiseur a absorption
- S - aire acondicionado por absorcion
ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION (refrig). A cooling system that uses heated liquid to activate the chilling process.
- F - refrigeration par absorption
- S - refrigeracion por absorcion
AC (elec). Abbreviation for ALTERNATING CURRENT.
- F - CA
- S - C.A.
ACCELERATOR (impl). A mechanism that controls the speed of a vehicle or other device.
- F - accelerateur
- S - acelerador
ACCUMULATION (gen) (elec). The action of collecting or gathering. In electricity, the charging of a BATTERY or the storage of electric POWER.
- F - accumulation
- S - acumulacion
ACCUMULATOR (gen). A CELL, SOLAR POND, THERMAL MASS, or other device to store ENERGY. :F - accumulateur
- S - acumulador
AC-DC (elec). Pertaining to a device that will operate on either ALTERNATING CURRENT or DIRECT CURRENT.
- F - CA-CC
- S - CA-CC
ACETATE (chem) (sol). A compound composed of the SALTS of ACETIC ACID or the acetylation products of acetic acid, such as CELLULOSE acetate. Certain acetates can be used as GLAZING on SOLAR COLLECTORS.
- F - acetate
- S - acetato
ACETIC ACID (chem). An important raw material in the chemical industry. It is a by-product of the DESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION of wood. It can also be obtained by oxidizing ALCOHOL. The chemical make-up of acetic acid is CH3COOH.
- F - acide acetique
- S - acido acetico
ACID (bio) (biocon). A compound that dissociates or separates in a water solution to provide hydrogen ions. Acid forms a SALT when mixed with ALKALI, and is important in ANAEROBIC DIGESTION and FERMENTATION.
- F - acide
- S - acido
ACID DIGESTION (biocon). The "first phase" of BIOGAS production, in which complex molecules are broken down into smaller ones.
- F - digestion acide
- S - digestion de acido
ACID HYDROLYSIS (chem) (alc). A chemical process that uses ACID to convert STARCH to sugar. This is the "first phase" in ETHANOL production.
- F - hydrolysation acide
- S - hidrolisis de acido
ACROMETER (gen) (meas). An instrument used to measure the density of gases.
- F - acrometre
- S - acrometro
ACTINOMETER (sol) (meas). An instrument used to measure DIRECT RADIATION from the sun.
- F - actinometre
- S - actinometro
ACTIVE DRIED YEAST (alc). YEAST that has been dried, but in which the yeast cells still can be activated.
- F - levure seche active
- S - levadura activa secada
ACTIVE SOLAR HEATING (sol). Warming an interior space with heat collected mechanically through SOLAR COLLECTORS. The collection and distribution of this warm air requires additional external ENERGY to operate pumps, motors, valves, etc.
- F - chauffage solaire actif
- S - calefaccion solar activa
ADAPTED SEED (biocon). INOCULUM used during the START-UP of a BIOGAS DIGESTER that has been obtained from another digester with similar FEEDSTOCK composition and operating under similar conditions.
- F - germe adapte
- S - semilla adaptada
ADOBE (constr) (sol). Sun-dried brick of clay and straw. Also the clay and soil used for making such bricks. Adobe is high in THERMAL MASS and is useful in low-cost building construction.
- F - adobe
- S - adobe
ADSORPTION (chem). The process through which carbonaceous materials are able to compress and hold on their surfaces large quantities of gas. Also, the physical adhesion of molecules to the surfaces of solids without causing a chemical reaction.
- F - adsorption
- S - adsorcion
AEOLIAN (wind). (See: EOLIAN)
- F - eolien, - ienne
- S - eolico
AEROBIC (bio). Pertaining to micro-organisms that require FREE OXYGEN to live.
- F - aerobie
- S - aerobio
AEROBIC BACTERIA (bio) (biocon). BACTERIA living on FREE OXYGEN that is derived from the air. Aerobic bacteria break down ORGANIC MATTER during COMPOSTING.
- F - bacteries aerobies
- S - bacteria aerobia
AEROBIC DECOMPOSITION (biocon). (See: AEROBIC BACTERIA)
- F - decomposition aerobie
- S - descomposicion aerobia
AFFORESTATION (gen). Forest crops established by purposeful planting on land previously not used for tree crops.
- F - boisement
- S - conversion en bosque
AFTERBURNER (gen). An air pollution abatement device that removes undesirable organic gases through incineration.
- F - postcombustion
- S - quemador auxiliar
AIR BRAKES (wind) (arc). Longitudinal SHUTTERS that are sometimes incorporated in PATENT SAILS to reduce the speed of SAIL rotation in strong winds.
- F - freins d'ailes
- S - frenos de aire
AIR DIFFUSER (gen). A device that delivers air into a room to mix with the room air.
- F - diffuseur d'air
- S - difusor de aire
AIRFOIL (wind). A curved surface designed to create aerodynamic LIFT forces when air flows around it.
- F - voilure d'aile
- S - plano aerodinamico
AIR-GAS RATIO (chem). The ratio of the air volume to the gas volume. It can be adjusted to change the character of combustion.
- F - rapport air-gaz
- S - relacion de aire-gas
AIR HEATING SYSTEM (sol). A SOLAR HEATING system, which heats air in a SOLAR COLLECTOR and uses the heated air as the HEAT-TRANSFER MEDIUM to the rest of the system.
- F - chauffage d'air, systeme de
- S - sistema de calefaccion del aire
AIR-TYPE COLLECTOR (sol). A SOLAR COLLECTOR designed to use air as its HEAT-TRANSFER MEDIUM.
- F - capteur a air
- S - colector solar tipo aire
AIR VELOCITY (wind). (See: WIND VELOCITY)
- F - vitesse d'ecoulement de l'air
- S - velocidad del aire
ALBEDO (sol) (meas). The ratio of the amount of light reflected by a surface to the light falling onto it.
- F - albedo
- S - albedo
ALCOHOL (chem). A class of compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which occurs widely in nature and is used in solvents, antifreezes, chemical manufacture, and as a fuel. Alcohol commonly is obtained by FERMENTATION. (See also: BUTYL ALCOHOL, ETHYL ALCOHOL, and METHYL ALCOHOL)
- F - alcool
- S - alcohol
ALCOHOL CONDENSER (alc). (See: CONDENSER)
- F - condenseur d'alcool
- S - condensador de alcohol
ALCOHOL STILL (alc). (See: STILL)
- F - alambic de distillation
- S - alambique de alcohol
ALCOHOL VAPOR (alc). ALCOHOL in its gaseous state.
- F - vapeur d'alcool
- S - vapor de alcohol
ALGAE (bio) (biocon) (gen). Fresh and saltwater aquatic plants, usually microscopic in size, but including seaweed. They are valuable in waste treatment, as a protein source for humans, as animal feed, and as a FEEDSTOCK for BIOGAS DIGESTERS.
- F - algues
- S - algas
ALKALI (chem) (biocon). Any of various BASES, which neutralize ACIDS to form SALTS. Bases are important in maintaining the chemical balance in a BIOGAS DIGESTER.
- F - alcali
- S - alcali
ALKALINE BATTERY (elec). A BATTERY that uses sodium or potassium hydroxide as an electrolyte, and nickel-oxide flakes and powdered iron or nickel-cadmium for its active plates.
- F - accumulateur alcalin
- S - pila alcalina
ALKANE (chem). A general name for hydrocarbons of the METHANE series.
- F - paraffine
- S - alcano
ALTERNATING CURRENT (elec). An electric current that periodically reverses its direction. Generally abbreviated as ac.
- F - courant alternatif
- S - courriente continua
ALTERNATIVE COMBUSTION ENGINES (auto). Alternatives to the spark ignition and the diesel combustion engines. Among the more developed designs are the GAS TURBINE and STIRLING ENGINES.
- F - substituts aux moteurs a combustion
- S - motores de combustion alterna
ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES (gen). Sources of ENERGY different from those generally employed by a user. The term usually refers to RENEWABLE ENERGY sources such as SOLAR ENERGY, WIND ENERGY, GEOTHERMAL POWER, HYDROPOWER, etc. The use of alternative energy sources is attractive because of the  high price and limited availability of petroleum-based fuels;  the pollution that is associated with the burning of FOSSIL FUELS; and  the expense and dangers of nuclear power.
- F - sources d'energie de substitution
- S - fuentes alternas de energia
ALTERNATOR (elec). A GENERATOR that changes mechanical ENERGY into electrical energy (ALTERNATING CURRENT) by the rotation of its ROTOR. Alternators are used in motor vehicles to recharge and minimize the drain on the BATTERY. They are also commonly adapted to be driven by WINDMILLS or by STEAM TURBINES and WATER TURBINES.
- F - alternateur
- S - alternador
ALUMINIZED MYLAR (constr) (sol). A very strong, thin sheet of plastic material coated with aluminum. Used as a reflective surface for SOLAR COOKERS.
- F - Mylar aluminise
- S - Milar aluminizado
AMBIENT (gen). Referring to undisturbed environmental surroundings, particularly to air and temperature.
- F - ambiant
- S - ambiente
ANAEROBES (bio). (See: ANAEROBIC BACTERIA)
- F - anaerobies
- S - anaerobes
ANAEROBIC (bio). Pertaining to micro-organisms that can live in an airless environment.
- F - anaerobie
- S - anaerobio
ANAEROBIC BACTERIA (bio) (biocon). BACTERIA, known as ANAEROBES, that can live in an airless environment by obtaining oxygen through the DECOMPOSITION of compounds.
- F - bacteries anaerobies
- S - bacteria anaerobia
ANAEROBIC DIGESTER (biocon). (See: BIOGAS DIGESTER)
- F - digesteur anaerobie
- S - digestor anaerobio
ANAEROBIC DIGESTION (bio) (biocon). The DECOMPOSITION of ORGANIC MATTER by ANAEROBIC BACTERIA. This process involves ACID-forming BACTERIA and METHANE-forming bacteria.
- F - digestion anaerobie
- S - digestion anaerobia
ANAEROBIC FERMENTATION (bio) (biocon). (See: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION)
- F - fermentation anaerobie
- S - fermentacion anaerobia
ANAEROBIC ORGANISMS (bio) (biocon). (See: ANAEROBIC BACTERIA)
- F - organismes anaerobies
- S - organismos anaerobios
ANCHOR (wind) (impl). A rod or stake driven into the ground, to which GUY WIRES for a WINDMILL TOWER are attached.
- F - ancrage
- S - ancla
ANDIRON (impl). Raised metal bars placed on a fireplace hearth to support firewood for burning. Andirons allow air to pass under the burning wood for more EFFICIENT combustion.
- F - chenets
- S - morillo
ANEMOMETER (wind) (meas). An instrument for measuring WIND SPEED.
- F - anenometre
- S - anemometro
ANGLE OF ATTACK (wind). The angle between the CHORD of an AIRFOIL and the wind. It is considered in WINDMILL ROTOR design.
- F - angle d'attaque
- S - angulo de ataque
ANGLE OF INCIDENCE (sol). (See: INCIDENT ANGLE)
- F - angle incident
- S - angulo de incidencia
ANGLE OF REFLECTION (sol). (See: INCIDENT ANGLE)
- F - angle de reflexion
- S - angulo de reflexion
ANHYDROUS (alc) (biocon). Free from moisture. The term applies to oxides, SALTS, and other substances that do not contain water.
- F - anhydre
- S - anhidro
ANHYDROUS ALCOHOL (alc). ALCOHOL that is almost completely free from water. Alcohol must be ANHYDROUS to be mixed with gasoline to form GASAHOL. Alcohol and water cannot be separated beyond 199.99 PROOF. At that CONCENTRATION, they form an AZEOTROPE and vaporize at the same temperature.
- F - alcool anhydre
- S - alcohol etilico anhidro
ANIMAL-DRAWN (ani). (See: ANIMAL-POWERED)
- F - animal de trait
- S - traccion animal
ANIMAL-POWERED (ani). Driven or impelled by animals.
- F - traction animale
- S - impulsado por animales
ANIMAL WASTE CONVERSION (biocon). The process of directly burning or obtaining ENERGY PRODUCTS from animal wastes.
- F - conversion des dechets animaux
- S - conversion de los desechos animales
ANNUAL LOAD FRACTION (sol) (meas). That portion of annual heating that is supplied to a building by SOLAR ENERGY.
- F - part de la charge annuelle
- S - fraccion de la carga anual
ANNULAR SAIL (wind) (arc). A ring-like SAIL with radial SHUTTERS.
- F - aile annulaire
- S - aspa circular
ANTICLOCK SAIL (wind) (arc). A SAIL ROTOR that runs counterclockwise when observed from the front of the WINDMILL.
- F - aile a rotation positive
- S - aspa sinistrorsa
AQUATIC BIOMASS (biocon). BIOMASS grown in fresh or saltwater, including ALGAE, seaweed, etc.
- F - biomasse aquatique
- S - biomasa acuatica
AQUEDUCT (hydr). A CHANNEL or trough built to convey water For irrigation, to operate a HYDROPOWER plant, or for household use. The water in aqueducts generally flows by means of gravity, although pumps may also be used.
- F - aqueduc
- S - acueducto
AQUIFER (hydr). Any geological formation containing water, especially one that supplies the water for wells, springs, etc.
- F - aquifere
- S - acuifera
ARTICULATED WINDMILL (wind) (arc). A WINDMILL constructed to provide maximum EFFICIENCY in winds of various speeds and from different directions.
- F - eolienne articulee
- S - molino de viento articulado
ASH BOX (heat). A removable box below the GRATE in a WOOD STOVE or a PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR that collects ash residue from combustion.
- F - cendrier
- S - caja de cenizas
ASYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR (elec) (wind). An electrical GENERATOR that produces ALTERNATING CURRENT, matching an existing POWER source so the two sources can be combined to power one LOAD. These generators are often used with WINDMILLS to provide power to buildings that already receive power from an electric utility.
- F - generateur asynchrone
- S - generador asincronico
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE (gen). The pressure exerted by the Earth's atmosphere at any given point, generally measured on a scale based on the pressure of air at sea level.
- F - pression atmospherique
- S - presion atmosferica
ATRIUM (sol). An unroofed, partially roofed, or fully roofed courtyard or room in a dwelling, which allows sunlight to reach adjoining rooms. It is often used for PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING.
- F - atrium
- S - atrio
ATTENUATION (alc). The fall in SPECIFIC GRAVITY of the WORT during FERMENTATION. This is caused by the weakening of BACTERIA or FUNGI in a CULTURE.
- F - attenuation
- S - atenuacion
AUGER (impl) (alc). A rotating, screw-type device that moves material through a tube. In ALCOHOL production, it is used to transfer grains from storage to the grinding site, and from the grinding site to the COOKER.
- F - vrille d'alimentation
- S - barrena
AUTOMATIC DAMPER (impl). A device that automatically maintains the FLOW of hot or cold air into a room.
- F - registre automatique
- S - regulador de tiro automatico
AUTOMATIC TRACKING (sol). The use of a device that allows SOLAR COLLECTORS to "track" or follow the sun during the day without manual adjustment.
- F - poursuite automatique
- S - aparato de seguimiento automatico
AUXILIARY GENERATOR (gen) (elec). A small, engine-driven GENERATOR that supplements a RENEWABLE ENERGY POWER source.
- F - generateur auxiliaire
- S - generador auxiliar
AVAILABLE ENERGY (gen) (meas). That part of the total ENERGY produced by a system that can be applied usefully. EFFICIENCY is a measure oF available energy.
- F - energie disponible
- S - energia disponible
AVERAGE WIND SPEED (wind) (meas). The most common WIND VELOCITY over a specified period of time.
- F - vitesse moyenne du vent
- S - velocidad promedio del viento
AXIS (gen). An imaginary line passing through the center of a body, about which the body rotates. (Plural: axes)
- F - axe de rotation
- S - axis
AXLE (gen). A supporting member that carries a wheel. It either rotates with the wheel to transmit mechanical POWER, or allows the wheel to rotate freely on it.
- F - essieu
- S - eje
AZEOTROPE (chem) (alc). The chemical term for two liquids that, at a certain CONCENTRATION, boil at the same temperature. For example, ETHANOL and water cannot be separated further than 199.9 PROOF because at this concentration they form an azeotrope and vaporize together.
- F - azeotrope
- S - azeotrope
BABO'S LAW (biocon). A law stating that the VAPOR PRESSURE of a liquid is lowered when a non-VOLATILE substance is dissolved in it. The pressure is lowered by an amount proportional to the CONCENTRATION of the solution.
- F - loi de von Babo
- S - ley de Babo
BACKPUFFING (gen). The emission of smoke through cooking holes or other openings in a wood-burning or CHARCOAL stove. It occurs when poor DRAFT in the CHIMNEY causes air to pass back down into the stove.
- F - retour de fumee
- S - contracorriente de humo
BACK STAYS (wind) (arc). Support bars across the back of the SAILS of a WINDMILL.
- F - galhaubans
- S - soporte posterior
BACK WATERING (hydr). The braking effect caused by the immersion in water of the lowest BLADES of an OVERSHOT WATER WHEEL.
- F - frein d'immersion
- S - remanso
BACTERIA (bio). Any of numerous single-celled micro-organisms occurring in a wide variety of forms, existing either as free-living organisms or as parasites, having a wide range of biochemical properties. Bacteria are necessary for DIGESTION and FERMENTATION. (Singular: bacterium)
- F - bacteries
- S - bacteria
BACTERIAL DECOMPOSITION (biocon). The chemical breakdown of ORGANIC MATTER by micro-organisms.
- F - decomposition bacterienne
- S - descomposicion bacteriana
BAFFLE (gen). A metal plate or other artificial obstruction used to check or deflect the FLOW of FLUIDS.
- F - deflecteur
- S - desviador
BAGASSE (biocon). The fibrous residue remaining after the extraction of the juice from sugar cane. It may be used as a fuel.
- F - bagasse
- S - bagazo
BANCO (biocon). (See: LORENA STOVE)
- F - banco
- S - banco
BANKI TURBINE (hydr). A WATER TURBINE with curved BLADES, GUIDE VANES, and a hallow interior. Water passing through it propels the RUNNER both on entering and leaving. This turbine operates well under a wide HEAD range and FLOW rates.
- F - turbine de Banki
- S - turbina de Banki
BAROMETER (meas). A device used to measure ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE.
- F - barometre
- S - barometro
BASES (alc) (chem). Compounds that dissociate in water solution to form HYDROXYL ions. Bases react with ACIDS to form SALTS, and can be used to maintain the proper pH (POTENTIAL HYDROGEN) balance in an ALCOHOL STILL.
- F - bases
- S - bases
BATCH DIGESTION (biocon). A process of BIOGAS production in which the material to be digested is loaded into the DIGESTER at the start of the process. A SEED may also be added at this time. The digester is then sealed and the contents left to FERMENT. At completion, the digested SLUDGE is removed and the tank reloaded. Daily gas production varies during the process. It is slow at the start, increases, and finally declines toward the end of the DIGESTION cycle.
- F - digestion a charge initiale
- S - digestion por tandas
BATCH DISTILLATION (alc). A batch DISTILLATION process of ALCOHOL production in which the material to be distilled is loaded into a STILL at the start of the process. The entire volume is heated and left to distill. At completion, the distilled MASH is removed and the still reloaded. Daily alcohol production varies during the process. It is slow at the start, increases, and finally declines toward the end of the distillation cycle.
- F - distillation a charge initiale
- S - destilacion intermitente
BATCH FEED (gen). A DIGESTER or STILL in which ORGANIC MATTER is loaded, allowed to generate gas or FERMENT, and then removed. The digester or still then is cleaned and prepared for a fresh load of BIOMASS.
- F - alimentation initiale unique
- S - alimentacion por tandas
BATCH-LOADING DIGESTER (biocon). (See: BATCH FEED)
- F - digesteur a chargement unique
- S - digestor de carga intermitente
BATCH PROCESSING (biocon). (See: BATCH FEED)
- F - traitement de charges uniques
- S - elaboracion por tandas
BATTERY (elec). A group of two or more CELLS or ACCUMULATORS electrically connected in series or parallel. Batteries are used to store electrical ENERGY.
- F - batterie
- S - bateria
BATTERY CUT-OUT (wind) (impl). An automatic switch that disconnects a BATTERY during its charge if the voltage of the wind charger falls below or rises above that of the battery, within certain limits. A battery cut-out is a battery protection device.
- F - coupe-circuit de batterie
- S - interruptor de bateria
BEARING (gen). A machine part that supports and guides a shaft, pivot, or wheel that slides, rotates, or oscillates in or on it.
- F - palier
- S - cojinete
BEARING ANGLE (sol). (See: SOLAR AZIMUTH)
- F - azimut
- S - marcacion
BEAUFORT SCALE (meas) (wind). A scale of WIND VELOCITIES ranging from 0 to 12 as follows:
|0||less than 1||calm|
|7||32-38||moderate gale; near gale|
|10||55-63||whole gale (or storm)|
- F - Beaufort, echelle de
- S - escala de Beaufort
BEER COLUMN (alc). (See: STRIPPING COLUMN)
- F - colonne a biere
- S - columna de cerveza
BERM (constr). A manmade mound or small hill of earth built up against a house to stop the INFILTRATION of hot or cold air.
- F - banquette
- S - monticulo
BEVEL GEAR (gen). One of a pair of gears used to connect two shafts whose AXES intersect.
- F - engrenage conique
- S - engranaje biselado
BICYCLE ADAPTER (gen) (impl). A device that can be attached to a bicycle to supply POWER to pump water, generate electricity, etc.
- F - adaptateur de bicyclette
- S - adaptador de bicicleta
BICYCLE GENERATOR (elec). A small GENERATOR that produces DIRECT CURRENT (dc) electricity through PEDAL POWER.
- F - generateur a pedalier
- S - generador accionado por bicicleta
BIOCONVERSION (chem) (gen). The conversion of ORGANIC WASTE into ENERGY PRODUCTS through the action of micro-organisms. Chemically, this is the reduction of complex organic compounds into simpler, more stable forms.
- F - bioconversion
- S - bioconversion
BIOGAS (biocon). The gaseous mixture produced during ANAEROBIC DIGESTION, composed chiefly of METHANE and carbon dioxide.
- F - bio-gaz
- S - biogas
BIOGAS DIGESTER (biocon). An airtight vessel in which ANAEROBIC DIGESTION takes place and from which METHANE may be drawn off.
- F - digesteur de bio-gaz
- S - digestor de biogas
BIOGAS GENERATOR (biocon). (See: BIOGAS DIGESTER)
- F - generateur de bio-gaz
- S - generador de biogas
BIOGAS PLANT (biocon). (See: BIOGAS DIGESTER)
- F - reacteur de bio-gaz
- S - planta de biogas
BIOLOGICAL ENERGY CONVERSION (biocon). The use of BIOMASS to convert one form of ENERGY into another.
- F - conversion biologique de l'energie
- S - conversion biologica de energia
BIOMASS (bio). Plants and plant materials, trees, crop residues, wood and bark residues, and animal manures. Any ORGANIC MATTER that can be used in BIOCONVERSION processes.
- F - biomasse
- S - biomasa
BIOMASS ENERGY (biocon). The ENERGY that is released from BIOMASS when it is eaten, burned, or otherwise used as or converted into fuel.
- F - energie de la biomasse
- S - energia de biomasa
BIOMASS FEEDSTOCK (biocon). The ORGANIC MATTER used to produce ENERGY PRODUCTS through BIOCONVERSION.
- F - biomasse d'alimentation
- S - alimento seco de la biomasa
BIOMASS FUELS (biocon). Fuels, such as METHANE, produced from BIOMASS.
- F - combustibles de la biomasse
- S - combustibles de biomasa
BIOMASS YIELD (biocon) (meas). The amount of BIOMASS that can be produced in a given areA. It usually is expressed in weight units per area measurement per unit of time.
- F - production de biomasse
- S - produccion de biomasa
BIOMONITORING (biocon (meas). A pollution-control method in which living organisms are used to test the EFFLUENT from a DIGESTER to determine whether it is safe to discharge the effluent into a body of water. It may also be used to test the quality of waters downstream from a digester discharge point.
- F - controle biologique
- S - biocontrol
BITUMEN (fos). Any naturally-occurring hydrocarbon, especially solid hydrocarbons such as asphalt, wax, pitch, and Gilsonite.
- F - bitume
- S - bitumen
BLACKBODY (sol). A surface that completely absorbs all SOLAR RADIATION that strikes it.
- F - corps noir
- S - cuerpo negro
BLADE (hydr) (impl) (wind).  The curved surface of certain types of WATER TURBINES (i.e., CROSS-FLOW TURBINES). Water striking the blades causes the turbine to rotate. Some turbines, such as the PELTON WHEEL, have cups instead of blades.  A single, extended surface of a WINDMILL ROTOR.
- F -  aube;  pale
- S -  paleta;  aspa
BLADE ANGLE  (wind). The angle of a CHORD of a WINDMILL BLADE with the ROTOR plane of rotation.  (hydr). The INCIDENT ANGLE of a TURBINE BLADE.
- F -  angle de pale;  angle d'aube
- S -  angulo del aspa;  angulo de la paleta
BORE HOLE (gen). A deep, vertical hole in the earth. Usually used to describe a well.
- F - trou de sondage
- S - pozo de sondeo
BRACE SOLAR STEAM COOKER (sol). (See: INSULATED STEAM COOKER)
- F - rechaud a vapeur solaire Brace
- S - portahornillo de vapor solar Brace
BRAKE (gen). A device used to slow or stop motion, especially by contact friction.
- F - frein
- S - freno
BRAZING (gen). A process by which two pieces of metal are joined using a nonferrous alloy with a lower melting point than either of the two metals being joined.
- F - brasage
- S - soldadura con laton
BREAST BEAM (wind) (arc). The main lateral beam below the WIND SHAFT.
- F - poutrelle maitresse
- S - viga de costado
BREAST WHEEL (hydr). A sophisticated type of WATER WHEEL into which water enters below the top of the wheel and is kept in the BUCKETS until being discharged at or near the lowest point on the wheel. Breast wheels generally operate best with HEADS amounting to less than the diameter of the wheel. High breast wheels (where the water enters above the center shaft) can approach 65 percent ENERGY CONVERSION EFFICIENCY. (Syn: breast-shot wheel)
- F - roue de poitrine
- S - rueda de costado
BREEZE (wind). In general, any light to moderate wind. (See also: BEAUFORT SCALE)
- F - brise
- S - brisa
BREWER'S DRIED GRAIN (alc). (See: DISTILLER'S GRAIN).
- F - grains secs de brasserie
- S - grano seco de destilacion
BREWING MASH (alc). Crushed or ground FEEDSTOCK mixed with warm water in preparation for FERMENTATION during the production of ETHANOL.
- F - mout de brassage
- S - mosto
BRINE (refrig). A heavy SALT solution used in REFRIGERATION.
- F - saumure
- S - salmuera
BRIQUETTE (fos). A type of fuel that has been finely ground and compressed in pressure molds. It is usually made from low-grade coal, coke, CHARCOAL, or BIOMASS, and is mixed with a binder such as STARCH, tar, cement, pitch, or asphalt.
- F - briquette
- S - briqueta
BRITISH THERMAL UNIT (heat) (meas). The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree FAHRENHEIT under stated conditions of temperature and pressure. It is a standard unit for measuring quantity of HEAT ENERGY. Generally abbreviated as BTU.
- F - British thermal unit
- S - unidad termica britanica
BUBBLE CAP (alc). A perforated cap on the plates of a DISTILLATION COLUMN, used to ensure that the vapor and condensed liquid mix thoroughly.
- F - cloche de barbotage
- S - casquete de burbujeo
BUBBLE CHAMBER (biocon). A safety device attached to a BIOGAS DIGESTER to ensure that the gas is free of air, since an air and gas mixture would be explosive. The gas is "bubbled" through a container of water before being used or stored. If LIMEWATER is used instead of water, the bubble chamber can also be used to SCRUB the gas. In addition, the bubble chamber serves as a SPARK ARRESTER.
- F - chambre a bulles
- S - camara de burbujas
BUCKET (hydr). Cup-shaped containers or BLADES attached to a WATER WHEEL.
- F - auget
- S - cangilon
BUCKET ANGLE (hydr). The INCIDENT ANGLE of BUCKETS on a WATER WHEEL.
- F - angle d'auget
- S - angulo de los cangilones
BUCKET CHAIN (hydr). A chain loop with BUCKETS attached to it at regular intervals. The chain runs over sprocket wheels. As each bucket passes by a water source, water fills the bucket, providing POWER and propelling the chain further along.
- F - noria a godets
- S - transportador de cangilones
BUFFER CAPACITY (biocon) (chem). The capacity of a solution to resist pH (POTENTIAL HYDROGEN) changes when small amounts of ACID or ALKALI are added. In the case of DIGESTED SLUDGE, the ammonium and bicarbonate ions are mainly responsible for buffering.
- F - pouvoir tampon
- S - capacidad amortiguadora
BUTANOL (alc). (See: BUTYL ALCOHOL).
- F - butanol
- S - butanol
BUTYL ALCOHOL (alc) (chem). An ALCOHOL obtained by the FERMENTATION of sugar or cornstarch. The chemical equivalent of butyl alcohol is C4H9OH. (Syn: butanol)
- F - alcool butylique
- S - alcohol butilico
C (meas). Abbreviation for CELSIUS.
- F - C
- S - C
CALCIUM HYDROXIDE (biocon) (chem). A solution that is often used in BUBBLE CHAMBERS to SCRUB BIOGAS. It is commonly known as LIMEWATER.
- F - hydrate de calcium
- S - hidroxido de calcio
CALORIE (gen). The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree CELSIUS at ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE.
- F - calorie 
- S - caloria
CAM (gen). An eccentric projection on a revolving shaft, shaped to produce variable or reciprocating motion in another contacted or engaged part.
- F - came
- S - leva
CANAL (gen) (hydr). An artificial watercourse uniting rivers, lakes, or seas for purposes of inland navigation, irrigation, or conveyance of water to a HYDROPOWER device.
- F - canal
- S - canal
CANISTER (wind) (arc). A piece of metal placed at the outer end of a ROTOR SPAR to hold the SAIL in place.
- F - douille
- S - chapa de fijacion
CAP (wind) (arc). The revolving top of a TOWER MILL or SMOCK MILL.
- F - calotte
- S - cumbrera
CAPACITY FACTOR (elec) (meas). The total KILOWATT HOURS of ENERGY consumed divided by the total KILOWATTS produced by an electricity-generating plant. Generally calculated on an annual basis.
- F - facteur de capacite
- S - factor de capacidad
CAPACITY OF THE WIND (wind) (meas). The total amount of dirt and dust particles of a given kind that can be sustained per unit volume of air by a wind of a given velocity.
- F - capacite du vent
- S - capacidad del viento
CARBOHYDRATE (alc) (chem). Sugars, STARCHES, CELLULOSE, and other similar compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen only. Carbohydrates are excellent FEEDSTOCK for an ALCOHOL STILL.
- F - hydrates de carbone
- S - carbohidrato
CARBON-TO-NITROGEN RATIO (biocon). The proportion of carbon to nitrogen in the material being placed in a BIOGAS DIGESTER. This ratio is important for maintaining biogas production. 25:1 is the optimal C/N ratio.
|Cow dung||1.7%||25 to 1|
|Poultry manure||6.3%||No carbon|
|Grass||4.0%||12 to 1|
|Sheep manure||3.75%||No carbon|
|Urine||15-18%||8 to 1|
|Wheat straw||0.3%||128 to 1|
|Potato tops||1.5%||25 to 1|
|Tomato||3.3%||128 to 1|
- F - rapport carbone-azote
- S - proporcion de carbon a nitrogeno
CARBURETOR (auto). A device for mixing and controlling the amount of air and fuel supplied to a gasoline engine.
- F - carburateur
- S - carburador
CASING (sol). The framework housing the components of a FLAT-PLATE COLLECTOR. It is generally made of metal and lined with material for THERMAL insulation. Inlet and outlet openings are provided.
- F - enveloppe
- S - envoltura
CATCHMENT APRON (hydr). A projecting slope on the downstream side of a SLUICE or dam, which is provided to withstand the force of falling water.
- F - pente de captage
- S - plataforma colectora
CELL (elec). A device that generates electricity, traditionally consisting of two plates or conducting surfaces placed in an electrolytic FLUID.
- F - element
- S - celula
CELLULASE (bio) (alc). Any of several ENZYMES found in FUNGI, BACTERIA, and lower animals that cause CELLULOSE to break down in water. These enzymes are needed for ALCOHOL DISTILLATION.
- F - cellulase
- S - celulase
CELLULOSE (chem) (alc). The main POLYSACCHARIDE in living plants. Cellulose forms the skeletal structure of plant cell walls and can be HYDROLYZED to form GLUCOSE.
- F - cellulose
- S - celulosa
CELLULOSIC BIOMASS (biocon). BIOMASS that contains vegetable matter.
- F - biomasse cellulosique
- S - biomasa celulosica
CELSIUS (meas). The international temperature scale in which water freezes at 0 [degrees] and boils at 100 [degrees]. To convert from degrees Celsius to degrees FAHRENHEIT, multiply the temperature in degrees Celsius by 9/5 (or 1.8) and add 32. To convert from degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius, subtract 32 from the Fahrenheit temperature and then multiply by 5/9. Abbreviated as C. (Syn: centigrade)
- F - Celsius
- S - Celsio
CENTIGRADE (meas). (See: CELSIUS).
- F - centigrade
- S - centigrado
CENTRIFUGAL FORCE (gen). The inertial force repelling a body away from the center of the curvature of a curved path along which it is moving, or away from the AXIS around which it rotates. The opposite of CENTRIPETAL FORCE.
- F - force centrifuge
- S - centrifuga, fuerza
CENTRIPETAL FORCE (gen). A force attracting a body toward the center of the curvature of a curved path along which it is moving, or toward the AXIS around which it rotates. The apposite of CENTRIFUGAL FORCE.
- F - force centripete
- S - centripeta , fuerza
CHALK ADOBE (constr). A method of making ADOBE bricks in which chalk is added to the clay, straw, and water. Chalk adobe is useful as a THERMAL MASS.
- F - adobe a la chaux
- S - mezcla de adobe y creta
CHANNEL (hydr). The bed of a stream or waterway. (See also: CANAL)
- F - chenal 
- S - cauce
CHARCOAL (fos) (gen). A dark-colored or black porous form of CARBON made from vegetable or animal substances. Charcoal commonly is made by charring wood in a KILN or RETORT from which air is partially excluded. It is used for FUEL, and in various mechanical, artistic, and chemical processes. By using DISTILLATION and retorts to produce charcoal, several valuable products can be collected that would otherwise be lost, including COMBUSTIBLE GASES, CREOSOTE OIL, METHANOL, soluble tar, and combustible pitch.
- F - charbon de bois
- S - carbon
CHARCOAL GAS (prod). (See: PRODUCER GAS)
- F - gaz de charbon de bois
- S - gas de carbon
CHIMNEY (constr). A vertical passage or FLUE through which smoke and gases escape from a stove or fireplace.
- F - cheminee
- S - chimenea
CHIMNEY CAP (constr). A cone, usually made of sheet metal, placed pointed end up slightly above the top of a CHIMNEY. It prevents rain and debris from falling into the chimney.
- F - mitre
- S - sombrerete de chimenea
CHINESE-TYPE DIGESTER (biocon). A BIOGAS DIGESTER that is primarily designed to produce fertilizer. Usually a FIXED-DOME DIGESTER.
- F - digesteur type chinois
- S - digestor de tipo chino
CHORD (wind). The distance from the LEADING EDGE to the TRAILING EDGE of an AIRFOIL. The term refers to WINDMILL BLADE design.
- F - profondeur de l'aile
- S - profundidad del aspa
CHULA (biocon). A small, wood-burning stove, usually made of mud, clay, brick, or metal. The term is widely used in South Asia.
- F - chula
- S - chula
CIRCULAR FOCUSING COLLECTOR (sol). (See: COMPOUND PARABOLIC COLLECTOR)
- F - capteur circulaire a concentration
- S - colector circular de enfoque
CISTERN (hydr). An artificial reservoir or watertight tank for storing water or other liquids.
- F - citerne
- S - cisterna
CLAMPS (wind) (arc). Wooden splints bolted to the sides of the STOCKS, locking the SAIL assembly in the POLL END.
- F - eclisses
- S - prensas
CLEARNESS INDEX (sol) (meas). A SOLAR ENERGY concept introduced to express the ratio of a particular hour, day, or month's SOLAR RADIATION on a horizontal surface to the EXTRATERRESTRIAL SOLAR RADIATION on that same surface for the same period of time. It is useful in calculating DIFFUSE RADIATION and RADIATION falling on a tilted surface.
- F - indice de clarte
- S - indice de claridad
CLERESTORY (sol). A vertical window that is placed high in a wall near the eaves for light, HEAT GAIN, and ventilation.
- F - lanterneau
- S - claraboya
CLOSED-LOOP SYSTEM (sol). A SOLAR HEATING system in which distilled water, antifreeze, and/or corrosion inhibitors are circulated through the COLLECTORS and storage tanks in a closed loop. Heat picked up from the collectors by the circulating FLUIDS is transferred to the water in the storage tanks through the closed loop or other HEAT EXCHANGERS.
- F - circuit ferme, systeme de
- S - sistema de ciclo cerrado
C/N (biocon). (See: CARBON TO NITROGEN RATIO)
- F - C/N
- S - C/N
COAL GASIFICATION (prod). The combustion of coal to form a gas suitable for use as a fuel. This is usually done in a PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR.
- F - gazeification du charbon
- S - gasificacion del carbon
COB ADOBE (constr). A type of ADOBE in which corn cobs are added to clay, water, and straw. Adobe bricks are reinforced by this addition of cobs during the brick-making process. Cob adobe is a useful THERMAL MASS.
- F - adobe a la rafle de mais
- S - mezcla de paja, arcilla, agua y mazorcas
COLLECTION (sol). The act of trapping SOLAR RADIATION.
- F - captation
- S - captacion
COLLECTOR (sol). A device to trap SOLAR RADIATION and convert it into usable heat. The term collector frequently refers to an insulated frame containing a panel made from an ABSORBER PLATE and GLAZING. More broadly, a well-designed building with windows facing the equator may also be considered a collector, as can other solar devices that capture SOLAR RADIATION in the form of heat.
- F - capteur
- S - colector
COLLECTOR EFFICIENCY (sol) (meas). The ratio of SOLAR ENERGY absorbed by a COLLECTOR to the RADIANT ENERGY falling on the collector.
- F - rendement d'un collecteur
- S - eficiencia del colector
COLLECTOR/HEAT-EXCHANGER CORRECTION FACTOR (sol) (meas). An index that indicates how much useful SOLAR ENERGY is lost during the exchange of heat from the COLLECTOR to the storage tank in LIQUID-BASED SOLAR HEATING SYSTEMS.
- F - coefficient de correction capteur-echangeur de chaleur
- S - factor de correccion del colector/termopermutador
COLLECTOR-HEAT REMOVAL EFFICIENCY FACTOR (sol) (meas). The ratio of actual useful HEAT GAIN of a FLAT-PLATE SOLAR COLLECTOR to the heat gain if the entire COLLECTOR PLATE were at the same temperature as the inlet FLUID.
- F - coefficient de rendement capteur-echangeur de chaleur
- S - factor de eficiencia del colector-termoextractor
COLLECTOR PLATE (sol). A metal sheet in a SOLAR COLLECTOR whose primary function is to absorb as much as possible of the SOLAR RADIATION reaching it through the GLAZING, while losing as little heat as possible as it transfers the retained heat to the HEAT TRANSFER MEDIUM.
- F - plaque collectrice
- S - placa colectora
COLLECTOR TILT ANGLE (sol) (meas). The angle between the plane of the horizon and the surface of a SOLAR COLLECTOR, generally used to maximize the COLLECTION of SOLAR RADIATION.
- F - inclinaison d'un capteur
- S - angulo de inclinacion del colector
COMBUSTIBLE GAS (biocon) (prod). Gas that will burn. This includes BIOGAS, PRODUCER GAS, and other VOLATILE FLUIDS.
- F - gaz combustible
- S - gas combustible
COMBUSTION CHAMBER (heat). The place in a stove where fuel is burned.
- F - chambre de combustion
- S - camara de combustion
COMBUSTION ZONE (prod). The section in a PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR in which the FEEDSTOCK is burned.
- F - zone de combustion
- S - zona de combustion
COMMON SAIL (wind) (arc). A WINDMILL SAIL that is covered with a canvas cloth.
- F - aile de moulin
- S - aspa comun
COMPOSTED SLUDGE (biocon). SLUDGE that has been rendered relatively PATHOGEN-free through COMPOSTING. It generally can be used safely as fertilizer.
- F - boues compostees
- S - composte de lodos cloacales
COMPOSTING (biocon). AEROBIC DECOMPOSITION of ORGANIC MATTER. The resulting material is used as a fertilizer.
- F - compostage
- S - composte
COMPOUND PARABOLIC COLLECTOR (sol). A type of SOLAR COLLECTOR using parabolic REFLECTORS.
- F - capteur parabolique compose
- S - colector parabolico compuesto
CONCENTRATING COLLECTOR (sol). A SOLAR COLLECTOR that uses REFLECTORS to concentrate DIRECT RADIATION from the sun onto a narrow ABSORBER PLATE to produce intense heat.
- F - capteur a concentration
- S - colector concentrador
CONCENTRATING PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAY (sol). A series of lenses or mirrors used to concentrate SOLAR RADIATION onto PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS, which convert the sunlight into electricity. The concentrated sunlight increases the output of each cell, thus reducing the total number of cells required to produce a given amount of electricity. (See also: PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAY)
- F - groupe photovoltaique de concentration
- S - conjunto concentrador fotovoltaico
CONCENTRATING THERMAL COLLECTOR (sol). (See: CONCENTRATING COLLECTOR)
- F - capteur thermique a concentration
- S - colector termico concentrador
CONCENTRATION (gen). The amount of a substance contained in a FLUID per unit volume.
- F - concentration
- S - concentracion
CONDENSER (gen) (impl). A device used to change a vapor into a liquid. This can be done either by exposing to air a tube that contains vapor, or by passing the tube through a WATER JACKET.
- F - condenseur
- S - condensador
CONDUCTION (heat). Heat transfer from direct contact between a hot body and a cold body.
- F - conduction
- S - conduccion
CONING (wind). The practice of tilting up the WIND SHAFT of a WIND MACHINE at a small angle.
- F - fuseler
- S - movimiento de la pala
CONTINUOUS DIGESTION (biocon). The continuous feeding of BIOMASS into a BIOGAS DIGESTER, with the removal of an equivalent volume of EFFLUENT. The process is usually started with the addition of a SEED. It may take several DETENTION TIMES before the process becomes steady. For many purposes, this is a more EFFICIENT and convenient process than BATCH DIGESTION. Processes involving daily addition and removal are more properly described as semi-continuous.
- F - digestion en continu
- S - digestion continua
CONTINUOUS FLOW DIGESTER (biocon). A DIGESTER into which BIOMASS may be loaded and gas and EFFLUENT recovered without discontinuing digestion.
- F - digesteur a flux continu
- S - digestor de circulacion continua
CONTINUOUS PROCESSING (biocon). (See: CONTINUOUS DIGESTION)
- F - traitement en continu
- S - proceso continuo
CONTINUOUS STILL (alc). An ALCOHOL STILL into which MASH may be loaded and ALCOHOL recovered without discontinuing alcohol production.
- F - alambic a distillation continue
- S - alambique continuo
CONTROLLED BURNING ATMOSPHERE (fos). An atmosphere in which oil or natural gas is burned with just enough oxygen to prevent all the carbon from being consumed. The recovered carbon may be used as a fuel.
- F - atmosphere a combustion controlee
- S - atmosfera de combustion controlada
CONVECTION (heat). The transfer of heat between one location or surface and another by the motion of a heat-carrying FLUID. Also, the transfer of heat within a fluid by movements within the fluid.
- F - convection
- S - conveccion
CONVECTION AIR COOLER (refrig). A non-electric cooler that depends on the natural circulation of air.
- F - refroidisseur par convection d'air
- S - enfriador de aire por conveccion
CONVERSION PROCESS (gen). A process through which ENERGY is converted from one form to another, such as RADIANT ENERGY into heat or electric energy.
- F - conversion
- S - proceso de conversion
COOKER (alc). A heated tank with an AGITATOR that heats the MASH as part of the ALCOHOL production process.
- F - chaudiere de cuisson
- S - caldera de coccion
COOKING (alc). A heating and stirring process that breaks down STARCH granules, thus making the starch available for the liquefaction and SACCHARIFICATION steps of the ALCOHOL manufacturing process.
- F - cuisson
- S - coccion
COOK STOVE (biocon). An apparatus in which fuel is burned to produce heat for cooking.
- F - cuisiniere
- S - estufa
CO-PRODUCT (alc). Substances resulting from the production of ETHANOL by FERMENTATION.
- F - coproduit
- S - coproducto
CORRUGATED METAL SOLAR COLLECTOR (sol). A type of SOLAR COLLECTOR that uses a corrugated metal as its ABSORBER PLATE. The metal is usually painted with FLAT BLACK PAINT.
- F - capteur solaire en tole ondulee
- S - colector solar de metal corrugado
COVER (sol). (See: GLAZING)
- F - revetement
- S - revestimiento
COVER PLATE (sol). The transparent material placed over a COLLECTOR-ABSORBER PLATE so that heat loss to the atmosphere is reduced and a greater fraction of the SOLAR RADIATION is collected as useable heat.
- F - plaque de couverture
- S - placa revestidora
CREOSOTE OIL (gen). A by-product from CHARCOAL production by DISTILLATION. It may be used as a preservative to protect wood from termites, moisture, etc.
- F - huile de creosote
- S - aceite de creosota
CRETAN SAIL WINDMILL (wind). (See: CRETAN WINDMILL)
- F - moulin a ailes cretois
- S - molino de viento con aspas cretanas
CRETAN WINDMILL (wind). A type of HORIZONTAL AXIS SAIL ROTOR WINDMILL generally having four fixed, triangular SAILS. Cretan windmills are used primarily for low-lift water pumping.
- F - moulin a vent cretois
- S - molino de viento cretano
CROSS (wind) (arc). A cruciform iron support for the sail assembly, used as an alternative to the POLL END.
- F - croix
- S - aspa de hierro
CROSS-FLOW TURBINE (hydr). (See: BANKI TURBINE)
- F - turbine a ecoulement radial
- S - turbina con rodete de tambor
CROSSWIND (wind). Winds blowing crosswise to the direction of the wind stream.
- F - vent de travers
- S - viento de costado
CULTURE (bio). A preparation containing micro-organisms that are growing on a medium.
- F - bouillon de culture
- S - cultivo
CUP ANEMOMETER (wind) (meas). An ANEMOMETER with three or four cups that rotate with the wind to measure wind speed.
- F - anemometre a coquilles
- S - anemometro de tazas
CUPS (hydr). Bowl shaped BLADES found on PELTON WHEELS and other types of IMPULSE TURBINES.
- F - godets
- S - tazas
CURB (wind) (arc). In SMOCK MILLS and TOWER MILLS, the circular timber rim or wall plate supporting the revolving cap.
- F - chemin de glissement
- S - apoyo circular
CURRENT (elec). The FLOW of electrons through a conductor.
- F - courant
- S - corriente
CUT-IN SPEED (wind). The WIND VELOCITY at which a WIND MACHINE is activated.
- F - vitesse d'enclenchement
- S - velocidad de accionamiento
CUT-OUT SPEED (wind). The WIND VELOCITY at which a WIND MACHINE turns out of the wind. (See also: BATTERY CUT-OUT)
- F - vitesse de disjonction
- S - velocidad de interrupcion
CYLINDER (hydr). In hydraulic systems, a short, hollow metal tube containing a piston, piston rod, and end seals, and fitted with a system to allow the entrance and exit of FLUIDS.
- F - cylindre
- S - cilindro
DAM (hydr). A structure that detains the FLOW of water in an open CHANNEL or watercourse. POWER dams raise the level of streams or rivers to create or concentrate HEAD for power purposes.
- F - barrage
- S - represa
DAMPER (heat). A movable plate or other device for regulating the air-FLOW and burning rate in a stove. It is often located either inside the stove or in the FLUE pipe.
- F - registre
- S - regulador de tiro
DARRIEUS ROTOR WINDMILL (wind). A VERTICAL AXIS WIND MACHINE that has long, thin, loop-shaped BLADES connected at the top and bottom of the WIND SHAFT.
- F - eolienne a rotor de Darrieus
- S - molino de viento de rotor Darrieus
DC (elec). Abbreviation for DIRECT CURRENT.
- F - CC
- S - C.C.
DDG (alc). Abbreviation for DISTILLER'S DRIED GRAINS. (See: DISTILLER'S GRAINS)
- F - GSB
- S - G.S.D.
DDGS (alc). Abbreviation for DISTILLER'S DRIED GRAINS and SOLUBLES. (See: DISTILLER's GRAIN)
- F - G.S.B.S.
- S - G.S.D.S.
DEAD AIR SPACE (constr) (sol). An empty area within the walls of a building in which the air remains motionless and acts as insulation. Dead air space may be included in a SOLAR COLLECTOR between the ABSORBER PLATE and the GLAZING, between glazings, and in the CASING.
- F - espace d'air inerte
- S - espacio de aire no renovado
DEAD CURB (wind) (arc). A ledge supporting the CAP of a WINDMILL without the interposition of WHEELS or ROLLERS.
- F - chemin dormant
- S - reborde
DEADMAN (wind). A log or a mass of concrete or steel buried in the ground, to which GUY WIRES for supporting towers and poles are attached.
- F - point fixe d'ammarage
- S - macizo de anclaje
DECOMPOSITION (bio) (chem). Decay of ORGANIC MATTER due to the action of BACTERIA. Also the separation of a substance into its component parts by chemical action.
- F - decomposition
- S - descomposicion
DEEP CYCLE BATTERY (elec) (wind). A BATTERY that can be fully charged and discharged without shortening its life. They are often used with WIND GENERATORS.
- F - batterie a cycle profond
- S - bateria de gran ciclo
DEGREE DAY COOLING (gen) (meas). A measurement used to evaluate the summer cooling requirements of a given location. Each degree that the daily temperature is above 75 [degrees] F (24 [degrees] C), one cooling degree day is counted.
- F - degre-jour de refroidissement
- S - enfriamiento de grado-dia
DEGREE DAY HEATING (gen) (meas). A measurement used to determine the winter heating requirements of a given location. Each degree that the daily temperature is below 65 [degrees] F (19 [degrees] C) is a heating degree day.
- F - degre-jour de chauffage
- S - calefaccion de grado-dia
DEHYDRATION (gen). The removal of moisture from a substance.
- F - deshydratation
- S - deshidratacion
DENATURE (alc). The process of adding a substance, often METHANOL, to ETHANOL to make it unfit for human consumption.
- F - denaturer
- S - desnaturalizar
DEPHLEGMATOR (alc). (See: ALCOHOL STILL)
- F - deflegmateur
- S - desflegmador
DESIGN HEAT LOAD (heat) (meas). The total heat loss from a building during the most severe winter conditions the building is likely to experience.
- F - charge thermique nominale
- S - carga de calefaccion prevista
DESSICANT (gen). A substance with an affinity for water, used for drying purposes.
- F - dessiccatif
- S - desecante
DESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION (alc) (gen). The heating, DECOMPOSITION, and subsequent DISTILLATION of FLUIDS from ORGANIC MATTER (e.g., METHANOL production from wood).
- F - distillation destructive
- S - destilacion destructora
DETENTION TIME (biocon) (meas). The amount of time that incoming material is retained in a BIOGAS DIGESTER.
- F - temps de retention
- S - periodo de detencion
DIFFUSED RADIATION (sol). Indirect, scattered sunlight, which casts no shadow. It is the opposite of DIRECT RADIATION.
- F - rayonnement diffus
- S - radiacion difusa
DIFFUSION (chem). The process by which a substance of a greater CONCENTRATION mixes with a substance of a lesser concentration to produce a uniform mixture.
- F - diffusion
- S - difusion
DIGESTED SLUDGE (biocon). The residue remaining after DIGESTION. Digested sludge contains some UNDIGESTED SOLIDS and stabilized ORGANIC MATTER.
- F - boues digerees
- S - sedimento digerido
DIGESTED SLURRY (biocon). (See: DIGESTED SLUDGE)
- F - boue digeree
- S - fango digerido
DIGESTER (biocon). The tank in which ANAEROBIC DIGESTION takes place.
- F - digesteur
- S - digestor
DIGESTER TANK (bio). The reservoir area in a BIOGAS DIGESTER in which DIGESTION of ORGANIC MATTER takes place. It usually has some gas holding capacity, and provides For the collection and removal of SCUM and SLUDGE.
- F - reservoir digesteur
- S - tanque digestor
DIGESTION (biocon). The process by which ORGANIC MATTER is decomposed by the action of ANAEROBIC BACTERIA, producing METHANE and high-grade fertilizer.
- F - digestion
- S - digestion
DILUTION RATE (biocon) (meas). The frequency with which water is added to a BIOGAS DIGESTER.
- F - taux de dilution
- S - tasa de dilucion
DIRECT CONVERSION (sol). The transformation of sunlight to electricity without an intervening thermodynamic cycle.
- F - conversion directe
- S - conversion directa
DIRECT CURRENT (elec). A continuous, one-directional FLOW of electricity, such as that from a BATTERY. Commonly abbreviated as dc.
- F - courant continu
- S - corriente continua
DIRECT GAIN SYSTEM (sol). (See: DIRECT SOLAR GAIN)
- F - gain direct, systeme de
- S - sistema de ganancia directa
DIRECT METHODS OF SOLAR HEATING (sol). SOLAR HEATING techniques in which SOLAR RADIATION enters a building through windows and SKYLIGHTS and is trapped inside to warm a room.
- F - chauffage solaire direct
- S - metodos directos de calefaccion solar
DIRECT RADIATION (sol). Sunlight that has traveled a straight path from the sun. It is the opposite of DIFFUSED RADIATION.
- F - rayonnement direct
- S - radiacion directa
DIRECT SOLAR ENERGY (sol). ENERGY acquired From conversion of DIRECT RADIATION.
- F - energie solaire directe
- S - energia solar directa
DIRECT SOLAR GAIN (sol). A PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING system in which SOLAR RADIATION passes through and warms a room in a dwelling before being stored in THERMAL MASS for longterm heating.
- F - apport solaire direct
- S - ganancia solar directa
DISCHARGE PIPE (hydr) (biocon).  The pipe through which water exits from a WATER TURBINE.  The outlet for EFFLUENT from a BIOGAS DIGESTER.
- F -  tube de decharge;  tuyau d'evacuation
- S - tubo de descarga
DISTILLATE (alc). The portion of a liquid that is removed from a solid or semisolid as a vapor and CONDENSED during the DISTILLATION process. ETHANOL is a distillate of FERMENTED MASH. (See also: SOLAR DISTILLATE)
- F - distillat
- S - destilado
DISTILLATION (alc). An evaporation and recondensation process by which liquids are separated into various fractions according to their boiling points. ETHANOL is separated by distillation from MASH and water.
- F - distillation
- S - destilacion
DISTILLATION COLUMN (alc). (See: STILL COLUMN)
- F - colonne de distillation
- S - columna de destilacion
DISTILLER'S DRIED GRAIN (DDG) (alc). (See: DISTILLER'S GRAIN)
- F - grains secs de brasserie (GSB)
- S - grano seco de destilacion (GSD)
DISTILLER'S GRAIN (alc). A by-product of ETHANOL production. Once ethanol has been driven from the MASH in an ALCOHOL STILL, the remaining solids are known as distiller's grain. When dried, these grains can be used as high protein animal feed. The dried distiller's grain commonly is abbreviated as DDG. (Syn: BREWER'S DRIED GRAIN)
- F - grains de distillerie
- S - grano de destilacion
DISTILLER'S MASH (alc). (See: SPENT MASH)
- F - mout de distillateur
- S - mezcla de destilacion
DOUBLE CHAMBER (biocon). A type of BIOGAS DIGESTER in which the GASHOLDER is separate from the DIGESTER TANK.
- F - chambre double
- S - camara doble
DOUBLE-GLAZING (sol).  A cover for a SOLAR COLLECTOR that is made from two layers of GLAZING materials.  Double-glass windows designed to serve as insulation for buildings.
- F -  vitre double;  double vitrage
- S - vidriado doble
DOUBLE-SHUTTERED (wind) (arc). PATENT SAILS or SPRING SAILS fitted with SHUTTERS on both sides of the WHIP.
- F - double volets, a
- S - doble postigo
DOWNCOMER (alc) (impl). A component of an ALCOHOL STILL. When water is separated from ALCOHOL during DISTILLATION, the water falls toward the bottom of the STILL COLUMN through a pipe called a downcomer.
- F - deversoir
- S - tubo de descenso
DOWNDRAFT (gen) (prod).  A type of PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR in which air and gas FLOWS from the top of the COMBUSTION ZONE down through to the bottom.  KILNS or other types of ovens and stoves in which CONVECTION or combustion air flows down through the device.
- F -  tirage en bas;  tirage inverse
- S - corriente descendiente
DOWNWIND (wind). On the side opposite the WIND DIRECTION.
- F - sous le vent
- S - con el viento
DRAFT (heat). The FLOW of air through a KILN, stove, oven, fireplace, PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR, etc. Draft affects both temperature and rate of combustion.
- F - tirage
- S - tiro de aire
DRAG (wind). An aerodynamic force that retards the motion of lift-type ROTOR blades, or that causes BLADE motion in DRAG-TYPE WIND MACHINES.
- F - trainee
- S - resistencia aerodinamica
DRAG-TYPE SYSTEM (wind). WIND MACHINES that are actuated by aerodynamic DRAG in a WIND STREAM (e.g., SAVONIUS ROTOR).
- F - type a trainee, systeme du
- S - sistema del tipo de arrastre
DRAG-TYPE WIND MACHINE (wind). A WIND MACHINE that rotates by being pushed by the wind instead of by being driven by LIFT forces. This is generally a slow-moving device.
- F - eolienne a trainee
- S - aerogenerador del tipo de arrastre
DRAIN DOWN SOLAR COLLECTOR (sol). A SOLAR COLLECTOR that will automatically drain itself to protect against freezing.
- F - capteur solaire a evacuation automatique
- S - colector solar con drenaje
DRY BIOMASS (gen). Moisture-free BIOMASS. It is valuable because it can be conveniently stored for long periods of time. (See also: DRY ORGANIC WASTE)
- F - biomasse seche
- S - biomasa seca
DRY-BULB TEMPERATURE (meas). The temperature of air as indicated by a standard thermometer, as contrasted with WET-BULB TEMPERATURE that depends on atmospheric humidity. This measure of AMBIENT temperature is used in designing PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING and SOLAR COOLING systems.
- F - temperature au thermometre sec
- S - temperatura de bola seca
DRY DIGESTION (biocon). DIGESTION in which more than 10 percent of the SLURRY is solid material.
- F - digestion seche
- S - digestion seca
DRYING BED (biocon). An area prepared for drying EFFLUENT after it hs been removed from a METHANE DIGESTER. Dried effluent can be used as fertilizer or as animal feed.
- F - lit de sechage
- S - lecho secador
DRY ORGANIC WASTE (gen). ORGANIC WASTE that is free from moisture. This type of waste can be stored for long periods before being used as a fuel or fertilizer. (See also: DRY BIOMASS)
- F - dechets organiques secs
- S - desperdicios organicos secos
DRY SLURRY (biocon). SLURRY that is more than 10 percent solid material.
- F - boue seche
- S - fango seco
DRY STEAM (geo). An ENERGY source obtained when hot water boils in an underground reservoir. As the steam rises, some of it condenses on surrounding rack. The uncondensed steam that reaches the surface is called dry steam, and may be tapped and used in STEAM TURBINES.
- F - vapeur seche
- S - vapor seco
DUAL-FUEL ENGINE (auto) (gen). A gasoline or diesel engine equipped to operate on an alternative fuel, either alternately or in combination (e.g., gasoline-BIOGAS, diesel-biogas, gasoline-WOOD GAS, diesel-wood gas).
- F - moteur polycarburant
- S - motor a doble combustible
DUNG (bio). Manure, usually without urine. Dried dung can be burned directly as a fuel or used as a fertilizer.
- F - fumier
- S - estiercol
DUNG GAS (biocon). (See: BIOGAS)
- F - gaz de fumier
- S - gas de estiercol
DYNAMO (elec). A device for converting mechanical ENERGY into electrical energy by electromagnetic induction. Dynamos are often adapted to be driven by WINDMILLS. (See also: ALTERNATOR)
- F - dynamo
- S - dinamo
DYNAPOD (gen) (impl). A pedal-operated POWER source. It is used to drive a variety of machines and devices.
- F - dynapod
- S - dynapod
EARTH KILN (heat). A relatively inefficient KILN made by mounding earth over the materials to be burned. Used in traditional CHARCOAL production.
- F - meule a charbon de bois
- S - horno de tierra
ECCENTRIC WHEEL (gen). A wheel in which the axle is not at the center point, but slightly off-center.
- F - roue excentrique
- S - rueda excentrica
ECONOMIZER (heat). A HEAT EXCHANGER that recovers heat from FLUE gases and uses it to heat feedwater or combustion air.
- F - economiseur
- S - economizador
EFFECTIVENESS (heat) (meas). The ratio of actual heat transfer in a HEAT EXCHANGER to the maximum possible heat transfer.
- F - efficacite
- S - eficacia
EFFICIENCY (gen). The ratio of the ENERGY output to the energy input. Efficiency is usually expressed as a percentage.
- F - rendement
- S - eficiencia
EFFLUENT (biocon).  SLURRY that has been removed from a BIOGAS PLANT.  Liquid sewage after having passed through any stage in its purification.
- F - effluent
- S - efluente
EMISSIVITY (sol). The ratio of RADIANT ENERGY emitted by a body to that emitted by a perfect BLACKBODY. A perfect blackbody has an emissivity of one; a perfect REFLECTOR, an emissivity of zero.
- F - emissivite
- S - emisividad
EMITTANCE (sol) (meas). A rating of the ability of a material to give off heat as RADIANT ENERGY.
- F - emittance
- S - emitancia
ENERGY (gen). The capacity of a body to do work; POWER in action.
- F - energie
- S - energia
ENERGY CAPABILITY OF AN ELECTRICITY-PRODUCING DEVICE (gen) (meas). The maximum amount of electricity that an electricity-producing device may produce under the best conditions during a given period. ENERGY capability is determined by the mechanical EFFICIENCY of the device.
- F - capacite energetique d'un dispositif produisant du courant
- S - capacidad energetica de un aparato productor de electricidad
ENERGY CONSERVATION (gen). Practices and measures that increase the EFFICIENCY with which ENERGY is used or produced.
- F - conservation de l'energie
- S - conservacion de energia
ENERGY CONSUMPTION (gen). The amount of ENERGY consumed in the form in which it is obtained by the user. This term excludes electrical generation and distribution losses. It also is called net energy consumption.
- F - consommation d'energie
- S - consumo de energia
ENERGY CONVERSION (gen). The act of changing ENERGY from one form to another (e.g., WIND ENERGY to mechanical energy).
- Mechanical -> Electrical
- Wind Generator 40%
- Water Turbine 68-93%
- Steam Power Plant 40%
- Mechanical -> Mechanical
- Windmill 20-30%
- Waterwheel 70-85%
- Solar -> Thermal
- Flat Collector 40-60%
- Concentrator 80-90%
- Chemical -> Thermal
- Wood Combustion Burner 85% maximum
- Chemical -> Electrical
- Battery 80% (Storage)
- Chemical -> Chemical
- Biogas Digester 40-60%
- F - conversion de l'energie
- S - conversion de energia
ENERGY PATTERN FACTOR (wind). The ratio of the available ENERGY in all of the winds in a particular location over a certain period of time to the energy that would be available if the WIND SPEED over that period of time were constant at the mean wind speed over that period of time.
- F - coefficient de diagramme energetique
- S - factor energetico del viento
ENERGY PRODUCTS (gen). Fuels that can be used to produce ENERGY. Also, the by-products that result when fuels are produced.
- F - combustibles energetiques
- S - productos energeticos
ENERGY STORAGE (gen) (meas). The ability to convert ENERGY into other forms, such as heat or a chemical reaction, so that it can be retrieved for later use. Also the development, design, construction, and operation of devices for storing energy until needed. The technology includes devices such as batteries, pumped storage for hydroelectric generation and compressed gas.
- F - stockage de l'energie
- S - almacenamiento de energia
- RENEWABLE ENERGY STORAGE
|Storage Medium||Storage Efficiency (%)||Major Loss Characteristics||Cost*||Complexity**|
|SOLAR (Heat)||Water||75-90||Leaks (thermal & physical)||2||1|
|Salt Hydrates||75-95||Material Breakdown||3||3|
|WIND/WATER (Mechanical)||Pumped Water||50-70||Evaporation, Friction||1||2|
|Compressed Air||40-50||Leaks, Friction||2||2|
|WIND/WATER (Electrical)||Battery||70-85||Internal Discharge||3||3|
|* Relative Cost||1 = Negligible|
|2 = Intermediate|
|** Degree of Mechanical Complexity||3 = Considerable|
ENHANCEMENT (sol). Increasing the amount of sunlight transmitted through the GLAZING in a SOLAR COLLECTOR through the use of a REFLECTOR.
- F - renforcement
- S - intensificacion
ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS (alc). The use of ENZYMES to convert STARCH into simple sugars. This is a stage in the production of ETHANOL.
- F - saccharification enzymatique
- S - hidrolisis enzimica
ENZYMES (chem) (alc). Organic substances that are produced in the cells of living organisms, and which cause specific chemical changes. Enzymes are produced by BACTERIA or FUNGI and are used in the liquefication and SACCHARIFICATION steps of ALCOHOL production.
- F - enzymes
- S - enzimas
EOLIAN (wind). Of, relating to, formed by, or deposited by the wind or air currents. (Syn: Aeolian)
- F - eolien, eolienne
- S - eolico
EQUINOX (sol). Either of two times of year when the sun passes over the celestial equator and when the length of day and night are almost equal.
- F - equinoxe
- S - equinoccio
ETHANOL (alc). A Flammable organic compound (C[H.sub.3]C[H.sub.2]OH) formed during sugar FERMENTATION. It is also called ethyl alcohol, GRAIN ALCOHOL, or simply ALCOHOL.
- F - ethanol
- S - etanol
ETHYL ALCOHOL (alc). (See: ETHANOL)
- F - alcool ethylique
- S - alcohol etilico
EUTECTIC SALTS (heat). Heat storing salts that melt at a relatively low temperature. They absorb large quantities of heat when they do melt. Heat is released when the salts freeze.
- F - eutectiques
- S - sales eutecticos
EVACUATED TUBE COLLECTOR (sol). A SOLAR COLLECTOR that uses a vacuum to insulate the ABSORBER PLATE. This COLLECTOR is highly EFFICIENT but very expensive.
- F - capteur a tube vide
- S - colector con tubo vaciado
EVAPORATIVE COOLING (refrig). The exchange of heat from air to a water spray or wet surface through a reversible THERMODYNAMIC process. Air passing through the water is cooled as the water evaporates. The process can be reversed by condensing the vapor on a cool surface.
- F - refroidissement par evaporation
- S - enfriamiento evaporante
EXCESS AIR (heat). Air that passes through a COMBUSTION ZONE in excess of the quantity theoretically required for complete combustion.
- F - exces d'air
- S - aire excesivo
EXTRATERRESTRIAL SOLAR RADIATION (sol) (meas). The amount of SOLAR RADIATION that would strike a surface if that surface were outside the Earth's atmosphere. (See also: CLEARNESS INDEX)
- F - rayonnement solaire extraterrestre
- S - radiacion solar extraterrestre
F (meas). Abbreviation for FAHRENHEIT.
- F - F
- S - F
FAHRENHEIT (meas). The temperature scale in which water freezes at 32 [degrees] F and boils at 212 [degrees] F. Temperatures of the Fahrenheit scale can be converted to equivalent temperatures on the CELSIUS or Centigrade scale by first subtracting 32 [degrees] from the Fahrenheit temperature, then multiplying the result by 5/9 according to the formula: (F -32) X 5/9 = C.
- F - Fahrenheit
- S - Fahrenheit
FALL WIND (wind). A strong, cold, downhill wind.
- F - vent catabatique
- S - racha de viento
FANTAIL (wind) (arc). A small, secondary ROTOR set at a right angle to the main ROTOR of a WINDMILL to provide the motive POWER to turn the CAP to face the wind.
- F - gouvernail
- S - timon
FARM WINDMILL (wind). A multi-BLADED WINDMILL that is based on an Early American design and is used primarily for water pumping.
- F - eolienne de ferme
- S - molino de viento rural
FEATHER (wind). Turning the SAILS or the ROTOR of a WIND MACHINE out of the wind to protect the device from damage from high WIND VELOCITIES.
- F - mettre en drapeau
- S - poner en bandolera
FEATHERING MECHANISM (wind) (impl). A mechanism on a WINDMILL that automatically turns the BLADES out of the wind when winds are too strong. This slows the windmill, protecting it from damage in high winds.
- F - mecanisme de mise en drapeau
- S - mecanismo de puesta en bandolera
FEED (gen). See: FEEDSTOCK)
- F - alimentation
- S - alimento
FEEDSTOCK (gen). The raw ORGANIC MATTER, such as grain, fruit, DUNG, or other BIOMASS, used as the INFLUENT in the FERMENTATION or DIGESTION processes.
- F - charge d'alimentation
- S - materia prima organica
FENESTRATION (sol). An opening in a building that admits light and/or air.
- F - fenestration
- S - ventanaje
FERMENT (biocon). A transformation or DECOMPOSITION of ORGANIC MATTER by the catalytic effect of ENZYMATIC action. To cause or undergo the action of FERMENTATION.
- F - fermenter
- S - fermentar
FERMENTABLE SUGAR (alc). (See: MONOSACCHARIDE)
- F - sucre fermentable
- S - azucar fermentable
FERMENTATION (alc) (chem).  A biological sequence of ENZYMATIC reactions that convert sugars to carbon dioxide and ALCOHOL in the absence of FREE OXYGEN. The term generally refers to metabolism in the absence of oxygen.  The process by which YEAST changes sugar to ALCOHOL in the absence of air.  The process of chemical change in ORGANIC MATTER brought about by living organisms.
- F - fermentation
- S - fermentacion
FERMENTATION PERIOD (gen) (meas). The length of time required for a substance to FERMENT.
- F - duree de fermentation
- S - periodo de fermentacion
FERMENTATION TANK (alc). The container in which FERMENTATION takes place in an ETHANOL production operation.
- F - cuve de fermentation
- S - tanque de fermentacion
FERMENTER (gen). (See: FERMENTATION TANK)
- F - fermenteur
- S - fermentador
FETCH AREA (wind). The geographic area over which the wind passes shortly before reaching a WIND MACHINE. It is considered in the selection of a site for a wind-powered device.
- F - portee du vent
- S - extension expuesta
FIRE BACK (constr). A metal plate set in a CHIMNEY to control the back DRAFT of flames.
- F - contre-feu
- S - respaldo refractario
FIREBOX (gen). The area in a stove, oven, or PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR in which combustion occurs.
- F - chambre de combustion
- S - caja refractaria
FIRE BRICK (constr). A type of brick with a high melting point that is used to line FLUES, CHIMNEYS, furnaces, and fireplaces.
- F - brique refractaire
- S - ladrillo refractario
FIXED-DOME DIGESTER (biocon). A BIOGAS DIGESTER in which the gasholder is an integral part of the digester, rather than a FLOATING GAS CAP. This type of digester is usually used to produce fertilizer. METHANE is considered a by-product.
- F - digesteur a dome fixe
- S - digestor de sombrerete fijo
FLAT BLACK PAINT (sol). A nonglossy black paint with a relatively high ABSORPTANCE.
- F - peinture noire mate
- S - pintura negra uniforme
FLAT-PLATE SOLAR COLLECTOR (sol). A device that uses an ABSORBER PLATE to COLLECT SOLAR RADIATION without assistance of devices to concentrate the sun's rays.
- F - capteur solaire a panneau plan
- S - colector solar de placa lisa
FLOAT (hydr). The BUCKET of a WATER WHEEL.
- F - aube
- S - paleta 
FLOATING GAS CAP (biocon). A lid over a BIOGAS DIGESTER that rises or falls with the production of METHANE.
- F - cloche a gaz flottante
- S - sombrerete movible
FLOW (gen). The volume of a substance passing a point per unit time (e.g., meters per second, gallons per hour, etc.)
- F - debit
- S - flujo
FLOW DESIGN (hydr) (meas). The FLOW rate at which a TURBINE is designed to operate.
- F - debit nominal
- S - diseno de flujo
FLUE (const). A passageway in a CHIMNEY that vents gases produced during combustion. The flue opening can be regulated to control the DRAFT in the oven or stove, thus changing the rate of combustion.
- F - carneau
- S - conducto de humos
FLUE GAS DRYING (heat). THERMAL drying using gases in a FLUE as the source of heat.
- F - sechage au gaz de carneau
- S - secado por gases del conducto
FLUID (gen). Any substance that FLOWS, such as a liquid or gas. Fluids differ from solids in that they cannot resist changes in their shape when acted upon by a force.
- F - fluide
- S - fluido
FLUIDIZED BED GASSIFIER (prod). A type of PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR in which air FLOWS upward through a bed of suitably-sized fuel particles fast enough to buoy the particles and give them an appearance of great agitation. The fuel particles generally are small. This type of combustion reduces the sulphur-dioxide emissions when coal is burned.
- F - gazogene a lit fluidise
- S - gasificador en lecho fluidizado
FLUME (hydr).  A HEAD RACE in the form of a trough or CHANNEL that carries water to a WATER WHEEL.  A waterway, usually made of wood and often supported on a trestle, that conveys water to be used for POWER, transportation, etc.
- F -  coursier;  canal d'amenee
- S - canaleta
FLYWHEEL (gen) (impl). A rotating element attached to the shaft of a machine to maintain uniform angular velocity and revolutions per minute.
- F - volant
- S - volante
FOCUSING COLLECTOR (sol). A type of SOLAR COLLECTOR that focuses the sun's rays on a sinqle point.
- F - capteur a concentration 
- S - colector enfocante
FOLD-UP REFLECTOR (sol). A portable type of folding mirror used in SOLAR COOKERS to reflect sunlight.
- F - reflecteur pliant
- S - reflector plegable
FOOT-POUND (gen) (meas). The amount of ENERGY required to lift one pound of a substance one foot.
- F - pied-livre
- S - libra-pie
FORCED CONVECTION (heat). The use of a pump or blower to control the FLOW of heat into a heated FLUID (e.g. circulating warm air in a room or dwelling with a pump or blower).
- F - convection forcee
- S - conveccion forzada
FOSSIL FUELS (fos). Nonrenewable, naturally-occurring fuels from ORGANIC MATTER. These include coal, crude oil, and natural gas.
- F - combustibles fossiles
- S - combustibles fosiles
FRACTIONATING COLUMN (alc). A vertical tube or column attached to an ALCOHOL STILL that is usually filled with packing or intersected with plates. An internal REFLUX results in a separation between the high and low boiling fractions inside the column. Those with the lowest boiling point DISTILL out. (See also: DISTILLATION COLUMN)
- F - colonne de fractionnement
- S - columna de fraccionar
FRANCIS TURBINE (hydr). A WATER TURBINE that operates on a low or medium HEAD and is often installed in large HYDROELECTRIC plants. Water enters the turbine radially and leaves axially.
- F - turbine de Francis
- S - turbina Francis
FREE OXYGEN (bio). Oxygen in the atmosphere, which can be extracted at no cost. Conversely, oxygen extracted at a cost would cause the substance from which the oxygen molecules were taken to DECOMPOSE.
- F - oxygene libre
- S - oxigeno libre
FRESNEL COLLECTOR (sol). A type of SOLAR COLLECTOR consisting of a concentric series of rings with reflecting surfaces. These rings focus SOLAR RADIATION onto an ABSORBER PLATE.
- F - capteur a lentille de Fresnel
- S - colector Fresnel
FRESNEL LENS (sol). A type of lens built up from a number of narrow concentric segments. It is used in SOLAR CONCENTRATORS.
- F - lentille de Fresnel
- S - lente de Fresnel
FRICTION (gen). Surface resistance to relative motion, which slows down movement and causes heat.
- F - frottement
- S - friccion
FRICTION HEAD (hydr). HEAD or ENERGY lost due to FRICTION created by the contact between a moving stream of water and the conduit through which it is moving. In pipes, the friction head is also caused by bends in the pipelines, changes in the pipe diameter, valves, and couplings.
- F - perte frictionnelle
- S - perdida de carga por rozamiento
FRUCTOSE(alc) (chem). A FERMENTABLE sugar commonly found in fruit. Fructose can be used as a FEEDSTOCK in ETHANOL production.
- F - fructose
- S - fructosa
FUEL EFFICIENCY (heat) (meas). The ratio of heat produced by a fuel for doing work to the available heat of the fuel. Fuel EFFICIENCY is determined by the nonheat-forming materials in the fuel and the nonwork-producing heat that is developed by the fuel.
- F - rendement du combustible
- S - eficiencia del combustible
FUELWOOD (heat). Any type of wood that can be used to fuel a fire.
- F - bois de chauffe
- S - lena
FULL SAIL (wind) (arc). A COMMON SAIL with the cloth fully spread.
- F - aile deployee
- S - aspa completamente estirada
FUNGUS (bio). One of numerous plants in the division of Thallophyta characterized by a lack of chlorophyll, including YEAST, molds, and mushrooms. Fungi do not require FREE OXYGEN to survive. (Plural: fungi)
- F - champignon
- S - hongo
FURLING (wind). Rollinq up and tying back SAILS of a WINDMILL to keep the ROTOR from turning.
- F - ferlage
- S - aferramiento
FURLING SPEED (wind). (See: CUT-OUT SPEED)
- F - vitesse de ferlage
- S - velocidad maxima admisible
GASAHOL (alc). A gasoline substitute or supplement derived from 10 percent ETHANOL and 90 percent unleaded gasoline. (Syn: gasohol)
- F - carburol
- S - gasohol
GAS CAP (biocon). (See: GASHOLDER)
- F - cloche a gaz
- S - tapa de gas
GAS DIGESTION (biocon). The second stage of BIOGAS generation, during which METHANE ([CH.sub.4]) is produced.
- F - digestion de gaz
- S - digestion de gas
GASHOLDER (biocon). (1) A container for holding the BIOGAS produced in a DIGESTER. The size of the holder depends on the rates of gas production and gas use. (See also: FLOATING GAS CAP)
- F - gazometre
- S - gasometro
GASIFICATION (prod). The conversion of wood or coal to COMBUSTIBLE GAS without leaving a combustible residue.
- F - gazeification
- S - gasificacion
GASIFIER (prod). A special type of furnace in which the air supply to the COMBUSTION ZONE is carefully metered. This promotes the production of COMBUSTIBLE GASES as wood or coal are burned.
- F - gazogene
- S - gasificador
GAS PRODUCTION RATE (biocon) (meas). The quantity of METHANE generated per unit of time. It generally is expressed as cubic feet/day or cubic meters/day. The figure should be quoted under standard conditions of temperature and pressure.
- F - taux de production du gaz
- S - tasa de produccion de gas
GAS SCRUBBER (gen). (See: SCRUBBING)
- F - epurateur de gaz
- S - lavagases
GAS STORAGE CAPACITY (biocon). The maximum amount of METHANE that a BIOGAS DIGESTER is able to store. The amount generally is expressed in cubic feet or cubic meters.
- F - capacite de stockage de gaz
- S - capacidad de almacenamiento de gas
GAS TURBINE (auto). An ALTERNATIVE COMBUSTION ENGINE in which a gas, under pressure or formed by combustion, is directed against the BLADES of a TURBINE. The ENERGY in the expanding gas is thereby converted into useful mechanical energy.
- F - turbine a gaz
- S - turbina de gas
GEAR RATIO (gen) (meas). The number of revolutions required of one gear to turn another gear, which generally is of a different size.
- F - demultiplication
- S - relacion de los engranajes
GENERATOR (elec) (impl). A device that converts mechanical ENERGY into electrical energy.
- F - generateur
- S - generador
GENGAS (prod). (See: PRODUCER GAS)
- F - gaz pauvre de gazogene
- S - gengas
GEOPRESSURED RESERVOIR (geo). A GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR consisting of porous sands that contain water or BRINE at high temperatures and pressure.
- F - reservoir sous geopression
- S - tanque de presion geotermica
GEOTHERMAL (geo). Of or relating to the heat of the Earth's interior.
- F - geothermique
- S - geotermico
GEOTHERMAL FIELD (geo). A geographical region with known GEOTHERMAL POWER sources that might be tapped to produce ENERGY.
- F - zone geothermique
- S - zona geotermica
GEOTHERMAL POWER (geo). ENERGY obtained from GEOTHERMAL sources. Geothermal power is tapped in three ways: by using hot water, steam, or DRY STEAM. Each may be used to drive a TURBINE.
- F - energie geothermique
- S - energia geotermica
GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR (geo). A water reserve created near a HOT DRY ROCK RESERVOIR to develop a potential GEOTHERMAL POWER site.
- F - reservoir geothermique
- S - tanque geotermico
GEOTHERMAL STEAM (geo). Steam drawn from sources within the Earth.
- F - vapeur geothermique
- S - vapor geotermico
GEYSER (geo). Natural steam or hot water spouts in active GEOTHERMAL regions.
- F - geyser
- S - geiser
GIN POLE (wind). A long board or pipe used to improve the leverage in lifting a TOWER for a WINDMILL.
- F - fleche de levage
- S - mastil grua
GLAZING (impl) (sol). A transparent sheet that admits sunlight to a SOLAR COLLECTOR and then inhibits the escape of heat. Commonly used glazing materials include ACETATE, acrylic, fiber-reinforced plastics, and glass.
- F - vitrification
- S - vidriado
GLOBAL RADIATION (sol). The combination of DIFFUSED RADIATION, DIRECT RADIATION, and REFLECTED RADIATION. (See: SOLAR RADIATION)
- F - rayonnement global
- S - radiacion global
GLUCOSE (chem) (alc). The most common sugar, which is derived from STARCH during the ETHANOL production process.
- F - glucose
- S - glucosa
GOBAR GAS (biocon). (See: BIOGAS)
- F - bio-gaz
- S - gas gobar
GOVERNOR (gen) (impl). A device that regulates the speed of an engine or other device under varying conditions of load and pressure. Also a device for regulating the FLOW or pressure of a FLUID passing through a device.
- F - regulateur
- S - regulador
GRAIN ALCOHOL (alc). ETHANOL made from grain by DISTILLATION.
- F - alcool de grains
- S - alcohol de granos
GRAM CALORIE (gen). The amount of ENERGY required to raise one gram of water one degree CELSIUS.
- F - calorie 
- S - caloria-gramo
GRAMLAXMI GAS (biocon). (See: BIOGAS)
- F - bio-gaz
- S - gas gramlaxmi
GRATE (impl) (heat). A frame of metal bars that holds fuel above the floor of a firebox. It usually is used in a boiler, GASIFIER, fireplace, or stove.
- F - grille
- S - parilla
GRAVITY CONVECTION heat). (See: NATURAL CONVECTION)
- F - convection par pesanteur
- S - conveccion por gravedad
GUIDE VANES (hydr) (impl). Surfaces that direct water to the appropriate parts of TURBINE BLADES or BUCKETS so as to increase POWER output.
- F - aubes directrices
- S - alabe director
GUSSET (constr) (wind). A triangular metal brace for reinforcing a corner or angle. It is commonly used in TOWER construction.
- F - gousset
- S - esquinero
GUST (wind). A sudden, brief increase in WIND VELOCITY that is then followed by calmer air.
- F - rafale
- S - rafaga
GUYED TOWER (impl) (wind). A WINDMILL TOWER that is supported by GUY WIRES.
- F - pylone haubanne
- S - torre atirantada
GUY WIRE (wind) (impl). A cable that stabilizes a structure and keeps it in position. For example, wires attached to a WINDMILL TOWER so that it cannot move or shake from the force of the wind.
- F - hauban
- S - retenida de alambre
HARNESS (ani). The gear or tackle, other than a YOKE, used on draft animals to pull a vehicle or drive an implement. It differs from a yoke, which joins together draft animals.
- F - harnais
- S - arnes
HEAD (hydr) (meas).  The vertical distance from the point where water enters an intake to the point where the water leaves a HYDROPOWER device. It is generally measured in feet or meters. The product of the head times the FLOW is a measurement of potential POWER.  The vertical distance a liquid must be pumped from its source to its point of use or storage.
- F - chute d'eau -
- S - altura
HEADER (sol). The pipe that runs across the top of an ABSORBER PLATE to gather or distribute HEAT TRANSFER FLUID from or to the grid pipes that run across the absorber surface. Some headers run along the bottom of the absorber plate.
- F - entree-sortie
- S - tubo colector
HEADRACE (hydr). A CANAL or conduit that feeds water into a mill, WATER WHEEL, or TURBINE.
- F - bief d'amont
- S - canal de llegada
HEAD WATER (hydr). The water upstream of a DAM or a HYDROPOWER plant.
- F - eau d'amont
- S - aguas arriba
HEAT CAPACITY (heat) (meas). The amount of heat required to raise by one degree the temperature of a unit mass of a substance.
- F - capacite thermique
- S - capacidad calorifica
HEAT ENERGY (heat). ENERGY in the form of heat.
- F - energie thermique
- S - energia calorifica
HEAT EXCHANGER (heat) (impl). A device, such as a coiled copper tube immersed in a tank of water which is used to transfer heat from one FLUID to another through a separating wall. A CONDENSER is one type of heat exchanger.
- F - echangeur de chaleur
- S - termopermutador
HEAT GAIN (heat). The increase of heat in a space resulting from DIRECT RADIATION and from the heat given off by such other sources as THERMAL MASS, a stove, a fireplace, humans, or animals.
- F - apport de chaleur
- S - ganancia calorifica
HEATING VALUE (heat) (meas). The amount of heat produced by the complete combustion of a specific amount of fuel. This is a measure of FUEL EFFICIENCY.
- F - pouvoir calorifique
- S - valor calorifico
HEAT LOSS (heat). An unwanted decrease in the amount of heat contained in a space. Heat is usually lost through CONVECTION.
- F - perte de chaleur
- S - perdida calorifica
HEAT PUMP (heat) (impl). A mechanical device that transfers heat from a heat source to a HEAT SINK. This process causes the source to cool and the sink to become warmer.
- F - pompe a chaleur
- S - bomba calorifica
HEAT RATE TRANSFER COEFFICIENT (heat) (meas). The rate at which heat is transferred per hour, per unit surface, per degree of temperature difference.
- F - coefficient de transmission de chaleur
- S - coeficiente de transferencia del consumo calorifico
HEAT-REFLECTIVE GLASS (sol). A type of glass designed to reflect SOLAR RADIATION.
- F - verre a pouvoir reflechissant thermique
- S - vidrio reflector de calor
HEAT SINK (sol). A body that is capable of accepting and storing heat. It therefore may also act as a heat source.
- F - puits de chaleur
- S - sumidor de calor
HEAT TAX (heat). Referring to the HEAT ENERGY that becomes unavailable for further use whenever ENERGY is converted from one form to another.
- F - chaleur perdue
- S - gravamen calorifico
HEAT TRANSFER FLUID (sol). (See: HEAT TRANSFER MEDIUM)
- F - fluide caloporteur
- S - fluido de termotransferencia
HEAT TRANSFER MEDIUM (sol). The FLUID that is heated in a SOLAR COLLECTOR for conducting heat to another place or substance.
- F - caloporteur
- S - medio de termotransferencia
HELICAL SAIL WINDMILL (wind). The name for a particular type of HORIZONTAL-AXIS, SAIL ROTOR WINDMILL. It usually is used for low-lift water pumping.
- F - eolienne a ailes helicoidales
- S - molino con aspas helicoidales
HELIO-ELECTRICAL PROCESS (sol). A process by which PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES convert SOLAR ENERGY into electricity.
- F - processus helioelectrique
- S - proceso helioelectrico
HELIOSTAT (sol) (impl). A solar-focusing instrument consisting of a mirror mounted on an AXIS that is moved by clockwork. The heliostat reflects sunbeams in one direction, usually to a central ABSORBER located in a TOWER.
- F - heliostat
- S - heliostato
HELIOTHERMAL (sol).  A process that uses SOLAR RADIATION to produce heat.  A device that absorbs RADIATION on a blackened surface and converts it into heat.
- F - heliothermique
- S - heliotermico
HELIOTHERMAL PROCESS (sol). A process by which SOLAR ENERGY is used to provide THERMAL ENERGY for space heating, space cooling, and domestic water heating.
- F - processus heliothermique
- S - proceso heliotermico
HELIOTHERMOMETER (sol) (meas). An instrument that measures heat from the sun.
- F - heliothermometre
- S - heliotermometro
HELIOTROPIC (sol) (impl). Turning toward light. It describes devices that TRACK the sun, following its movement across the sky.
- F - heliotropique
- S - heliotropico
HORIZONTAL AIR MILL (wind) (arc). (See: HORIZONTAL-AXIS WINDMILL)
- F - moulin a vent a arbre horizontal
- S - molino de aire horizontal
HORIZONTAL AXIS SAIL ROTOR (wind). A WIND MACHINE with cloth sails in which the WIND SHAFT is situated on a horizontal plane.
- F - eolienne a ailes en toile sur axe horizontal
- S - rotor de eje horizontal
HORIZONTAL AXIS WINDMILL (wind). A WINDMILL driven by a ROTOR on a horizontal WIND SHAFT.
- F - eolienne a arbre horizontal
- S - molino de eje horizontal
HORIZONTAL WATERMILL (hydr). A WATERMILL driven by a horizontal wheel mounted on a vertical shaft. (Syn: Greek Mill; Norse Mill)
- F - moulin a eau horizontal
- S - molino hidraulico horizontal
HORIZONTAL WATER WHEEL (hydr). (See: HORIZONTAL WATERMILL)
- F - roue hydraulique horizontale
- S - rueda hidraulica horizontal
HORSEPOWER (gen). A unit of POWER equal to 33,000 FOOT POUNDS per minute, 550 foot pounds per second, or 746 WATTS.
- F - cheval-vapeur
- S - potencia util
HOT DRY ROCK (geo) A system for using GEOTHERMAL POWER. A hole is drilled and the deep rock cracked. This may be done hydraulically, as is done in conventional oil fields, or with explosives. Water is injected into the fractured rock, allowed to heat, and then withdrawn as steam for use as an ENERGY source.
- F - roche chaude et seche
- S - roca seca caliente
HOT WATER RESERVOIR (geo). (See: GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR)
- F - reservoir d'eau chaude
- S - tanque de agua caliente
HOUR ANGLE (sol) (meas). The angular displacement of the sun east or west of the local meridian due to the rotation of the Earth on its AXIS at 15 [degrees] per hour (morning [+] afternoon [-]).
- F - angle horaire
- S - angulo hora
HUB EXTENSION (wind). A piece of pipe that sticks out from the front of the hub of a ROTOR on a WINDMILL. It provides a place to attach GUY WIRES to strengthen the BLADES or SAILS.
- F - rallonge de moyeu
- S - extension del cubo
HUMIDIFIER (gen). A mechanical means for increasing the relative humidity in an enclosed area by injecting water vapor into the air.
- F - humidificateur
- S - humidificador
HUMUS (biocon). Well-decomposed organic soil material consisting of the residues from plant and animal matter together with the cell substances of soil organisms and various inorganic materials.
- F - humus
- S - humus
HYBRID GENERATOR (biocon). A two-stage BIOGAS DIGESTER design consisting of a larger batch-fed, ACID-producing, cold phase, and a smaller CONTINUOUS-FEED, METHANE-producing, heated phase. Alternatively, any digester that separates acid and methane production.
- F - generateur hybride
- S - generador hibrido
HYBRID POWER SYSTEM (gen). A system, such as one might find within a home, that derives its heating, lighting, and other ENERGY from several interconnected sources. One or more of these sources generally would come from RENEWABLE ENERGY.
- F - energie heterogene, systeme d'
- S - sistema de energia hibrida
HYBRID SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEM (sol). A heating or cooling system that uses both ACTIVE SOLAR HEATING and PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING methods in its design. At least one of the system's significant THERMAL ENERGY FLOWS is by natural means, and at least one is by forced means.
- F - energie solaire heterogene, systeme d'
- S - sistema de energia solar hibrida
HYDRATE (chem). A solid material resulting from the combination under pressure of a gas with water.
- F - hydrate
- S - hidrato
HYDRAULIC RAM (hydr) (impl). A water pump that uses the ENERGY of descending water to raise a part of the water to a height greater than that of the source. It requires no other power than the energy from the descending water.
- F - belier hydraulique
- S - ariete hidraulico
HYDRAULIC RETENTION TIME (biocon) (meas). The number of days an average volume of SLURRY remains in a BIOGAS DIGESTER.
- F - duree de retention hydraulique
- S - periodo de retention hidraulica
HYDROELECTRIC (hydr). Relative to a system in which the potential ENERGY of falling water is harnessed by releasing it from DAMS or through a PENSTOCK downward through WATER TURBINES.
- F - hydro-electrique
- S - hidroelectrico
HYDROLOGIC CYCLE (hydr). The cycle in which water passes through different states. It begins as atmospheric water vapor. It then becomes a liquid through precipitation. Next it flows along the ground surface, where it is useful as an energy source. Finally, it returns to its original form through evaporation and transpiration.
- F - cycle hydrologique
- S - ciclo hidrologico
HYDROLOGY (hydr). The science of water systems on or beneath the Earth's surface.
- F - hydrologie
- S - hidrologia
HYDROLYSIS (alc) (chem). The chemical process that breaks complex organic molecules into simple molecules. For example, STARCH and CELLULOSE can be hydrolyzed by ACIDS or ENZYMES to produce simple sugars, which can be FERMENTED to form ETHANOL.
- F - hydrolyse
- S - hidrolisis
HYDROMETER (impl) (meas). An instrument used to determine the density or SPECIFIC GRAVITY of FLUIDS.
- F - hydrometre
- S - hidrometro
HYDROPOWER (hydr). POWER produced by falling water. The term is used to identify a type of electricity-generating station or any energy output in which the main mover is driven by FLOWing water.
- F - puissance hydraulique
- S - potencia hidraulica
HYDROPOWER SYSTEM (hydr). A system in which the potential ENERGY of FLOWing water is used to create electricity or to mechanically drive machines, by impounding it behind DAMS and then diverting it through a CHANNEL to a WATER TURBINE.
- F - systeme de puissance hydraulique
- S - sistema de potencia hidraulica
HYDROXYL (biocon). A monovalent group consisting of a hydrogen atom and an oxygen atom linked together. Most BASES contain hydroxyl groups. (See also: BASE)
- F - hydroxyle
- S - hidroxilo
HYGROMETER (impl) (meas) (sol). A device for measuring the humidity of the air. It is used in designing SOLAR HEATING and SOLAR COOLING systems.
- F - hygrometre
- S - higrometro
IMPERMEABLE DRY ROCK (geo). Rock systems in GEOTHERMAL regions where the heat is contained almost entirely in impermeable rock.
- F - roche seche impermeable
- S - roca seca impermeable
IMPULSE TURBINE (hydr). A TURBINE driven by high velocity JETS of water or steam that are produced by forcing the water or steam through a nozzle.
- F - turbine a action
- S - turbina de impulsion
INCIDENT ANGLE (sol) (hydr).  The angle between the sun's rays and a line perpendicular (normal) to the irradiated surface. The incident angle determines both the intensity of the DIRECT RADIATION component striking the surface and the ability of the surface to reflect, transmit, or ABSORB the sun's rays.  In the case of HYDROPOWER devices, the angle between the water intake and a line perpendicular to the BUCKETS.
- F - angle d'incidence
- S - angulo incidente
INCIDENT RADIATION (sol) (meas). The quantity of RADIANT ENERGY striking a surface per unit time and unit area.
- F - rayonnement incident
- S - radiacion de incidencia
INDIAN-TYPE DIGESTER (biocon). A BIOGAS DIGESTER primarily designed to produce METHANE. These digesters usually have FLOATING GAS CAPS.
- F - digesteur type indien
- S - digestor de tipo indio
INDIRECT CONVERSION (sol). The indirect use of SOLAR ENERGY from such sources as solar-produced winds, thermal currents in air and water, and wave action.
- F - conversion indirecte
- S - conversion indirecta
INDIRECT SOLAR ENERGY (sol). A system in which SOLAR ENERGY is COLLECTED and used through mechanical means.
- F - energie solaire indirecte
- S - energia solar indirecta
INDIRECT SOLAR GAIN (sol) . A PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING system in which heat is stored between the COLLECTING and the distributing surfaces (e.g., TROMBE WALL).
- F - apport solaire indirect
- S - ganancia solar indirecta
INDIRECT SOLAR HEATING (sol). A method of solar heating in which SOLAR RADIATION is COLLECTED in FLAT PLATE or CONCENTRATING COLLECTORS that are mounted on a roof, a wall, or apart from a building. Pumps or fans are used to circulate HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS through the collectors and then back to a heat storage medium.
- F - chauffage solaire indirect
- S - calefaccion solar indirecta
INDUCTION MOTOR (elec) (wind). A common type of motor, which, when modified slightly and driven by the rotary action of a WINDMILL or TURBINE, provides ALTERNATING CURRENT (ac).
- F - moteur a induction
- S - motor de induccion
INFILTRATION (heat). The unchecked movement of outdoor air into a building through cracks around windows and doors or in walls, roofs, and floors. Infiltration generally refers to cold air during the winter and hot air during the summer.
- F - infiltration
- S - infiltracion
INFLUENT (biocon). BIOMASS mixed with water for use in a BIOGAS DIGESTER.
- F - affluent
- S - influente
INFRARED RADIATION (sol). Electromagnetic RADIATION from the sun or a warm body that has wavelengths longer than the red end of the visible spectrum. Infrared radiation is experienced as heat.
- F - radiation infrarouge
- S - radiacion infraroja
INOCULATION (biocon). Adding a SEED of ANAEROBIC BACTERIA to a BIOGAS GENERATOR.
- F - inoculation
- S - inoculacion
INOCULUM (biocon). A sample of partially DIGESTED SLURRY, and its associated BACTERIA, that is added at the start of DIGESTION to a BIOGAS DIGESTER. It provides sufficient micro-organisms for the digestion process to proceed at a satisfactory rate. Without this seeding, there generally is a prolonged wait before a digester begins producing gas. (Syn: seed)
- F - inoculum
- S - inoculum
INSOLATION (sol). The rate at which ENERGY from the sun reaches the Earth's surface. Insolation generally is measured in BTU/square feet (meters)/day.
- F - insolation
- S - insolacion
INSULATED STEAM COOKER (sol). A small, insulated cooking box in which steam acts as the heating agent. Water heated to steam by a SOLAR COLLECTOR flows into the box, condenses, and drips back into the COLLECTOR.
- F - rechaud a vapeur isole
- S - cocinilla aislada de vapor
INTEGRATED HEATING (sol). A method of SOLAR HEATING in which SOLAR RADIATION is intercepted and absorbed by a massive exterior wall or roof pond, which usually doubles as a heat storage container. Heat flows to the rooms by CONDUCTION, or natural CONVECTION. This is a form of PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING.
- F - chauffage integre
- S - calefaccion solar integrada
INTEGRATED SYSTEM (biocon). A system in which the outputs of one activity are used as inputs in other related activities. For example, a BIOGAS system in which the EFFLUENT is used as a nutrient to enrich an aquaculture environment. In exchange, BIOMASS from the aquaculture may be used as INFLUENT to the DIGESTER.
- F - systeme integre
- S - sistema integrado
INVERTER (elec) (wind). A device that converts DIRECT CURRENT (dc) to ALTERNATING CURRENT (ac). It often is used with WIND GENERATORS.
- F - onduleur
- S - invertidor
IRRIGATION WHEEL (hydr). (See: NORIA)
- F - roue hydraulique d'irrigation
- S - rueda de irrigacion
ISOLATED SOLAR GAIN (sol). A PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING system in which heat is collected in one area to be used in another. (See also: SOLAR GREENHOUSE)
- F - apport solaire isole
- S - ganancia solar aislada
JACKET (prod) (impl). An enclosure around a PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR through which cooling liquid flows. (See also: WATER JACKET)
- F - chemise d'eau
- S - cubierta
JET (auto) (hydro). A nozzle of a specific size that limits the FLOW of water to a TURBINE or the flow of fuel in a CARBURETOR.
- F - gicleur
- S - lanza
JET STREAM (wind). Strong winds concentrated in a relatively narrow, shallow stream in the upper troposphere.
- F - jet-stream
- S - manga de aire
JIB SAILS (wind) (arc). Triangular COMMON SAILS, set on radiating SPARS.
- F - clinfoc
- S - aspas triangulares
JOULE (meas). A unit of ENERGY or work equal to one WATT per second or 0.737 foot pounds.
- F- Joule
- S- Joule
JOULE'S LAW (gen) (heat). The law stating that:  The rate at which heat is produced by a steady current in any part of an electric circuit is jointly proportional to the resistance and to the square of the current.  The internal ENERGY of an ideal gas depends only on its temperature regardless of volume and pressure.
- F - loi de Joule
- S - ley de Joule
JUMPER (elec). A length of wire, usually with clips on each end, for making temporary electrical connections.
- F - fil volant
- S - puente
KAPLAN TURBINE (hydr). A propeller-type of WATER TURBINE with variable pitch BLADES that adjust automatically in accordance with the HEAD.
- F - turbine de Kaplan
- S - turbina Kaplan
KENAF (biocon). An annual East Indian plant, which may be used effectively in BIOGAS production.
- F - kenaf
- S - hibiscus cannabinus
KILN (heat). A high temperature oven, furnace, or heated enclosure used to process a substance by burning, firing, or drying. Kilns often are described by the direction that air passes through them (i.e., UPDRAFT or DOWNDRAFT).
- F - four
- S - horno
KILOWATT (elec). A unit of POWER equal to 1,000 WATTS or to ENERGY consumption at a rate of 1,000 JOULES per second. It is usually used as a measure of electrical energy. Commonly abbreviated as kW.
- F - kilowatt
- S - kilovatios
KILOWATT HOUR (elec) (meas). A unit of POWER consumption equal to the amount of power multiplied by the amount of time the power is used. A 100-watt light bulb burning for 10 hours uses one kilowatt-hour of power.
- F - kilowattheure
- S - kilovatio-hora
KINETIC ENERGY (gen). The ENERGY that a body possesses by virtue of its motion.
- F - energie cinetique
- S - energia cinetica
KNOT (wind). A measure of WIND SPEED equal to one nautical mile per hour. One knot equals 1.15 miles per hour.
- F - noeud
- S - nudo
LANGLEY (sol) (meas). A unit of SOLAR RADIATION intensity, equal to 1.0 gram CALORIE per square centimeter.
- F - langley
- S - langley
LATITUDE (gen) (meas). An angular position north or south of the equator, measured in degrees along a meridian of a point.
- F - latitude
- S - latitud
LEADING EDGE (wind). The vertical edge of a WINDMILL BLADE that lies on the side towards which the blade moves. The opposite edge is called the TRAILING EDGE.
- F - arete avant
- S - borde anterior
LIFE-CYCLE COSTING (gen) (meas). A method for estimating the comparative costs of ALTERNATIVE ENERGY or other systems. Life-cycle costing takes into consideration such long-term costs as ENERGY consumption, maintenance, and repair.
- F - evaluation du cycle de vie
- S - calculo del coste de la vida util
LIFT (wind). The aerodynamic force that "pulls" the BLADES of a WINDMILL and causes them to rotate.
- F - portance
- S - impulsion
LIFT COEFFICIENT (wind) (meas). The ratio of LIFT forces to FLOW forces.
- F - coefficient de portance
- S - coeficiente de impulsion
LIFT-TYPE DEVICES (wind). WIND MACHINES that provide aerodynamic LIFT in a wind stream.
- F - eoliennes a portance
- S - aparatos impulsores
LIME (chem). A white powder composed of calcium oxide that forms a highly ALKALINE solution when mixed with water. It is used in various ways, including as a means to increase the pH (POTENTIAL HYDROGEN) of MASH in ALCOHOL STILLS or BIOGAS DIGESTERS.
- F - chaux
- S - cal
LIME KILN (chem). A KILN used to make LIME from coral or limestone.
- F - four a chaux
- S - horno de cal
LIMEWATER (biocon) (chem). A CALCIUM HYDROXIDE solution often used as a gas SCRUBBER.
- F - eau de chaux
- S - agua de cal
LINED FIREBOX (gen). A firebox fitted with special insulating material.
- F - chambre de combustion garnie
- S - caja de fuego revestida
LIQUID-BASED SOLAR HEATING SYSTEM (sol). A SOLAR HEATING system in which a liquid HEAT TRANSFER MEDIUM is heated in SOLAR COLLECTORS. The liquid generally is either water or an antifreeze solution.
- F - chauffage solaire a liquide, systeme de
- S - sistema de energia solar a base de liquidos
LIQUID SLURRY (biocon). SLURRY comprising less than 10 percent solid material.
- F - boue liquide
- S - fango liquido
LIQUID-TYPE COLLECTOR (sol). (See: LIQUID-BASED SOLAR HEATING SYSTEM)
- F - capteur a liquide
- S - colector de tipo liquido
LIVE CURB (wind) (arc). The circular timber rim or wall plate supporting a WINDMILL CAP that revolves on ROLLERS or WHEELS.
- F - chemin de roulement
- S - soporte movil
LOAD (elec) (meas). The output of one or several electric machines or transformers. Load also denotes the POWER carried by a particular circuit.
- F - charge
- S - carga
LOADING RATE (biocon) (meas). The amount of BIOMASS added to a DIGESTER over a specific period of time.
- F - taux de charge
- S - velocidad de carga
LOLLY AXIS (wind). (See: YAW AXIS)
- F - axe de lacet
- S - eje de relingar
LORENA STOVE (biocon). An inexpensive, yet efficient, cook stove made of a sand, clay, and water mixture known as "lorena."
- F - cuisiniere lorena
- S - estufa lorena
LOW HEAD TURBINE (hydr). A WATER TURBINE that is designed to function with a low HEAD.
- F - turbine pour chutes faibles
- S - turbina de poco desnivel
LUFF (wind). To turn the BLADES of a WINDMILL into the wind so they will rotate.
- F - lofer
- S - cenir el viento
MAGNESITE BRICK (constr) (sol). A masonry brick to which magnesium or similar material has been added to darken the color of the brick and increase its THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY and ABSORPTANCE.
- F - brique a la magnesite
- S - ladrillo de magnesita
MAGNETO (elec). A small, permanent-magnet, electric GENERATOR capable of producing periodic high voltage impulses.
- F - magneto
- S - magneto
MAGNOUS EFFECT (wind). An effect whereby a spinning CYLINDER exposed to the wind produces a horizontal force. This effect has been used to enable experimental WIND MACHINES to POWER small boats.
- F - effet magnus
- S - efecto de fuerza horizontal
MALT (alc). Sprouted grain that contains ENZYMES to convert STARCH to sugar. Special varieties of barley are frequently used to produce malt.
- F - malt
- S - malta
MANOMETER (biocon) (meas). A device used to measure gas pressure. It may be used to monitor gas pressure in a BIOGAS DIGESTER.
- F - manometre
- S - manometro
MANTLE (biocon) (impl). A cloth MEMBRANE in which gases are collected and burned to create light through incandescence.
- F - manchon a incandescence
- S - manteleta
MARSH GAS (biocon). METHANE. Decaying ORGANIC MATTER at the bottom of a marsh or pond will produce bubbles of methane gas when stirred.
- F - gaz des marais
- S - gas de los pantanos
MASH (alc). A mixture of water and crushed grains or other FEEDSTOCKS that can be FERMENTED to produce ETHANOL.
- F - mout
- S - mezcla
MASH COMPOSITION (alc). The materials making up the MASH in an ALCOHOL STILL.
- F - composition du mout
- S - malta empastada
MASONITE (constr). Trademark name for a thin board made of compressed wood fibers. It is useful as a backing for SOLAR REFLECTORS.
- F - masonite
- S - masonite
MAXIMUM FLOW RATE (hydr) (meas). The maximum amount of water that can FLOW past a point during a given period of time. This measurement is used to evaluate the HYDROPOWER potential of a site.
- F - debit maximum
- S - velocidad maxima de flujo
MEADOW MILL (hydr). A small, untended WATERMILL used for drainage.
- F - moulinet de campagne
- S - molino de pradera
MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE (gen) (meas). The factor by which a machine multiplies any applied force.
- F - effet mecanique
- S - rendimiento mecanico
MECHANICAL TURBULENCE (wind). Erratic air movement caused by such obstructions as trees or buildings.
- F - turbulence mecanique
- S - turbulencia mecanica
MEGAWATT (elec) (meas). One million WATTS.
- F - megawatt
- S - megavatio
MEMBRANE (alc). A sheet polymer or thin biological tissue capable of separating liquid solutions. Membranes are sometimes used in the ALCOHOL DISTILLATION process.
- F - membrane
- S - membrana
MERIDIONAL WIND (wind). The wind or wind component along the local meridian.
- F - vent meridien
- S - viento meridional
MESOPHYLLIC BACTERIA (biocon). BACTERIA that thrive best at temperatures of 70-104 [degrees] F (21-40 [degrees] C) and are useful in producing BIOGAS.
- F - bacteries mesophyliennes
- S - bacteria mesofilica
METHANATION (biocon). A process of converting to METHANE the carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide present in synthetic gas.
- F - methanisation
- S - metanacion
METHANE (biocon) (chem). An odorless, colorless gas (C[H.sub.4]), nearly insoluble in water, which burns with a pale, faintly luminous flame to produce water and carbon dioxide (or carbon monoxide if oxygen is deficient). (See also: MARSH GAS) (Syn: BIOGAS)
- F - methane
- S - metano
METHANE CONVERSION (biocon). The production of METHANE through BIOCONVERSION.
- F - conversion du methane
- S - conversion de metano
METHANE DIGESTER (biocon). A device that converts BIOMASS into METHANE and Fertilizer through biological activity. (See also: BIOGAS DIGESTER)
- F - digesteur au methane
- S - digestor de metano
METHANE GAS (biocon) (chem). (See: METHANE)
- F - gaz de methane
- S - gas de metano
METHANE GENERATION (biocon). (See: BIOGAS DIGESTER)
- F - production du methane
- S - produccion de metano
METHANE PLANT (biocon). (See: BIOGAS DIGESTER; METHANE)
- F - generateur a methane
- S - instalacion de metano
METHANOGENIC BACTERIA (bio) (biocon). BACTERIA that generate METHANE (i.e., those that are responsible for the "second step" of DIGESTION). (See also: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION)
- F - bacteries methanogenes
- S - bacteria metanogenica
METHANOL (alc). A light, VOLATILE, flammable, poisonous liquid ALCOHOL (C[H.sub.3]OH) formed in the DESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION of wood or made synthetically. METHANOL is used especially as a solvent, antifreeze, or DENATURANT for ETHANOL, and in the synthesis of other chemicals. It is also used increasingly as a fuel. (Syn: methyl alcohol or wood alcohol)
- F - methanol
- S - metanol
METHYL ALCOHOL (alc). (See: METHANOL)
- F - alcool methylique
- S - alcohol metilico
MICROFLORA MICRO-ORGANISMS (bio) (biocon). The microscopic organisms, chiefly BACTERIA in this context, that are responsible for ANAEROBIC DIGESTION.
- F - micro-organismes de la flore microbienne
- S - microorganismos de microflora
MICROHYDRO (hydr). Small-scale, water-powered systems that may be used to produce mechanical POWER or less than 100 KILOWATTS of electricity. They commonly are used for homes, farms, or small industries.
- F - microcentrales hydrauliques
- S - microhidro
MILL (gen) (hydr) (wind). A device to grind grain and cereals. Also used colloquially to describe a WINDMILL, WATER WHEEL, or WATER MILL.
- F - moulin
- S - molino
MILL RACE (hydr). A CHANNEL that carries water to a WATER WHEEL.
- F - bief de moulin
- S - caz
MINIHYDRO (hydr). HYDROPOWER units that produce 100-1000 KILOWATTS.
- F - minicentrales hydrauliques
- S - minihidro
MINIMUM FLOW RATE (hydr) (meas). The least amount of water that will FLOW past a given point at any time. This measurement is used to help evaluate the HYDROPOWER potential of a site.
- F - debit minimum
- S - velocidad minime de flujo
MISCIBLE (chem). Capable of being mixed in any proportion.
- F - miscible
- S - miscible
MIXING TANK (biocon) (impl). A chamber in which BIOMASS is mixed with water to form SLURRY for a BIOGAS DIGESTER.
- F - reservoir de melange
- S - cuba de mezcla
MOLECULAR SIEVE (alc). A STILL COLUMN that separates molecules by selectively ADSORPING them on the basis of size.
- F - tamis moleculaire
- S - criba por accion molecular
MONOSACCHARIDE (alc). SUGAR derived from STARCH and CELLULOSE that can be converted to ETHANOL.
- F - monosaccharide
- S - monosacarido
MOUNTAIN AND VALLEY WINDS (wind). A system of daily winds prevailing in calm, clear weather along the width of a valley. The winds blow uphill and upvalley by day and downhill and downvalley by night.
- F - vents des monts et des vallees
- S - vientos de las montanas y aldeas
MULTIBLADE WINDMILL (wind). A WINDMILL that has a large number of BLADES. It generally is used to pump water.
- F - eolienne a ailes multiples
- S - molino de multiaspas
MULTIVANE WINDMILL (wind). A WINDMILL having more than one TAIL.
- F - eolienne a empennages multiples
- S - molino de multiples puntas
NACELLE (wind). The portion of a wind electric conversion machine that houses the electricity generating equipment.
- F - carter
- S - barquilla
NATURAL CONVECTION (heat). The natural CONVECTION of heat through the FLUID in a body that occurs when warm, less dense fluid rises and cold, dense fluid sinks under the influence of gravity. (Syn: gravity convection)
- F - convection naturelle
- S - conveccion natural
NET AREA (sol) (meas). The area of the opening of a SOLAR COLLECTOR, through which SOLAR RADIATION may pass.
- F - fenetre d'entree
- S - superficie neta
NET ENERGY CONSUMPTION (gen) (meas). (See: ENERGY CONSUMPTION)
- F - consommation nette d'energie
- S - consumo neto de energia
NIGHT SKY RADIATION (sol). A method of cooling through RADIANT ENERGY exchange. Relatively warm surfaces are exposed directly to the colder night sky to which they radiate the heat they collected during the day.
- F - rayonnement diffus nocturne
- S - radiacion del cielo nocturno
NIGHT SOIL (bio). Human excreta with or without flush water, which may be used as FEEDSTOCK for a BIOGAS DIGESTER.
- F - vidanges
- S - defecaciones humanas
NOCTURNAL RADIATION (sol). (See: NIGHT SKY RADIATION)
- F - rayonnement nocturne
- S - radiaciones nocturnas
NORIA (hydr) (arc). A vertical WATER WHEEL that is turned by water current. Containers attached to its rim LIFT water for irrigation.
- F - noria
- S - noria
OCEAN THERMAL GRADIENTS (oceans). The temperature difference between deep and surface water in the ocean. These temperature variations may be used as an ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCE.
- F - gradients de temperature oceaniques
- S - termogradientes oceanicos
OCEAN THERMAL POWER (ocean). ENERGY acquired from differences in temperatures at different depths in the ocean.
- F - energie thermique des mers
- S - termopotencia oceanica
OCEAN TIDAL POWER (ocean). The production of electricity by harnessing ocean tidal movements through the use of adjustable-BLADE WATER TURBINES or other devices.
- F - energie maremotrice
- S - energia oceanica
OFFSHORE WINDS (wind). Winds blowing seaward from the coast.
- F - vents de terre
- S - vientos terrales
OHM'S LAW (elec). The law stating that for any circuit the electric current is proportional to the voltage and inversely proportional to the resistance.
- F - loi d'ohm
- S - ley de ohmio
ONSHORE WINDS (wind). Winds blowing shoreward from the sea.
- F - vents du large
- S - vientos del mar
OPERATING FLOW (hydr) (meas). The FLOW rate needed by a HYDROPOWER device to operate at its rated LOAD level.
- F - debit nominal
- S - flujo de operacion
ORGANIC MATTER (gen). Materials of animal or vegetable origin.
- F - matieres organiques
- S - materia organica
ORGANIC WASTE (bio). Residues derived from living organisms. Organic wastes may be used as FEEDSTOCK for BIOGAS DIGESTERS. (See also: BIOMASS)
- F - dechets organiques
- S - desperdicios organicos
ORIENTATION (sol). The arrangement of windows on a building or solar device along a given AXIS to face in a direction best suited to absorb SOLAR RADIATION. This is an essential element in planning PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING systems for homes and other buildings.
- F - exposition
- S - orientacion
OSMOSIS (gen). The process by which a solvent is DIFFUSED through a semipermeable MEMBRANE into a more CONCENTRATED solution.
- F - osmose
- S - osmosis
OVERFLOW WEIR (hydr). (See: WEIR)
- F - deversoir de trop-plein
- S - vertedero de superficie
OVERSHOT WATER WHEEL (hydr). A WATER WHEEL powered by a HEADRACE that discharges over the outer circumference of the wheel. (Syn: overshot gravity wheel)
- F - roue en dessus
- S - rueda hidraulica de admision superior
PACKED COLUMN (alc). A type of STILL COLUMN or pipe that is used in ALCOHOL DISTILLATION. It is filled with such material as metal filings, plastic, or glass beads. Packed columns increase ALCOHOL yields by providing continuous redistillation of the ALCOHOL VAPOR as it moves up the still column.
- F - colonne garnie
- S - columna compacta
PANEMONE (wind). A VERTICAL-AXIS WIND MACHINE, generally a DRAG-TYPE WIND MACHINE, that can react to winds from any direction.
- F - panemone
- S - molino de eje vertical
PARABOLA (sol). The geometrically-curved shape used in the design of SOLAR COOKERS to focus sunlight on a single point. A parabola is based on a family of quadratic curves.
- F - parabole
- S - parabola
PARABOLIC CONCENTRATING COOKER (sol). A SOLAR COOKER that uses a PARABOLIC DISH to focus sunlight.
- F - cuiseur solaire a miroir concave
- S - cocina parabolica concentrante
PARABOLIC DISH (sol). A SOLAR ENERGY device shaped like a dish or bowl, with the characteristics of a PARABOLA. It focuses sunlight on a point or a very small area.
- F - parabolique solaire
- S - plato parabolico
PARABOLIC MIRROR (sol). A device with a large, shiny, curved surface that focuses SOLAR RADIATION on a specific point, such as a cooking vessel, for heating or boiling.
- F - miroir parabolique
- S - espejo parabolico
PASCAL'S LAW (gen). The law stating that pressure applied to a confined FLUID at any point is transmitted throughout the fluid in all directions. The pressure acts upon every part of the confining vessel at right angles to its interior surfaces, acting equally upon equal areas.
- F - loi de Pascal
- S - ley de Pascal
PASSIVE SOLAR DESIGN (sol). An architectural design that makes use of the structural elements of a building to heat or cool spaces in the building.
- F - systeme solaire passif
- S - diseno solar pasivo
PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING (sol). The SOLAR HEATING of a building by use of architectural design, without the aid of mechanical equipment.
- F - chauffage solaire passif
- S - calefaccion solar pasiva
PATENT SAIL (wind) (arc). A SAIL fitted with SHUTTERS that are controlled automatically.
- F - aile a volets
- S - aspa patente
PATHOGENIC ORGANISM (bio). (See: PATHOGENS)
- F - organisme pathogene
- S - organismos patogenicos
PATHOGENS (bio). Harmful micro-organisms, such as BACTERIA and viruses. Pathogens may be found in human, animal, and other wastes, and help spread disease.
- F - microbes pathogenes
- S - patogenos
PEAK WATT (sol) (meas) (elec). Unit used for the performance rating of PHOTOVOLTAIC CONVERTERS. A system rated at one peak watt will deliver one WATT at the specified working voltage under peak SOLAR IRRADIATION.
- F - watt-crete
- S - vatio maximo
PEAT (bio) (biocon). Partially decomposed ORGANIC MATTER formed in marshes and swamps. Dried peat is useful as a fuel.
- F - tourbe
- S - turba
PEBBLE BED (sol). A large bin of uniformly-sized pebbles that is used to store heat in SOLAR HEATING or SOLAR COOLING systems. A pebble bed is one type of HEAT SINK.
- F - lit de galets
- S - lecho de gravilla
PEDAL POWER (gen). Mechanical or electrical POWER generated by the use of a bicycle-gearing apparatus. Pedal power may be used for buffing, lathing, grinding grain or meat, operating a potter's wheel, driving a small GENERATOR, turning a sharpening stone, operating a corn sheller, and other applications.
- F - energie par pedalier
- S - potencia generada por pedal
PEDAL-POWER UNIT (impl). (See: PEDAL POWER; DYNAPOD)
- F - appareil a entrainement par pedales
- S - unidad de potencia-pedal
PELTON WHEEL (hydr). An IMPULSE WATER TURBINE in which the pressure of the water supply is concentrated through a few stationary nozzles. The JETS of water strike the BUCKETS, which are mounted on the RUNNER. Pelton wheels usually are limited to installations with HEADS that exceed 500 feet, or about 160 meters. (Syn: Pelton turbine)
- F - roue Pelton
- S - rueda Pelton
PENSTOCK (hydr). A water conduit from a DAM to a TURBINE or WATER WHEEL. (See also: CHANNEL)
- F - conduite forcee
- S - paradera de caz
pH (chem) (meas). Potential hydrogen. The symbol that denotes a measurement of the effective hydrogen ion CONCENTRATION. On a scale of 0 to 14, 7 represents neutrality. Numbers less then 7 indicate increasing ACIDITY. Numbers greater than 7 indicate increasing ALKALINITY of a solution.
- F - pH
- S - pH
PHOTOMETER (sol) (meas). A device that measures the intensity of light.
- F - photometre
- S - fotometro
PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAY (sol). A number of PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES that are electrically connected in a series and/or in parallel so as to provide the desired POWER and voltage. The modules are mounted on a sturdy framework that generally faces the equator. The array may be tailored to the requirements of a particular application and location. Such an array is valuable because it can generate electricity from sunlight without the use of moving mechanical parts.
- F - chapelet de photopiles
- S - conjunto fotovoltaico
PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL (sol). A SOLAR ENERGY device that changes light into electrical ENERGY. The cell is a small square or circular wafer made of treated SILICON or other semiconductor material.
- F - cellule photovoltaique
- S - celula fotovoltaica
PHOTOVOLTAIC CONVERTER (sol). (See: PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL)
- F - convertisseur photovoltaique
- S - convertidor fotovoltaico
PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE (sol). The basic building block of a PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAY, which consists of a number of interconnected SOLAR CELLS.
- F - module photovoltaique
- S - modulo fotovoltaico
PHOTOVOLTAIC PANEL (sol). (Syn: PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE)
- F - panneau photovoltaique
- S - panel fotovoltaico
PHOTOVOLTAIC PROCESS (sol). A process by which light rays are converted directly into electrical ENERGY.
- F - conversion photovoltaique
- S - proceso fotovoltaico
PITCH (wind) (meas). The angle between the BLADE surface and the ANGLE OF ATTACK in a WINDMILL.
- F - pas
- S - paso
PITCH-BACK WATER WHEEL (hydr). An OVERSHOT WATER WHEEL in which the trough carrying water to the wheel is modified to discharge onto the near side of the wheel, thus reversing the normal direction of rotation.
- F - roue hydraulique a jet inverse
- S - rueda hidraulica de engranaje
PIT KILN (heat). A KILN made from a hole that is dug in the ground.
- F - four en terre
- S - horno de foso
PLUG FLOW GENERATOR (biocon) (impl). A BIOGAS DIGESTER with no mechanical agitation through which the SLURRY passes along in more or less discrete "plugs," creating a cycle of "first in-first out." The EFFLUENT is then theoretically composed only of older slurry. The plug flow design differs from traditional designs, in which all slurry is purposely mixed together in a single pit or tank.
- F - generateur a effet bouchon
- S - generador de flujo
POLL ENDS (arc) (wind). (See: CANISTER)
- F - bouts de mats
- S - puntas
POLYSACCHARIDE (chem). (See: STARCH)
- F - polysaccharide
- S - polisacarido
POLYURETHANE FOAM (constr). A very lightweight plastic or other synthetic insulating material.
- F - mousse de polyurethanne
- S - espuma de poliuretano
POLYVINYL ACETATE (chem) (sol). A clear plastic made of CELLULOSE ACETATE and used as GLAZING on SOLAR COLLECTORS.
- F - acetate de polyvinyle
- S - acetato de polivinilo
PONCELET WHEEL (hydr). An UNDERSHOT WATER WHEEL made with curved metal BLADES.
- F - roue Poncelet
- S - rueda hidraulica Poncelet
POST MILL (wind) (arc). This is the earliest type of European WINDMILL. The body of the windmill is balanced on a large post and trestle. The entire body revolves to turn the BLADES into the wind.
- F - moulin pivot
- S - molino de poste
POTENTIAL HYDROGEN (chem) (meas). (See: pH)
- F - potentiel d'hydrogene
- S - potencial de hidrogeno
POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH (meas). A measurement of gas pressure. Commonly abbreviated as psi.
- F - livres par pouce carre
- S - libras/[pulgada.sup.2]
POWER (gen). The rate at which ENERGY is consumed or produced.
- F - puissance
- S - potencia
POWER COEFFICIENT (wind) (meas). The ratio of the POWER extracted by a WIND MACHINE ROTOR to the power available in a wind stream.
- F - coefficient de puissance
- S - coeficiente de potencia
POWER DENSITY (wind) (meas). The amount of POWER per unit of a cross-sectional area of a wind stream.
- F - puissance volumique
- S - densidad de potencia
PRECULTURE (alc). A method for reducing the time and increasing the EFFICIENCY of FERMENTATION. The preculture process involves CONCENTRATING the ALCOHOL-producing YEAST before introducing it into the FERMENTATION TANK.
- F - preculture
- S - precultivo
PREPARED ORGANIC WASTE (biocon). BIOMASS mixed with water for use in a BIOGAS DIGESTER. (Syn: SLURRY)
- F - dechets organiques prepares
- S - desperdicio organico preparado
PREVAILING WIND (wind). The direction from which the wind blows most often. This is an important consideration in selecting a site for a WINDMILL.
- F - vent dominant
- S - viento dominante
PRODUCER GAS (prod). A combination of COMBUSTIBLE GASES created through the combustion of wood or coal in a controlled-air environment. Producer gas may be used to drive gasoline or diesel engines.
- F - gaz de gazogene
- S - gas pobre
PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR (gen). A furnace in which COMBUSTIBLE GASES are produced for use as a fuel.
- F - gazogene
- S - generador de gas pobre
PROOF (alc) (meas). A unit measurement of the strength of ALCOHOL. The proof is twice the percentage of the alcohol in the liquid. Alcohol that is 90 proof contains 45 percent alcohol. (See also: PROOF-GALLON)
- F - degre en alcool
- S - graduacion normal
PROOF-GALLON (alc) (meas). A standard U.S. gallon of a mixture that is 50 percent ALCOHOL and 50 percent water (i.e., that is 100 proof). An alcohol/water mixture that contains a different ratio of each may be translated into proof-gallons by moving the decimal point of the proof two places to the left and multiplying by the total number of gallons of the mixture.
- F - proof-gallon
- S - proof-gallon
PSI (meas). Abbreviation for POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH.
- F - psi
- S - lb/[pulg.sup.2]
PYRANOMETER (meas) (sol). A device that measures total GLOBAL RADIATION.
- F - pyranometre
- S - piranometro
PYROHELIOMETER (meas) (sol). An instrument that measures SOLAR RADIATION from the sun, or from a small portion of the sky that surrounds the sun.
- F - pyroheliometre
- S - piroheliometro
PYROLYSIS (chem). The DECOMPOSITION of a substance subjected to very high heat.
- F - pyrolyse
- S - pirolisis
QUAD (meas). One quadrillion BTUs. It is expressed as either [10.sup.15] or 1,000,000,000,000,000 BTus. A quad is used to measure any large unit of energy such as wood, gasoline, coal, etc. For example, a quad can be used to describe the amount of THERMAL ENERGY that is potentially available from burning a certain acreage of trees in WOODSTOVES.
- F - quad
- S - cuad
QUARTERING (wind). The action of turning a WINDMILL broadside to the WIND.
- F - larguage
- S - venteo
RACE (hydr). An AQUEDUCT or CHANNEL that carries water to and from the place where it is used to drive a HYDROPOWER device.
- F - chenal
- S - canal de trabajo
RADIAL FLOW (hydr). A type of HYDROPOWER device in which the water flows out radially from the power shaft. (See also: FRANCIS TURBINE)
- F - ecoulement radial
- S - flujo radial
RADIANT ENERGY (sol). ENERGY in the form of electromagnetic waves that travels outward in all directions from its source.
- F - energie rayonnante
- S - energia radiante
RADIANT PANELS (sol). SOLAR COLLECTORS with integral passages for the FLOW of HEAT TRANSFER FLUID. Heat from the fluid is conducted into a room or building by THERMAL RADIATION.
- F - panneaux rayonnants
- S - paneles radiantes
RADIATION (sol). Electromagnetic waves that directly transport ENERGY through space. Sunlight is a form of radiation.
- F - rayonnement
- S - radiacion
RATED POWER CAPACITY (wind) (meas). The expected POWER output of a WIND MACHINE. It is equal to either the maximum power of the machine or to an output at some WIND SPEED less than the maximum speed, but at which GOVERNING controls start to reduce the power.
- F - puissance nominale
- S - capacidad de potencia tasada
RATED WIND SPEED (meas) (wind). The WIND SPEED at which a WIND MACHINE delivers its RATED POWER CAPACITY.
- F - vitesse nominale du vent
- S - velocidad eolica tasada
RATE LIMITING STEP (biocon). Whichever stage in the ANAERIOBIC process that is slowest. Since each step in the digestion process requires the preceeding one to be completed before it can begin, the overall gas production rate is limited by the slowest step.
- F - stage limitant la cadence
- S - etapa de velocidad limitadora
RAW SLUDGE (biocon). Fresh, undried, uncomposted EFFLUENT from a DIGESTER. Also residue in the same condition from the bottom of a digester.
- F - boues brutes
- S - cienos sin tratar
RAYLEIGH DISTRIBUTION (wind). Standard WIND SPEED DISTRIBUTION that is useful in wind site analysis. It is a probability density function that allows one to model the wind speed distribution based on a single input parameter. (See also: WEIBULL DISTRIBUTION)
- F - distribution de Rayleigh
- S - distribucion de Rayleigh
REACTION TURBINE (hydr). A WATER TURBINE that uses the mass or weight of water hitting the RUNNER as opposed to being driven by the velocity of the water.
- F - turbine a reaction
- S - turbina a reaccion
REACTION WATER WHEEL (hydr). A WATER WHEEL that uses the mass or weight of water falling onto it rather than the FLOW.
- F - roue hydraulique a reaction
- S - rueda hidraulica reactiva
RECIPROCATING ENGINE (hydr). A device that converts the potential ENERGY in a FLUID to mechanical energy by expanding the FLUID against a piston.
- F - moteur a pistons
- S - maquina alternativa
RECIPROCATING PUMP (wind). A type of water pump commonly used with WINDMILLS. Motion and pressure are applied to the water by a piston moving up and down in a CYLINDER. The piston is powered by the WINDMILL.
- F - pompe alternative
- S - bomba aspirante e impelente
RECLAIMED OIL (heat). (See: USED OIL)
- F - huile de recuperation
- S - aceite recuperado
RECOVERED ENERGY (gen). Heat or other ENERGY that normally would be lost during a process, but instead is captured and reused. For example, FLUE gases may be used for drying purposes.
- F - energie recuperee
- S - energia recobrada
RECTIFIER  (alc) (impl). A second column on an ALCOHOL STILL that is used to further remove water from the ALCOHOL VAPOR, thus increasing the PROOF of the alcohol. This increase in CONCENTRATION is achieved by the repeated interaction of the rising vapor with the liquid DISTILLATE.  (elec). A device that converts ALTERNATING CURRENT (ac) into DIRECT CURRENT (dc).
- F -  colonne de rectification;  redresseur
- S -  rectificadora;  rectificador
RECTIFYING COLUMN (alc) (impl). [See: RECTIFIER (alc)]
- F - colonne de rectification
- S - columna de rectificar
REDUCING SUGAR (alc). (See: MONOSACCHARIDE)
- F - sucre reducteur
- S - azucar reductora
REEFING (wind). Rolling and tying down a portion of a WINDMILL SAIL to reduce the area exposed to the wind.
- F - prendre les ris
- S - recoger las velas
REFLECTANCE (sol). The ratio of RADIATION reflected from a surface to that incident on the surface. [See also: REFLECTIVITY (2)].
- F - facteur de reflexion
- S - reflectancia
REFLECTED RADIATION (sol). SOLAR RADIATION that has been reflected from such surfaces as the ground or buildings, and which ultimately becomes INCIDENT RADIATION.
- F - rayonnement reflechi
- S - radiacion reflejada
REFLECTIVITY (sol) (meas).  The ability to reflect SOLAR RADIATION, which is possessed to some degree by all materials. It is called the ALBEDO in atmospheric references.  The ratio of RADIANT ENERGY reflected by a body to that falling upon it.
- F - pouvoir reflecteur
- S - reflectividad
REFLECTOMETER (sol) (meas). A PHOTOMETER or other electronic device that measures REFLECTANCE or RADIANT ENERGY.
- F - reflectometre
- S - reflectometro
REFLECTOR (sol). A device that can be used to reflect and focus SOLAR RADIATION.
- F - reflecteur
- S - reflector
REFLECTOR BACKING (sol). The material used on the rear part of a SOLAR REFLECTOR. (See also: MASONITE)
- F - renfort de reflecteur
- S - revestimiento reflector
REFLECTOR COOKER (sol). (See: REFLECTOR-TYPE SOLAR COOKER)
- F - cuiseur a reflecteur
- S - hornillo reflector
REFLECTOR-TYPE SOLAR COOKER (sol). A SOLAR COOKER in which a REFLECTOR concentrates the sun's rays on a cooking device.
- F - cuiseur solaire a reflecteur
- S - hornillo solar reflector
REFLUX (alc). Liquid ALCOHOL that is condensed in a DISTILLATION COLUMN, and then reintroduced into the column to increase its CONCENTRATION.
- F - reflux
- S - reflujo
REFRIGERANT (refrig). A VOLATILE substance that can be used as a working FLUID in a cooling system.
- F - refrigerant
- S - refrigerante
REFRIGERATION (refrig). The act or process of making or keeping something cool or cold. It especially applies to the use of artificial means for cooling.
- F - refrigeration
- S - refrigeracion
RENEWABLE ENERGY (gen). ENERGY produced from regenerative or virtually inexhaustible resources such as BIOMASS, SOLAR RADIATION, the wind, water, or heat from the Earth's interior.
- F - energie renouvelable
- S - energia renovable
RENEWABLE RESOURCES (gen). (See: RENEWABLE ENERGY)
- F - ressources renouvelables
- S - recursos renovables
RESISTANCE VALUE (constr) (meas). A rating of a substance's thermal resistance to summer HEAT GAIN or winter heat loss. It is used as a measure of insulation efficiency. (Syn: R-VALUE) (See also: U-VALUE)
- F - resistance thermique
- S - valor de resistencia
RETORT (alc) (gen).  A vessel in which substances are subjected to heat for the purpose of DISTILLATION or DECOMPOSITION. A retort is distinguished from a STILL in that it is more often used for the treatment of solid or semisolid substances.  A closed container used in CHARCOAL production in which COMBUSTIBLE GASES are captured and made into liquids, generally through CONDENSATION.
- F - cornue
- S - retorta
RETROFITTING (sol). The installation of SOLAR HEATING or SOLAR COOLING systems in existing structures.
- F - readaptation
- S - modificacion retroactiva
RETURN TIME (wind) (meas). The length of time during which low winds prevent a WINDMILL from reaching its CUT-IN SPEED or START-UP SPEED. The "down time" or time period when the wind is too low to enable a WINDMILL to reach its cut-in speed or start-up speed.
- F - temps mort
- S - tiempo de restablecimiento
REYNOLDS' NUMBER (meas) (sol) (wind). The ratio of material forces to VISCOUS forces in any FLUID FLOW. The Reynolds' number is determined through the following equation: (PVD)/U where:
- P (rho) = density
- V = velocity
- D = length of flow distance
- U (mu) = viscosity.
- F - nombre de Reynolds
- S - numero de Reynolds
RICE HUSK STOVE (biocon). A stove designed to use rice husks as its primary fuel.
- F - poele a paille de riz
- S - estufa de cascaras de arroz
RIGGING (wind) (impl). Collectively, all the ropes and cords used to support the mast of the WINDMILL, and to FURL or unfurl the SAILS.
- F - haubanage
- S - cordaje
RIPARIAN RIGHTS (hydr). The right of a landowner to the water on or bordering his or her property, including the right to prevent diversion or misuse of upstream water.
- F - droits de riverainete
- S - derechos riberenos
RISER (alc). A tube that penetrates a plate in a STILL COLUMN, allowing ALCOHOL VAPORS to move up the column. A perforated cap or cup is placed on top of each riser to distribute the vapor into the column section and to prevent water from dripping into the riser.
- F - colonne montante
- S - tubo de subida
RIVER GENERATOR (elec) (hydr). A HYDROELECTRIC GENERATOR that gets its power from a river or other FLOWING water.
- F - generateur riverain
- S - generador fluvial
ROCKBED (sol). A heat storage container filled with rocks or pebbles that is used in SOLAR HEATING and SOLAR COOLING systems.
- F - lit de pierres
- S - fondo de roca
ROCKBED COOLING SYSTEM (sol). A passive air-conditioning system that circulates a building's air through a bed of rocks that has cooled during the night or early morning.
- F - refroidissement par lit de pierres, systeme de
- S - sistema de enfriamiento con lecho de roca
ROCKER ARM (wind) (impl). A support mechanism that rotates on a shaft at one end while moving up and down at the other. It is used to convert the rotating motion of a WINDMILL to an up-and-down motion, usually for pumping.
- F - culbuteur
- S - balancin
ROLLER REEFING SAIL (wind) (arc). A ROTOR BLADE that is fitted with canvas strips (SAILS) wound on ROLLERS. The rollers are used for REEFING the sails.
- F - aile a rouleaux de prise de ris
- S - aspa con rodillos
ROLLERS (wind) (arc). BEARINGS between the CURB and the CAP of a TOWER MILL or SMOCK MILL. The rollers allow the top of the MILL to turn into the wind.
- F - rouleaux
- S - rodillos
ROTOR (wind). The assembly of SAILS or BLADES that rotate about an AXIS created by the WIND SHAFT of a WINDMILL.
- F - rotor
- S - rotor
ROTOR SHAFT (wind). (See: WIND SHAFT)
- F - arbre de rotor
- S - eje del rotor
RUNG (hydr) (wind).  The BLADES of a WATER WHEEL.  The transverse iron rods that hold the SAIL CLOTHS in a WINDMILL.
- F -  palette;  barreau
- S - paleta
RUNNER (hydr). The TURBINE wheel.
- F - roue de turbine
- S - rueda movil
R-VALUE (meas). (See: RESISTANCE VALUE)
- F - resistance thermique
- S - valor R
SACCHARIFICATION (alc). A conversion process using ACIDS, BASES, or ENZYMES in which CARBOHYDRATES are broken down into FERMENTABLE SUGARS. (See also: FERMENTATION)
- F - saccharification
- S - sacarificacion
SAIL (wind). A piece of cloth attached between each of the SPARS of a WINDMILL for the purpose of catching the wind. Also used to define windmill sails collectively.
- F - aile
- S - vela
SAIL BACK (wind) (arc). A single SPAR that replaces the STOCK and WHIP in WINDMILLS that are fitted with iron crosses instead of POLL ENDS.
- F - bras d'aile
- S - barra del aspa
SAILCLOTH (wind). Very strong cotton or canvas that may be used for SAILS on WINDMILLS.
- F - toile a voile
- S - lona
SAILWING WINDMILL (wind). A WINDMILL that has a small number of cloth SAILS. Sailwing windmills are usually simple designs, and are most commonly used for water pumping.
- F - moulin a volants
- S - molino de viento con vela de lona
SALT (chem). A product formed by the neutralization of an ACID by a BASE.
- F - sel
- S - sal
SANITATION/DIGESTER SYSTEM (biocon). A BIOGAS system that combines METHANE production with facilities to dispose of human excreta. This also is an effective way to eliminate dangerous PATHOGENS.
- F - systeme sanitaire/digesteur
- S - sistema de saneamiento/digestor
SAVONIUS ROTOR (wind). A WIND MACHINE with a VERTICAL AXIS, often made from split oil drums. It is a DRAG-TYPE device with relatively low EFFICIENCY, but with high starting TORQUE.
- F - rotor de Savonius
- S - rotor Savonius
SAWDUST STOVE (biocon). A stove designed to use sawdust as its primary fuel.
- F - poele a sciure de bois
- S - estufa de aserrin
SCOOP WHEEL (wind) (arc). A vertical, cast-iron wheel with wooden BLADES or scoops that lift water from one level to another. Scoop wheels usually are driven by WINDMILLS.
- F - roue a godets
- S - rueda de cangilones
SCRUBBING (biocon).  Removing unwanted gases from BIOGAS or PRODUCER GAS.  The process of removing an undesirable, and usually corrosive, component or components from a COMBUSTIBLE GAS mixture. This is done by passing the mixture upwards and counter to a stream of liquid that is capable of selectively ADSORBING the undesirable components. Gases can also be scrubbed by passing them through iron filings.
- F - epuration
- S - proceso de lavado
SCUM (biocon). In BIOGAS DIGESTION, a mixture of coarse, fibrous material floating on the surface of the SLURRY. The accumulation of scum may inhibit METHANE production.
- F - ecume
- S - nata espumosa
SCUM CONTROL DEVICE (biocon) (impl). A mechanism, usually some type of STIRRING device, that is used to break up the layer of SCUM that rises to the surface in a BIOGAS DIGESTER.
- F - dispositif pour le controle de l'ecume
- S - aparato controlador de la nata
SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS (gen). The law stating that ENERGY FLOWS from a higher CONCENTRATION to a lower concentration.
- F - seconde loi de la thermodynamique
- S - segunda ley termodinamica
SEED (biocon). (See: INOCULUM)
- F - germe
- S - semilla
SELECTIVE SURFACE (sol). A specially adapted surface coating for a COLLECTOR that has high SOLAR RADIATION ABSORPTANCE and low THERMAL EMITTANCE. It is used on the surface of ABSORBER PLATES to increase collector EFFICIENCY.
- F - vitrage selectif
- S - superficie selectiva
SELF-SUPPORTING TOWER (wind). A TOWER, usually made of steel, which supports a WINDMILL without the use of GUY WIRES.
- F - pylone autoporteur
- S - torre autoportante
SENSIBLE HEAT (heat). That heat, which, when added or subtracted, results only in a temperature change (as opposed to a chemical or other reaction).
- F - chaleur sensible
- S - calefaccion termosensible
SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE (heat). A heat storage medium in which the addition or removal of heat results only in a temperature change (as opposed to a chemical or other reaction). The storage medium often consists of water or gravel.
- F - stockage de chaleur sensible
- S - almacenaje termosensible
SHADING COEFFICIENT (sol) (meas). A method for determining reductions in solar HEAT GAIN caused by certain kinds of GLAZING. It is determined by dividing the solar heat gain through a sheet of glazing under specific conditions by the solar gain through a single-color DOUBLE-GLAZING under the same conditions. The lower the number, the greater the reduction in solar heat gain.
- F - coefficient de vitrage
- S - coeficiente de sombra
SHEAR (wind). Variations in horizontal WIND SPEED due to the distance of the wind from the ground. The higher the wind is above the ground, the faster it moves because of the reduced friction.
- F - cisaillement
- S - gradiente transversal de la velocidad del viento
SHOT CURB (wind) (arc). (See: LIVE CURB)
- F - chemin de roulement
- S - reborde movil
SHROUD (wind) (arc) (hydr).  A structure used to concentrate or deflect a stream of wind.  A deep rim partially enclosing the BUCKETS in OVERSHOT WATER WHEELS or BREAST WHEELS.
- F -  carenage;  bache
- S - refuerzo
SHROUDED WINDMILL (wind) (arc). A WINDMILL with a funnel-like structure around the outside edge of the SWEPT AREA that forces wind from a larger area to pass through the BLADES.
- F - eolienne carenee
- S - molino de viento reforzado
SHUTTERS (wind) (arc). Pivoting slats that are used instead of SAILCLOTH in SPRING SAILS and PATENT SAILS.
- F - volets
- S - hojas basculantes
SIEVE PLATE (alc). A component of an ALCOHOL STILL COLUMN. It is one of a series of perforated plates that is used to promote the contact of liquid with vapor in the column.
- F - plateau perfore
- S - placa perforada
SILICON SOLAR CELL (sol). A SOLAR CELL made with the crystalline element SILICON as part of its conductor.
- F - cellule solaire a la silicone
- S - celula solar de silicio
SILVICULTURAL BIOMASS (biocon). BIOMASS from trees.
- F - biomasse de sylviculture
- S - biomasa de silvicultura
SINGLE-AXIS TRACKING COLLECTOR (sol). A SOLAR COLLECTOR that follows the path of the sun on only one AXIS.
- F - capteur a poursuite du soleil autour d'un seul axe
- S - colector de seguimiento monoaxial
SINGLE SHUTTERED (wind) (arc). A SAIL having SHUTTERS on only one side of the WHIP.
- F - a obturation simple
- S - aspa de monohoja
SITE SELECTION (gen). The process of locating the best available site to build or place a WlND MACHINE, HYDROPOWER device, or SOLAR POWER device.
- F - choix du site
- S - seleccion del emplazamiento
SKY DOME (sol). The sky above the horizon in all directions, as seen from a particular area.
- F - dome du ciel
- S - domo aereo
SKYLIGHT (sol). A roof opening that is covered with GLAZING and that allows sunlight to enter a house or room.
- F - lucarne
- S - tragaluz
SKYSCRAPERS (wind) (arc). (See: AIR BRAKES)
- F - freins a vent
- S - rascacielos
SLOPE (hydr) (meas). A CHANNEL FLOW calculation equal to the number of feet a surface "drops" or inclines downward per 1,000 feet of horizontal distance; also expressed in meters of drop per kilometer.
- F - pente
- S - pendiente
SLUDGE (biocon). Solid material that collects at the bottom of a DIGESTER.
- F - boues
- S - sedimentos
SLUDGE GAS (biocon). An alternative name used for BIOGAS, particularly when the gas is produced by sewage.
- F - gaz de vidange
- S - gas de lodo
SLUICE (hydr). A manmade CHANNEL or waterway to conduct water to a HYDROPOWER device. It generally has one or more adjustable gates to regulate the FLOW of water.
- F - canal a vannes
- S - esclusa
SLUICEWAY (hydr). (See: SLUICE)
- F - chenal d'ecluse
- S - saetin
SLURRY (biocon). The semisolid material in a BIOGAS DIGESTER consisting of BIOMASS mixed with water.
- F - boue
- S - fango
SMOCK MILL (wind) (arc). The timber-framed counterpart to the TOWER MILL. The smock mill frame generally is covered with boarding to protect it from the weather.
- F - moulin a calotte pivotante
- S - molino a la holandesa
SMOKE CHAMBER (heat). The section in a fireplace FLUE that is directly above the DAMPER.
- F - conduite de fumee
- S - camara de humo
SODIUM CARBONATE (biocon). A BASE used to control pH (POTENTIAL HYDROGEN). It is useful in maintaining the pH balance in a BIOGAS DIGESTER, and to a somewhat lesser degree in ALCOHOL STILLS.
- F - carbonate de sodium
- S - carbonato de sodio
SOLAR ABSORBER (sol). A sheet of material, usually copper, aluminum, or steel that forms the surface of a SOLAR COLLECTOR. It collects and retains SOLAR RADIATION, which is passed to a HEAT TRANSFER MEDIUM.
- F - absorbeur solaire
- S - absorbente solar
SOLAR ABSORPTION (sol). The absorption of SOLAR RADIATION by a material.
- F - absorption solaire
- S - absorcion solar
SOLAR ALTITUDE (sol). The sun's angle above the horizon, as measured in a vertical plane.
- F- hauteur du soleil
- S- altura solar
SOLAR ARCHITECTURE (sol). (See: PASSIVE SOLAR DESIGN)
- F - architecture solaire
- S - arquitectura solar
SOLAR ARRAY (sol). A group of SOLAR COLLECTORS or PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES.
- F - panneau solaire
- S - conjunto solar
SOLAR AZIMUTH (sol). The horizontal angle between the sun and due south in the northern hemisphere, or between the sun and due north in the southern hemisphere. (Syn: bearing angle)
- F - azimut du soleil
- S - azimut solar
SOLAR BATTERY (sol). A BATTERY that is charged through PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS.
- F - pile solaire
- S - bateria solar
SOLAR CABINET DRYER (sol). (See: SOLAR CROP DRYER)
- F - chambre de sechage solaire
- S - secador solar de gabinete
SOLAR CELL (sol). (See: PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL)
- F - cellule solaire
- S - celula solar
SOLAR COATING (sol). FLAT BLACK PAINT or some other ABSORPTIVE substance that is applied to the ABSORBER PLATE of a SOLAR COLLECTOR to help it absorb, rather than reflect, sunlight.
- F - couche antireflet
- S - revestimiento solar
SOLAR COLLECTOR (sol). A device that gathers and accumulates SOLAR RADIATION to produce heat. Nearly all solar collectors have a layer of GLAZING on top to trap heat that has passed into the collector. Beneath the glazing is a solar ABSORBER PLATE, which transfers heat to a HEAT TRANSFER MEDIUM. The medium may be air, water, an antifreeze solution, or other substance(s).
- F - capteur solaire
- S - colector de radiacion solar
SOLAR COLLECTOR CONNECTIONS (sol). Inlets and outlets leading to and from SOLAR COLLECTORS and connecting the collectors with related apparatus. In the case of water tanks that run water through collectors, there will be an outlet near the bottom of the tank and an inlet near the top of the tank. Likewise, there will be an inlet near the bottom of the collector and an outlet near the top of the collector.
- F - raccordements pour capteurs
- S - conexiones del colector solar
SOLAR COLLECTOR EFFICIENCY (sol) (meas). The total SOLAR RADIATION that is incident on a COLLECTOR during a specific time period.
- F - rendement radiatif
- S - rendimiento del colector solar
SOLAR CONCENTRATOR (sol). The part of a SOLAR COLLECTOR that focuses sunlight onto an ABSORBER surface.
- F - concentrateur solaire
- S - concentrador solar
SOLAR COOKER (sol). A general term for the many types of SOLAR-POWERED cooking devices.
- F - cuiseur solaire
- S - cocina por calor solar
SOLAR COOLING (sol). A SOLAR SYSTEM used to lower the temperature in a room or a device.
- F - refroidissement solaire
- S - enfriamiento solar
SOLAR CROP DRYER (sol). An apparatus that uses SOLAR RADIATION to dry rice, grain, fruit, vegetables, or other foods.
- F - sechoir solaire pour recoltes
- S - secador solar para alimentos
SOLAR CROP DRYER (sol). An apparatus that uses SOLAR RADIATION to dry rice, grain, fruit, vegetables, or other foods.
- F - sechoir solaire pour recoltes
- S - secador solar para alimentos
SOLAR DECLINATION (sol). The angle of the sun north or south of the equatorial plane. It is plus if north of the plane, and minus if south of the plane.
- F - declinaison solaire
- S - declinacion solar
SOLAR DISH (sol). (See: PARABOLIC DISH)
- F - miroir solaire
- S - reflector parabolico
SOLAR DISTILLATE (sol). The product resulting from SOLAR DISTILLATION.
- F - distillat solaire
- S - destilado solar
SOLAR DISTILLATION (sol). A process in which SOLAR ENERGY is trapped and used to evaporate impure or salty water. The water vapor CONDENSES as distilled water that can be used for drinking or for other uses.
- F - distillation solaire
- S - destilacion solar
SOLAR DRYER (sol). Any device that uses SOLAR RADIATION to remove moisture from a substance. (See also: SOLAR CROP DRYER)
- F - sechoir solaire
- S - secador solar
SOLAR DRYING (sol). (See: SOLAR DRYER)
- F - sechage par energie solaire
- S - secado por energia solar
SOLAR ELECTRICITY (sol). Electricity that is produced from SOLAR ENERGY sources. (See also: PHOTOVOLTAIC PROCESS; PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL)
- F - electricite solaire
- S - electricidad solar
SOLAR ENERGY (sol). The electromagnetic RADIATION generated by the sun. Solar energy may be converted to useful forms of ENERGY through the PHOTOVOLTAIC PROCESS, THERMAL CONVERSION, or through high temperature concentrators and COLLECTORS. Solar energy initially is usually captured in the form of heat, and is therefore best used for a variety of heating purposes. This may be done through the use of SOLAR COLLECTORS and SOLAR COOKERS. SOLAR RADIATION may also be converted directly into electrical energy through the use of PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS.
- F - energie solaire
- S - energia solar
SOLAR EYEBALL (sol). A type of SOLAR CONCENTRATING COLLECTOR that uses a FRESNEL LENS to focus SOLAR RADIATION on a PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL.
- F - bulbe solaire
- S - foco solar
SOLAR FURNACE (sol). A SOLAR CONCENTRATOR used to produce very high temperatures. Also a solar device used to obtain high temperatures by focusing the sun's rays onto a small receiver.
- F - four solaire
- S - horno solar
SOLAR GAIN (sol). The part of a building's heat supply, or an additional load for cooling, that is provided by SOLAR RADIATION that strikes the building or passes into it through windows.
- F - apport solaire
- S - ganancia por la energia solar
SOLAR GRAIN DRYER (sol). (See: SOLAR CROP DRYER)
- F - sechoir solaire pour cereales
- S - secador solar de granos
SOLAR GREENHOUSE (sol). Specific greenhouse designs that take into account basic principles of PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING. Increasingly, solar greenhouses are being attached to dwellings. Excess heat from the greenhouse passes into the dwelling through air CONVECTION and THERMAL CONDUCTANCE from a mutual wall.
- F - serre solaire
- S - invernadero solar
SOLAR HEATING (sol). The use of a SOLAR SYSTEM to raise the temperature in a room or a device.
- F - chauffage solaire
- S - calefaccion solar
SOLAR IRRADIANCE (sol). The total amount of SOLAR RADIATION striking a given area.
- F - irradiation solaire
- S - irradiancia solar
SOLAR OVEN (sol). An oven that relies on SOLAR RADIATION as its source of ENERGY.
- F - four solaire
- S - horno solar
SOLAR POND (sol). A shallow body of salt water with a black or dark bottom. When incident SOLAR RADIATION penetrates the water, some of it is absorbed by the water. However, a large proportion of the radiation reaches the bottom of the pond. There it is absorbed, heating the bottom surface. The bottom surface in turn heats the water next to it, which then can be used as an ENERGY source through the use of HEAT EXCHANGERS. The pond's salinity should increase with its depth.
- F - bassin solaire
- S - charca solar
SOLAR POSITION (sol). The location of the sun in the sky during the EQUINOXES, based on the latitude of the observer. Solar position is determined by the value of the SOLAR ALTITUDE and the SOLAR AZIMUTH.
- F - position du soleil
- S - posicion solar
SOLAR POWER (sol). The rate at which SOLAR ENERGY falls on an area. The area is usually given in terms of the whole Earth.
- F - puissance solaire
- S - potencia solar
SOLAR PUMP (sol). A pump that operates on SOLAR ENERGY, either by a PHOTOVOLTAIC process or by a thermal system in which a FLUID heated by the sun drives a TURBINE or piston that powers the pump.
- F - pompe solaire
- S - bomba solar
SOLAR RADIATION (sol). RADIANT ENERGY received from the sun, from both direct exposure and diffuse or reflected sunlight.
- F - rayonnement solaire
- S - radiacion solar
SOLAR REFLECTOR (sol). A device that reflects SOLAR RADIATION.
- F - reflecteur solaire
- S - reflector solar
SOLAR REFRIGERATION (sol). A process in which SOLAR RADIATION is used to provide HEAT ENERGY to activate a cooling process.
- F - refrigeration solaire
- S - refrigeracion solar
SOLAR SALT (sol). SALT obtained by SOLAR DISTILLATION of salt water.
- F - sel solaire
- S - sal solar
SOLAR SHOWER (sol). A shower bath that uses a SOLAR WATER HEATER to provide hot water.
- F - douche solaire
- S - ducha solar
SOLAR SITE SELECTOR (sol) (meas). A circular transparency, similar to a map, that is used to determine solar positions and calculate shading.
- F - dispositif de selection de l'emplacement solaire
- S - selector del emplazamiento solar
SOLAR SPACE HEATER (sol). A SOLAR HEATING system that heats FLUID on a black metal surface that is under GLAZING. The heated fluid may be circulated during the day and stored at night.
- F - appareil de chauffage solaire individuel
- S - calentador espacial solar
SOLAR SPECTRUM (sol). The total distribution of electromagnetic RADIATION emitted from the sun. It is usually listed minus those wavelengths that are absorbed by the atmosphere. On Earth, this amounts to about 420 trillion KILOWATT HOURS of SOLAR POWER annually.
- F - spectre solaire
- S - espectro solar
SOLAR STEAM COOKER (sol). (See: INSULATED STEAM COOKER)
- F - autoclave solaire
- S - horno de vapor solar
SOLAR STILL (sol). A device used for SOLAR DISTILLATION.
- F - alambic solaire
- S - alambique solar
SOLAR SYSTEM (sol). Any heating, cooling, or POWER system that uses ENERGY generated by the sun.
- F - systeme solaire
- S - sistema solar
SOLAR WATER HEATER (sol). A water heater that depends on RADIANT ENERGY from the sun as its source of power.
- F - chauffage-eau solaire
- S - calentador de agua solar
SOLIDITY (wind) (meas). The ratio of the BLADE surface area to the SWEPT AREA of a ROTOR.
- F - coefficient de solidite
- S - solidez
SOLIDS RETENTION TIME (biocon) (meas). (See: DETENTION TIME)
- F - temps de retention des solides
- S - periodo de retencion de los solidos
SOLID WASTE (biocon). Waste material in a solid state, such as is found in households, commercial activities, municipal plants, etc. Many solid wastes are useful in BIOCONVERSION processes.
- F - dechets solides
- S - desperdicios solidos
SOLUBILIZATION (biocon). The first of three stages in the ANAEROBIC DIGESTION of ORGANIC MATTER, in which the complex proteins, CARBOHYDRATES, CELLULOSE, fats, and oils are dissolved by ENZYMES. This HYDROLYSIS transforms the complex compounds into simple amino ACIDS, simple sugars, fatty acids, and glycerol. The simple compounds are rendered into a form that is dissolved easily and can pass through the cell walls of the acid-forming BACTERIA to be FERMENTED.
- F - solubilisation
- S - solubilizacion
SPARK ARRESTER (impl). Screening, steel wool, or other porous substance(s) that is placed in the distribution pipes from a BIOGAS DIGESTER or PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR. They prevent a spark or flame from passing back up the pipe and causing an explosion.
- F - pare-etincelle
- S - parachispas
SPARS (wind). The frames extending from the WIND SHAFT of a WIND MACHINE to support the SAILS.
- F - bras 
- S -  largueros;  varillaje
SPECIFIC GRAVITY (gen). The ratio of the weight of a given volume of a substance to an equal volume of air or water at a given temperature and pressure. The specific gravity, which may be measured by a HYDROMETER, indicates the CONCENTRATION of a substance in a solution. (See also: PROOF).
- F - densite
- S - gravedad especifica
SPECIFIC SPEED (hydr) (meas). The speed at which a given type of RUNNER in a TURBINE would operate if it were reduced proportionately in size to produce one HORSE-POWER under a one-foot (30.48 centimeter) HEAD. This speed or velocity is expressed in revolutions per minute. It is used to determine the proper type of turbine to install at a HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT under given conditions.
- F - vitesse specifique
- S - velocidad especifica
SPENT MASH (alc). The semisolid MASH, without the ALCOHOL, following FERMENTATION and DISTILLATION.
- F - residu de distillation
- S - vinazas
SPENT SLURRY (biocon). (See: EFFLUENT)
- F - boue epuisee
- S - fango usado
SPILLWAY (hydr). A passage over or around a CHANNEL or DAM through which excess water may escape.
- F - deversoir
- S - vertedero
SPILLWAY APRON (hydr). (See: SPILLWAY)
- F - chenal du deversoir
- S - paramento del vertedero
SPILLWAY CHANNEL (hydr). (See: SPILLWAY)
- F - canal du deversoir
- S - canal vertedor
SPRING SAIL (wind) (arc). A WINDMILL BLADE fitted with SHUTTERS that are controlled by springs.
- F - aile a ressorts
- S - aspa de resorte
SQUARE WAVE (wind). A type of ALTERNATING CURRENT (ac), produced by low-cost, solid-state INVERTERS, which may be used for most, but not all, ac appliances.
- F - onde rectangulaire
- S - onda cuadrada
S-ROTOR (wind). see: SAVONIUS ROTOR)
- F - rotor de Savonius
- S - rotor S
STACK (constr). A CHIMNEY or other passageway designed to vent smoke from a stove, oven, furnace, etc.
- F - corps de cheminee
- S - canon
STACK EFFECT (heat). The impulse of a heated gas to rise through a vertical passage, such as a CHIMNEY.
- F - effet de cheminee
- S - efecto de humero
STACK GAS (heat). Gases resulting from combustion, which pass up a CHIMNEY.
- F - gaz de cheminee
- S - gases de la chimenea
STAGNATION (sol). The condition that may be reached in a SOLAR COLLECTOR when the sun is shining on the device and no FLUID is flowing through it. The resulting high temperatures may damage the COLLECTOR.
- F - stagnation
- S - estancacion
STARCH (alc) (chem). A white, tasteless, solid CARBOHYDRATE ([C.sub.6][H.sub.10][O.sub.5]). Starch is a major component of many agricultural crops, such as potatoes, grains, etc., that are used to produce GLUCOSE.
- F - amidon
- S - almidon
START-UP (biocon). The process of adding INOCULUM to a BIOGAS DIGESTER so that the digester will begin to function.
- F - mise en marche
- S - puesta en marcha
START-UP SPEED (wind) (meas). The WIND VELOCITY at which a WIND MACHINE begins to rotate.
- F - vitesse de mise en marche
- S - velocidad de puesta en marcha
STATIC HEAD (hydr). The vertical height from the surface of a body of water to the water outlet of the DISCHARGE PIPE of a TURBINE.
- F - hauteur d'elevation
- S - altura de elevacion
STATIONARY PEDAL POWER UNIT (gen). (See: PEDAL POWER)
- F - appareil stationnaire d'entrainement par pedales
- S - unidad de rendimiento del pedal inmovil
STEAM ENGINE (geo) (auto). An engine in which the mechanical force of steam is used as a motive POWER to drive machinery, etc.
- F - moteur A vapeur
- S - motor de vapor de agua
STEAM GAS (geo). Superheated steam that is used as an ENERGY source. Steam gas is usually obtained from GEOTHERMAL sources.
- F - vapeur surchauffee
- S - gas de agua
STEAM TURBINE (gen) (geo). A TURBINE that is driven by expanding steam or gas rather then by the velocity or weight of water.
- F - turbine a vapeur
- S - turbina de vapor
STILL (gen) (alc).  An apparatus for DISTILLATION that consists primarily of a closed vessel in which the solution to be distilled is heated. It also includes mechanisms to condense the vapor that is produced.  An ALCOHOL distillation unit that consists of a container to heat MASH, a DISTILLATION COLUMN to separate the water from the alcohol, and a CONDENSER to convert ALCOHOL VAPORS into liquid.
- F - alambic
- S - alambique
STILLAGE (alc). A mixture of non-FERMENTABLE SOLID WASTES and water that remains in a STILL after the ALCOHOL is removed by DISTILLATION. Stillage may be used as an animal feed.
- F - residus de distillation non-fermentable
- S - residuos
STILL CAP (alc). (See: BUBBLE CAP)
- F - calotte de barbotage
- S - casquete de alambique
STILL COLUMN(alc) (impl). A component of an ALCOHOL STILL that is used to separate ALCOHOL from the MASH and water. The still column consists of SIEVE PLATES, BUBBLE CAPS, and a DOWNCOMER.
- F - colonne de distillation
- S - columna de alambique
STIRLING ENGINE (auto). An external combustion engine in which air is alternately heated and cooled to drive a piston up and down. Hydrogen is used instead of air in some newer models. The Stirling engine may in some cases be nonpolluting and more efficient than the internal combustion engine.
- F - moteur de Stirling
- S - motor Stirling
STIRRING (biocon). Agitating or mixing the SLURRY in a BIOGAS DIGESTER. Stirring helps prevent SCUM buildup and promotes METHANE production.
- F - vaguage
- S - agitacion
STOCK (wind) (arc).  A bar that is used to support a WINDMILL SAIL.  A tapered SPAR that passes through the POLL END of a windmill, supporting a pair of sails. (Syn: sailstock)
- F - fut
- S - barra
STORAGE (gen). (See: ENERGY STORAGE)
- F - stockage
- S - almacenado
STORAGE CAPACITY (gen). The total amount of ENERGY that a system is capable of holding for use at a later time. (See also: ENERGY STORAGE)
- F - capacite de stockage
- S - capacidad de almacenado
STRATIFICATION (sol). In SOLAR HEATING, temperature variations that occur in a substance or an area. The highest temperatures are found higher up and cooler temperatures are found lower down.
- F - stratification
- S - estratificacion
STRIKING GEAR (wind) (arc). The mechanism used with PATENT SAILS to apply pressure to SHUTTERS. It consists of a striking rod that passes through the length of the WIND SHAFT. The rod is operated by an endless chain upon which weights are hung. The number of weights is determined by the force of the wind.
- F - embrayage
- S - engranaje de contacto
STRIPPING COLUMN (alc). The section of the STILL COLUMN in which the ALCOHOL CONCENTRATION in the DISTILLATE is increased and the starting solution is decreased. (Syn: beer column)
- F - colonne a desessencier
- S - columna de destilacion
SUBMERGED WEIR (hydr). An underwater obstruction that diverts water into a CHANNEL.
- F - barrage immerge
- S - vertedero sumergido
SUBSTRATE (bio) (biocon).  The particular FEEDSTOCK component that is used by bacteria to promote their growth and metabolism. The component often is one particular compound.  ORGANIC MATTER that is used to generate METHANE in a BIOGAS DIGESTER. (See: SLURRY)
- F - substrat
- S - subestrato
SUCROSE (alc) (chem). A FERMENTABLE SUGAR ([C.sub.12][H.sub.22][O.sub.11]) that is commonly found in nature.
- F - sucrose
- S - sucrosa
SUCTION ANEMOMETER (wind) (meas). A device that measures WIND VELOCITY according to the degree of exhaust caused when the wind is blown through or across a tube.
- F - anemometre a aspiration
- S - anemometro de succion
SULFURIC ACID (alc) (chem). A strong ACID that is used to increase the acidity, and thus lower the pH (POTENTIAL HYDROGEN), in an ALCOHOL STILL.
- F - acide sulfurique
- S - acido sulfurico
SUN ANGLE CALCULATOR (sol) (meas). A set of transparent curves and overlays that tells where the sun is in the sky and that gives other SOLAR ALTITUDES. (See: SOLAR SITE SELECTOR)
- F - calculateur d'angle solaire
- S - calculador del angulo solar
SUN BASKET (sol). A SOLAR COOKER in the shape of a deep PARABOLA. This cooker may be a woven basket lined with a reflective material.
- F - panier solaire
- S - cesto solar
SUN EFFECT (sol) (meas). The amount of heat from the sun that tends to heat an enclosed space.
- F - effet solaire
- S - efecto solar
SUN-TEMPERING (sol). A heating system that involves a significant daytime SOLAR GAIN and an effective distribution system, but which generally lacks a STORAGE function.
- F - dispositif de repartition de l'energie solaire
- S - atemperacion solar
SUN-TRACKING DEVICE (sol) (impl). A device attached to a SOLAR COLLECTOR that automatically turns the face of the collector towards the sun.
- F - dispositif de poursuite du soleil
- S - dispositivo de seguimiento solar
SUPERNATANT (biocon). The liquid portion of the SLURRY that floats above the SLUDGE in a BIOGAS DIGESTER.
- F - fraction surnageante
- S - sobrenatatil
SWASH PLATE (wind). A disk set obliquely on a rotating AXIS. It acts as a CAM to convert rotational movement into up-and-down movement.
- F - plateau oscillant
- S - plato oscilante
SWEEP (wind) (arc). (See: SAIL)
- F - balayage
- S - barrer
SWEPT AREA (wind) (meas). The area in a plane that is perpendicular to the wind through which a WINDMILL's BLADES pass. The area is defined by the circumference of the circle formed by the rotating blades, and is one factor in determining the amount of WIND POWER available from the wind.
- F - zone balayee
- S - area barrida
SWING POT (wind) (arc). A pivoting bearing that is sometimes used to support the WIND SHAFT of a WINDMILL.
- F - palier pivotant
- S - cojinete pivotante
SWORD POINT (wind) (arc). The amount that a SAILCLOTH is rolled up or REEFED to reduce its exposure to the wind. This term refers to the pointed end on a reefed SAIL. (See also: REEFING)
- F - prise de ris
- S - punto de recogida
SYNCHRONOUS INVERTER (elec) (wind). An electronic device that can be used with a WIND GENERATOR, to convert DIRECT CURRENT (dc) to ALTERNATING CURRENT (ac), but which must be powered by another ac source.
- F - inverseur synchrone
- S - convertidor sincronico
TABOR SURFACE (sol). A black nickel SELECTIVE SURFACE coating that typically absorbs 90 percent of the incoming SOLAR RADIATION but which radiates only about 10 percent as much radiation as would be emitted by a coat of FLAT BLACK PAINT.
- F - surface de tabor
- S - superficie tabor
TAIL (wind). A flat piece of sheet metal that is attached to the extension of the WINDSHAFT of a WINDMILL. The plane of the tail is normally perpendicular to the wind so the tail may intercept changes in wind direction and turn the ROTOR around to face the wind. (Syn: vane)
- F - empennage
- S - punta del aspa
TAIL POLE (wind) (arc). The projecting SPAR used to turn a WINDMILL that is not equipped with automatic WINDING gear.
- F - barre de queue
- S - saliente del aspa
TAILRACE (hydr). The discharging CHANNEL of a HYDROPOWER system. It is that section of a RACE that is downstream of a hydropower device.
- F - bief d'aval
- S - canal de descarga
TAILWATER (hydr). Water passing back into a discharging CHANNEL after being applied to a HYDROPOWER device.
- F - eau d'aval
- S - agua de descarga
TAILWATER LEVEL (hydr) (meas). The depth of the TAILWATER as measured at a reference point on its surface.
- F - niveau de l'eau d'aval
- S - nivel de la descarga
TAILWINDED (wind). The condition when a WINDMILL is caught by a sudden change in wind direction, which exerts pressure on the wrong side of the SAIL assembly.
- F - a vent arriere
- S - con viento de cola
THERMAL (gen). Having to do with the use or production of heat. Also any reaction caused by heat.
- F - thermique
- S - termico
THERMAL ADMITTANCE (heat) (meas). The total amount of BTUs that a square foot (929 square centimenters) of a surface will admit in one hour.
- F - admittance thermique
- S - admision termica
THERMAL COLLECTOR (sol). (See: COLLECTOR)
- F - capteur thermique
- S - colector termico
THERMAL CONDUCTANCE (heat) (meas). The amount of heat that will pass through a given amount of material in a given amount of time, and with a unit temperature difference maintained between the surfaces of the material under uniform and steady conditions.
- F - conductance thermique
- S - termoconductancia
THERMAL CONDUCTION (heat). Heat transfer by direct contact from one substance to another of a lower temperature.
- F - transmission de chaleur
- S - termotransmision
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY (heat) (meas). The ability of a material to conduct heat. It is commonly measured in units of THERMAL CONDUCTANCE.
- F - conductivite thermique
- S - termoconductibilidad
THERMAL EFFICIENCY (heat) (meas). A percentage that indicates the available heat that is converted to useful purposes. Thermal efficiency is used to evaluate wood-conserving stoves and numerous other devices.
- F - rendement thermique
- S - termorendimiento
THERMAL ENERGY (heat). ENERGY from heat.
- F - energie thermique
- S - termoenergia
THERMAL LAG (meas). The time required for the temperature of an area to reach that of an adjacent area, either by heating or cooling. For example, the time required for indoor air temperature to reach the cooler outside air temperature when there is no additional heat added to the house; or the time required for the inside surface of a TROMBE WALL to reach the temperature of the outside surface, which is exposed to the sun.
- F - retard thermique
- S - retardo termico
THERMAL MASS (gen). Material or mass of sufficient size and density to store heat. Thermal mass walls are often used in buildings that use PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING techniques and NIGHT SKY RADIATION. (See also: TROMBE WALL)
- F - masse thermique
- S - masa termica
THERMAL POWER (gen). Any type of ENERGY generated or developed through the use of HEAT ENERGY.
- F - puissance thermique
- S - termopotencia
THERMAL WINDS (wind). Winds that are caused by the heating of the ground by SOLAR RADIATION.
- F - vents thermiques
- S - vientos termicos
THERMOCOUPLE (meas) (impl). A device used to measure temperature. It is based on the principle that an electrical current is produced when two dissimilar wires are joined together and the junction is heated. Thermocouples are often used to measure temperatures at different levels in BIOGAS DIGESTERS, WOOD STOVES, KILNS, or other devices where use of a conventional thermometer would be difficult.
- F - thermocouple
- S - termopar
THERMOPHILLIC BACTERIA (biocon). BACTERIA that grow best in a temperature range between 122-131 [degrees] F (50-55 [degrees] C).
- F - bacteries thermophiles
- S - bacteria termofilica
THERMOSYPHON (sol). A CLOSED LOOP SYSTEM in which water automatically circulates between a SOLAR COLLECTOR and a water storage tank above it. A solar collector based on the THERMOSYPHON PRINCIPLE uses the natural difference in density between the warmer and cooler portions of a liquid.
- F - thermosiphon
- S - termosifon
THERMOSYPHON CIRCULATION (sol). (See: THERMOSYPHON PRINCIPLE)
- F - circulation de thermosiphon
- S - circulacion por termosifon
THERMOSYPHON EFFECT (sol). (See: THERMOSYPHON)
- F - effet thermosiphon
- S - efecto de termosifon
THERMOSYPHON PRINCIPLE (gen) (sol). The tendency of heated liquids to rise. In a SOLAR WATER HEATER, this principle is used to lift water from a SOLAR COLLECTOR to a storage tank above it without the use of a pump.
- F - principe du thermosiphon
- S - principio de termosifon
THIN STILLAGE (biocon). The water soluble fraction of FERMENTED MASH plus the mash water.
- F - residu dilue de distillation
- S - residuos liquidos
TIDAL ENERGY (ocean). The KINETIC ENERGY existing in the tides by virtue of the moving mass of water.
- F - energie des marees
- S - energia mareal
TIDAL POWER (ocean). Mechanical POWER generated by the rise and fall of ocean tides, which may be converted into electricity.
- F - puissance maremotrice
- S - fuerza mareal
TILT ANGLE (sol). The angle at which a SOLAR COLLECTOR is tilted upward from the horizon for maximum solar exposure and maximum heat collection.
- F - angle d'inclination
- S - angulo de inclinacion
TIME LAG (sol) (meas). (See: THERMAL LAG)
- F - retard
- S - tiempo de retardo
TIP SPEED (wind) (meas). The speed of the outer end or tip of a BLADE of a WINDMILL ROTOR. This speed may be faster than the rotation rate of the WIND SHAFT, and may be faster or slower than the actual WIND SPEED.
- F - vitesse peripherique
- S - velocidad de giro de las aspas
TIP SPEED RATIO (wind) (meas). The quotient of the TIP SPEED and the actual WIND SPEED.
- F - quotient de vitesse peripherique
- S - relacion de las velocidades de giro
TORQUE (gen). Any force that acts to produce rotation. The measured ability of a rotating part, such as a gear or shaft.
- F - couple
- S - par
TOTAL ENERGY HOUSE (gen). A house that is heated, cooled, and receives its cooking and lighting POWER, completely from ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES.
- F - maison a energie integrale
- S - casa energetica total
TOTAL SOLIDS (biocon) (meas). The proportion in weight of solids in a sample of SLURRY or other EFFLUENT (e.g. MASH).
- F - fraction solide
- S - solidos totales
TOWER (wind). The main supporting structure of a WIND MACHINE. Towers are usually made of wood or steel, and are suitably braced to withstand the stress to which they are subjected.
- F - pylone
- S - torre
TOWER MILL (wind) (arc). A WINDMILL made of masonry or brickwork, and usually fitted with a REVOLVING CAP.
- F - eolienne sur pylone
- S - molino de torre
TOXIN (bio) (biocon). A material that inhibits the growth and metabolism of or kills micro-organisms, often by interfering with the normal chemical or biochemical processes. A toxin may cause a BIOGAS DIGESTER to stop producing gas.
- F - toxine
- S - toxina
TRACKED PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAY (sol). A PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAY that follows the path of the sun across the sky.
- F - dispositif photovoltaique a poursuite solaire
- S - conjunto fotovoltaico de seguimiento
TRACKING (sol). Referring to adjustments that cause a SOLAR COOKER or a SOLAR COLLECTOR to "track" or follow the sun's path across the sky. Tracking is done either automatically or manually.
- F - poursuite du soleil
- S - seguimiento
TRACKING CONTROL (sol) (impl). (See: AUTOMATIC TRACKING)
- F - controle de la poursuite
- S - control del seguimiento
TRAILING EDGE (wind). The edge of a WINDMILL BLADE that lies on the side opposite the direction of rotation.
- F - arete arriere
- S - borde posterior
TRANSDUCER (gen). A device that converts ENERGY from one form into another (e.g., PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL).
- F - transducteur
- S - transductor
TRANSFER MEDIUM (sol). A substance that carries heat From a SOLAR COLLECTOR to a storage area or from a storage area to be warmed in a collector. Transfer mediums are usually either air, water, or antifreeze solutions.
- F - agent de transfert
- S - medio de transferencia
TRANSMITTANCE (sol) (meas). The ratio of the RADIANT ENERGY transmitted through a substance to the total radiant energy falling on its surface. Transmittance is always affected by the thickness and composition of the substance, as well as by the INCIDENT ANGLE.
- F - facteur de transmission
- S - transmision
TRASH RACK (hydr). A protective "screen" made of vertical bars that catches leaves, grass, and debris, keeping clear the intake of a HYDROPOWER device.
- F - grille pare-bois
- S - parrilla colectora
TREADLE MECHANISM (gen). (See: TREADLE POWER)
- F - mecanisme a pedale
- S - mecanismo de pedal
TREADLE POWER (gen). A use of foot POWER in which an up-and-down motion of the foot on a pedal produces a rotating motion on a machine.
- F - puissance de pedale
- S - energia producida por pedal
TREATED EFFLUENT (biocon). Discharge from a BIOGAS DIGESTER that has been rendered harmless by reducing the number of PATHOGENS in it. The treatment often consists of either drying or COMPOSTING the EFFLUENT.
- F - effluent traite
- S - efluente tratado
TROMBE WALL (constr) (heat) (sol). A masonry wall located directly inside windows that face the equator. The wall functions simultaneously as a structural element of the building and as a SOLAR COLLECTOR and HEAT STORAGE unit. (See also: THERMAL MASS)
- F - mur de trombe
- S - pared de trombe
TRUNION (impl) (wind). A pin or pivot that is mounted on BEARINGS to rotate or turn something. It usually is used as a WINDMILL component. (See also: TURNTABLE)
- F - tourillon
- S - munon
TUBE-IN-PLATE ABSORBER (sol). A metal ABSORBER PLATE with passages through which HEAT TRANSFER FLUID flows.
- F - absorbeur a tubes internes
- S - absorbedor con placa de tubos
TUBE-TYPE COLLECTOR (sol). A COLLECTOR in which the TRANSFER MEDIUM FLOWS through metal tubes fastened to an ABSORBER PLATE.
- F - capteur a tubes solidaires
- S - colector con tubos
TURBINE (gen). A device that converts the ENERGY in a stream of FLUID into mechanical energy. By passing the stream through a system of fixed and/or moving BLADES, a drive shaft is rotated.
- F - turbine
- S - turbina
TURBINE WHEEL (hydr). The part of a WATER TURBINE that is attached to a drive shaft, and which holds the BLADES or CUPS that cause the wheel to rotate when struck by a stream of steam or water. The wheel rotates the shaft to produce mechanical or electrical POWER. (Syn: RUNNER)
- F - roue de turbine
- S - rueda turbina
TURBULENCE (wind). Irregular motion and GUSTS in the WIND SPEED. (See also: MECHANICAL TURBULENCE)
- F - turbulence
- S - turbulencia
TURGO IMPULSE TURBINE (hydr). An improved version of the PELTON WHEEL in which the JET is set at an angle to the face of the RUNNER. Water strikes the front of the BUCKETS and discharges at the opposite side.
- F - turbine a impulsion turgo
- S - turbina de impulsion turgo
TURNAROUND EFFICIENCY (gen) (meas). The resulting EFFICIENCY when ENERGY is converted from one form to another and then changed back again into its original form or state.
- F - rendement aller-retour
- S - eficiencia resultante
TURNTABLE (wind). A rotating platform on which the ROTOR, ROTOR SHAFT, and TAIL of a WINDMILL may move to orient the BLADES or SAILS into the wind.
- F - plaque tournante
- S - plataforma giratoria
ULTRA-VIOLET RADIATION (sol). Electromagnetic RADIATION, usually from the sun, that consists of wavelengths that are shorter than the violet end of the visible spectrum.
- F - rayons ultra-violet
- S - radiacion ultravioleta
UNDERSHOT WATER WHEEL (hydr). A WATER WHEEL driven by water that strikes the underside of the wheel.
- F - roue en dessous
- S - rueda hidraulica de admision inferior
UNDIGESTED SOLIDS (biocon). Heterogenous BIOMASS, contained in either the SLURRY or EFFLUENT, which has not DECOMPOSED in a BIOGAS DIGESTER.
- F - solides non-digeres
- S - solidos sin digerir
UNGLAZED COLLECTOR (sol). A COLLECTOR without a cover.
- F - capteur non-vitre
- S - colector no vidriado
UPDRAFT (prod) (gen).  Referring to a PRODUCER GAS GENERATOR in which the air-gas mixture flows upward to the engine.  Any cooking or heating device (e.g., a KILN) in which air for CONVECTION or combustion flows upward through the device.
- F - tirage vers le haut
- S - corriente aerea ascendente
UPLONG (wind) (arc). A longitudinal bar in the BACKSTAY of a SAIL.
- F - barre longitudinale
- S - varilla longitudinal
UPWIND (wind).  On the same side as the direction from which the wind is blowing (i.e. , in the path of the oncoming wind).  A type of WINDMILL in which the ROTOR remains between the oncoming wind and the TOWER.
- F - vent de proue
- S - viento contrario
USED OIL (heat). Automotive or other lubrication oil, which is "used up" or no longer useful for its original purpose. If mixed with water at a ratio of five to one, and then dripped onto a heated metal sheet, used oil will burst into flames. This makes it useful as a fuel. (Syn: waste oil)
- F - huile epuisee
- S - aceite usado
USEFUL ENERGY GAIN (sol). The ENERGY absorbed by a SOLAR COLLECTOR that is not lost to the surrounding atmosphere and which may be used for space or water heating.
- F - gain energetique utile
- S - ganancia de energia util
USEFUL SOLAR HEAT (sol). Heat delivered by a SOLAR COLLECTOR that can be applied for cooking, heating, or other purposes.
- F - chaleur solaire utile
- S - calor solar util
USEFUL WATER CAPACITY (hydr) (meas). The volume of water that a reservoir can hold and usefully exploit, and which lies between the lowest and highest levels normally contained in the reservoir.
- F - capacite utile en eau
- S - capacidad aprovechable de agua
U-VALUE (heat) (meas). The amount of heat that FLOWS in or out of a substance under constant conditions, in one hour, when there is a one degree difference in temperature between the air inside and outside the building. U-value is the inverse of RESISTANCE-VALUE.
- F - valeur U
- S - valor U
VACUUM DISTILLATION (gen). DISTILLATION under reduced pressure. This lowers the boiling point of the distilled material so that it will not crack or decompose.
- F - distillation sous vide
- S - vacuodestilacion
VALVE ASSEMBLY (gen). The assembled parts of a valve.
- F - garniture de soupape
- S - montaje de valvula
VANE  (hydr) (See: GUIDE VANE);  (wind) (See: TAIL)
- F - aube
- S - aspa
VAPOR LOCK (auto). A blockage in a fuel line that is caused when the fuel vaporizes.
- F - tampon de vapeur
- S - obstruccion por vapor
VAPOR PRESSURE (chem) (meas). The pressure of a vapor while in contact with its solid or liquid form. This is also referred to as saturated vapor pressure. The pressure rises with any increase in temperature.
- F - tension de vapeur
- S - presion del vapor
VERTICAL-AXIS WATER WHEEL (hydr). A WATER WHEEL that drives a vertical axis instead of the more common horizontal axis
- F - roue hydraulique a axe vertical
- S - rueda hidraulica de eje vertical
VERTICAL-AXIS WIND MACHINE (wind). A WIND MACHINE in which the WINDSHAFT is on a vertical axis. This type of device may accept wind from any direction. (See also: DARRIEUS ROTOR; SAVONIUS ROTOR)
- F - eolienne axe vertical
- S - generador eolico de eje vertical
VIOLET CELL (sol). A type of SILICON SOLAR CELL that is more effective than conventional PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS in converting sunlight to electricity from the violet and ULTRA-VIOLET range of the light spectrum.
- F - cellule violette
- S - celula violeta
VISCOSITY (chem). The resistance to FLOW or change of shape due to molecular cohesion and internal friction in FLUIDS. Viscosity varies inversely with temperature.
- F - viscosite
- S - viscosidad
VOLATILE (gen) (refrig).  Easily burned, unstable, or explosive.  Liquids that are readily evaporated at a relatively low temperature.
- F - volatile
- S - volatil
VOLATILE ACIDS (biocon). Fatty ACIDS of a low molecular weight. These acids are very SOLUBLE.
- F - acides volatiles
- S - acidos volatiles
WASTE CONVERSION TO ENERGY (biocon). (See: BIOCONVERSION)
- F - conversion des dechets en energie
- S - conversion energetica de desperdicios
WASTE HEAT (heat). Heat that is left after useful ENERGY generation.
- F - chaleur perdue 
- S - calor perdido
WATER-AIR HEAT EXCHANGER (heat). A HEAT EXCHANGER in which FLUIDS may either be heated or cooled by water or air.
- F - echangeur de chaleur eau/air
- S - termopermutador de agua-aire
WATER BED (sol). Shallow plastic bags that are filled with water and placed on roofs of homes or buildings. In cooler climates, the bags collect SOLAR ENERGY during the day, and radiate heat to the building during the day and radiate this heat to the sky at night, thus cooling the building. In warmer climates, panels are placed over the bags during the day and removed at night so the bags can draw off heat from the building and keep it cool.
- F - lit d'eau
- S - lecho de agua
WATER CHUTE (hydr). A steep CHANNEL by which water descends in force. Water chutes are used to create or increase the HEAD for a HYDROPOWER system.
- F - chute d'eau
- S - caida de agua
WATER HYACINTHS (biocon). A type of water plant with a high carbon content, which makes it very useful as FEEDSTOCK for BIOGAS production.
- F - eichornia
- S - jacinto de agua
WATER JACKET (auto) (prod). A casing or compartment containing water that is placed around all or part of a device to keep it cool, as around the cylinders or cylinder head of an internal combustion engine.
- F - chemise a eau
- S - envuelta de agua
WATER MILL (hydr). A MILL driven by a WATER WHEEL.
- F - moulin hydraulique
- S - molino hidraulico
WATERPOWER (hydr). The ENERGY in water as derived from its weight or momentum, and which may be used to drive machinery, generate electricity, or for other purposes. (Syn: HYDROPOWER)
- F - energie hydraulique
- S - energia hidraulica
WATER PUMPING WINDMILLS (wind). (See: WIND-POWERED PUMP)
- F - eoliennes de pompage
- S - molinos de viento con bombas hidraulicas
WATER SEAL (biocon). The part of a GASHOLDER designed to prevent the METHANE from mixing with air and becoming potentially explosive. It generally is created by submerging a portion of the holder in water.
- F - joint hydraulique
- S - junta hidraulica
WATERSHED (hydr).  the divide or crestline dividing two drainage areas.  The area draining into a river, stream etc.
- F -  ligne de partage des eaux;  bassin hydrographique
- S - divisoria de aguas
WATER TURBINE (hydr). A device that converts the ENERGY of falling water into rotating mechanical energy. Water turbines are usually smaller than WATER WHEELS and operate at the higher speeds required to generate electricity.
- F - turbine hydraulique
- S - turbina hidraulica
WATER WHEEL (hydr). A wheel with BUCKETS or BLADES that allow it to be turned by the weight or velocity of falling water or by water moving underneath it.
- F - roue hydraulique
- S - rueda hidraulica
WATT (elec) (meas). The unit rate at which work is done in an electrical circuit. One watt equals one JOULE of work per second.
- F - watt
- S - vatio
WAVE POWER (ocean). The production of electricity by harnessing ocean wave movements through the use of specialized TURBINES or other devices.
- F - energie des vagues
- S - energia de las olas
WEATHERED SAILS (wind) (arc). SAILS with variable pitch from the inner to the outer edge.
- F - ailes a airage
- S - velas inclinadas
WEATHER STRIPPING (gen). Narrow strips of rubber, felt, metal or other material that are used to conserve ENERGY by preventing air INFILTRATION around doors or windows.
- F - bourrelets d'etancheite
- S - moldura
W.E.C.S. or WECS (wind). (See: WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEM)
- F - S.C.E.E. ou SCEE
- S - S.C.E.E. o SCEE
WEIBULL DISTRIBUTION (wind) (meas). A probability density function that allows one to model the WIND SPEED DISTRIBUTION for a given site, based on certain input parameters. A mathematical application of the Weibull probability density function gives the wind speed distribution. The Weibull distribution is a two-parameter function, whereas the RAYLEIGH DISTRIBUTION is a simplified Weibull that only uses one parameter. (See also: RAYLEIGH DISTRIBUTION)
- F - distribution de Weibull
- S - distribucion de Weibull
WEIR (hydr). An obstruction placed across a stream to divert the water to make it FLOW through a desired CHANNEL, which may be a notch or opening in the weir itself. A weir also is that part of a dam, embankment, CANAL, etc. that contains gates, and over which surplus water flows. A calibrated rod can be placed before the opening in a weir to measure flow. Weirs are sometimes set up exclusively as flow-measuring devices. (Syn: waterweir)
- F - deversoir
- S - presa de aforo
WET-BULB TEMPERATURE (meas). A measure of the relative humidity in a room. It is taken by a special thermometer whose bulb is kept wet.
- F - temperature de bulbe humide
- S - temperatura de bola humeda
WET SLURRY (biocon). (See: LIQUID SLURRY)
- F - boue humide
- S - fango mojado
WET STEAM (geo). Underground water that is hotter than the boiling point, but which remains liquid because of high surrounding pressures. Reservoirs of this superheated water may be tapped, producing a mixture of water and steam that flows to the surface and which may provide power for a TURBINE or other machinery.
- F - vapeur humide
- S - vapor saturado
WHEELS (wind) (arc). (See: ROLLERS)
- F - roues
- S - muelas
WHIP (wind) (arc). The principal longitudinal frame for the individual WINDMILL SAIL. It is strapped and bolted to the face of the BLADE.
- F - bras 
- S - varillaje
WIND CONCENTRATOR (wind). A device or structure that is used to concentrate a wind stream.
- F - concentrateur du vent
- S - concentrador de viento
WIND DIRECTION (wind). The forward course along which the wind is blowing.
- F - direction du vent
- S - direccion del viento
WIND ELECTRIC SYSTEM (wind). A system in which a WINDMILL is used to generate electricity. A windmill can either be used with an ALTERNATOR or DYNAMO to provide electricity, which is either stored in batteries or used directly to run appliances.
- F - electricite eolienne, systeme de
- S - sistema electrogeno eolico
WIND ENERGY (wind). ENERGY that is tapped from the natural movement of the air. Wind energy is considered a form of SOLAR ENERGY because wind is caused by variations in the amount of heat that the sun sends to different parts of the earth. It may be converted into electrical or mechanical POWER through the use of a WIND MACHINE.
- F - energie du vent
- S - energia eolica
WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEM (wind). The conversion of WIND ENERGY into electrical, mechanical, or thermal energy through the use of WIND MACHINES. Commonly abbreviated as W.E.C.S. or WECS.
- F - conversion de l'energie eolienne, systeme de
- S - sistema de conversion de la energia eolica
WIND FURNACE (wind). A WIND MACHINE that converts WIND POWER into HEAT ENERGY.
- F - four eolien
- S - horno eolico
WIND GAUGE (wind) (meas). Any instrument that measures WIND VELOCITY. (Syn: ANEMOMETER)
- F - indicateur de vent
- S - anemometro
WIND GENERATOR (wind). A type of WINDMILL that extracts ENERGY from the wind to produce electricity by driving a GENERATOR. It generally has two or three narrow BLADES that turn at a high speed, often using gearing to multiply the number of revolutions per minute up to a range required by the generator.
- F - eolienne generatrice
- S - generador eolico
WINDING (wind) (arc). The action of turning the WINDMILL CAP into the WIND. This is done either automatically or manually. (Pronounced to rhyme with finding.)
- F - virer
- S - venteamiento
WIND LOAD RATING (wind) (meas). A specification used to indicate the resistance of a WINDMILL TOWER to the force of the wind.
- F - puissance eolienne nominale
- S - clasificador de la carga eolica
WIND MACHINE (wind). Any of several types of wind-driven devices that are used to extract useful POWER from the wind.
- F - eolienne
- S - maquina eolica
WIND MEASUREMENT (wind). (See: BEAUFORT SCALE)
- F - mesure du vent
- S - medicion eolica
WINDMILL (wind). In a strictly technical sense, only those wind-powered MACHINES that drive MILLS to grind grain. However, the term is generally used to describe WIND MACHINES of all kinds. A windmill is powered by wind pressure, and usually has a slowly turning ROTOR with two or more BLADES attached to it. The blades are turned by the wind, thus rotating the rotor and the WIND SHAFT. In this way, WIND ENERGY is converted to mechanical energy. Some typical windmill applications include water pumping, milling or threshing, and electricity generation.
- F - moulin a vent, eolienne
- S - molino de viento
WIND POWER (wind) (meas). Power available from the wind that can be used by various types of WIND MACHINES. It can be expressed as: P = E(.5)[DAV.sup.3], where:
- A = SWEPT AREA in square meters
- V = WIND VELOCITY in meters/sec
- P = power in KILOWATTS
- D = air density in kilograms/cubic meters
- E = EFFICIENCY of the device expressed as a percentage
- F - puissance du vent
- S - potencia eolica
WIND-POWERED PUMP (wind). A water-lifting device driven by a WIND MACHINE.
- F - pompe a energie eolienne
- S - bomba de aeromotor
WIND ROSE (wind) (meas). A two-dimensional graph that shows monthly or yearly mean WIND SPEEDS as well as a distribution of wind speeds. It usually indicates the speed and the percentage of time that the wind blows from eight to 16 different directions.
- F - rose des vents
- S - rosa de los vientos
WIND ROTOR (wind). (See: ROTOR)
- F - rotor d'eolienne
- S - rotor eolico
WIND SHAFT (wind). The metal rod attached to and turned by the ROTOR to provide mechanical POWER.
- F - arbre d'eolienne
- S - eje eolico
WIND SPEED (wind). (See: WIND VELOCITY; BEAUFORT SCALE)
- F - vitesse du vent
- S - caudal del viento
WIND SPEED DISTRIBUTION (wind) (meas). A two-dimensional graph that shows the total time or the percentage of time that the wind blows at each WIND SPEED at a particular location. It differs from a WIND ROSE in that it can give a grand total of wind speeds, regardless of their directions.
- F - distribution des vitesses du vent
- S - distribucion del canal del viento
WIND TURBINE (wind). (See: WIND MACHINE)
- F - turbine A vent
- S - turbina eolica
WIND VELOCITY (wind) (meas). The speed of air movement measured in miles per hour or meters per second. The amount of POWER available from the wind depends in part on the WIND SPEED or velocity. It is a peculiarity of WIND POWER that the ENERGY available increases as the cube of the wind velocity. Wind velocity may be measured by an ANEMOMETER.
- F - vitesse du vent
- S - velocidad del viento
WINKLER PROCESS (prod). A FLUIDIZED BED GASIFIER process, which produces a low or medium BTU gas from a wide variety of coals.
- F - procede de Winkler
- S - proceso de Winkler
WOOD ALCOHOL' (alc). (See: METHANOL)
- F - alcool de bois
- S - alcohol metilico
WOOD GAS' (prod). (See: PRODUCER GAS)
- F - gaz de bois
- S - gas metilico
WOOD STOVE' (biocon). A stove that uses wood and most wood residues as fuel.
- F - poele a bois
- S - estufa de lena
WORM (alc) (impl) (wind) (arc).  A type of CONDENSER used in ALCOHOL STILLS. It is a coiled metal tube that leads from the still to a container holding cool water. It increases the rate of CONDENSATION and therefore the purity of the alcohol produced.  A cylindrical gear that supports a helical thread. It frequently is used in WINDMILL WINDING gears.
- F -  serpentin;  vis sans fin
- S - tornillo sin fin
WORT (alc). The liquid portion of MASH that has not yet been inoculated with YEAST. It is a brewing term that describes the mash when it is between the BREWING MASH stage and the FERMENTATION period.
- F - avoi
- S - mosto no fermentado
YAW AXIS (wind). The vertical axis about which a HORIZONTAL AXIS WINDMILL rotates to align itself with the wind.
- F - axe de lacet
- S - eje vertical
YEAST (alc) (bio). A single-celled micro-organism that can change simple sugars into ETHANOL and carbon dioxide by FERMENTATION. Yeasts are one type of FUNGI.
- F - levure
- S - levadura
YOKE (ani) (impl). A contrivance that joins together a pair of draft animals, especially oxen, and which generally consists of a crosspiece with bow-shaped pieces that fit over the shoulders of the animals.
- F - joug
- S - yugo
ZERO TILL (agri). An ENERGY-CONSERVING method of agriculture that requires little or no plowing or turning of the soil.
- F - labourage nul
- S - cero arado
ZONAL WIND (wind). Winds that blow approximately along the local perallel of the LATITUDE.
- F - vent zonal
- S - viento zonal
ZONE HEAT (heat). A central heating system in which different temperatures may be maintained in two or more of the areas being heated.
- F - chauffage par zone
|acres||1.562 X [10-3]||square miles|
|atmospheres||76.0||cms of mercury|
|atmospheres||29.92||inches of mercury|
|British thermal units||0.2530||kilogram-calories|
|B.t.u.||3.927 X [10-4]||horsepower-hours|
|B.t.u.||2.928 X [10-4]||kilowatt-hours|
|calories||1.1622 X [10-6]||kilowatt-hours|
|centimeters of mercury||0.1934||pounds/square inch|
|cubic centimeters||[10-6]||cubic meters|
|cubic centimeters||6.102 X [10-2]||cubic inches|
|cubic centimeters||3.531 X [10-5]||cubic feet|
|cubic centimeters||1.308 X [10-6]||cubic yards|
|cubic feet||1,728||cubic inches|
|cubic feet||0.02832||cubic meters|
|cubic feet||2.832 X ||cubic centimeters|
|cubic feet/minute||472.0||cubic cms/second|
|cubic feet/minute||62.4||pounds water/min|
|cubic inches||5.787 X [10-4]||cubic feet|
|cubic inches||1.639 X [10-5]||cubic meters|
|cubic inches||2.143 X [10-5]||cubic yards|
|cubic meters||35.31||cubic feet|
|cubic yards||7.646 X ||cubic centimeters|
|cubic yards||27.0||cubic feet|
|cubic yards||46,656||cubic inches|
|cubic yards||0.7646||cubic meters|
|cubic yards/min.||0.45||cubic feet/second|
|dynes||1.020 X [10-3]||grams|
|dynes||2.248 X [10-6]||pounds|
|ergs||9.486 X ||B.t.u.|
|ergs||7.376 X [10-8||foot-pounds|
|ergs||2.390 X [10-11]||kilogram-calories|
|ergs||1.020 X [10-8]||kilogram-meters|
|ergs/second||1.341 X [10-10]||horsepower|
|foot-pounds||1.286 X [10-3]||B.t.u.|
|foot-pounds||1.356 X ||ergs|
|foot-pounds||5.050 X [10-7]||horsepower-hours|
|foot-pounds||3.241 X [10-4]||kilogram-calories|
|foot-pounds||3.766 X [10-7]||kilowatt-hours|
|foot-pounds/minute||1.286 X [10-3]||B.t.u./minute|
|foot-pounds/minute||3.241 X [10-4]||kg-calories/min|
|foot-pounds/minute||2.260 X [10-5]||kilowatts|
|foot-pounds/second||7.172 X [10-2]||B.t.u./minute|
|foot-pounds/second||1.818 X [10-3]||horsepower|
|foot-pounds/second||1.945 X [10-2]||kg-calories/min|
|foot-pounds/second||1.356 X [10-3]||kilowatts|
|gallons||3.785 X [10-3]||cubic meters|
|gallons/minute||2.228 X [10-3]||cubic feet/second|
|grams/cubic centimeter||62.43||pounds/cubic feet|
|grams centimeters||9.297 X [10-8]||B.t.u.|
|horsepower-hours||1.98 X ||foot-pounds|
|horsepower-hours||2.737 X ||kilogram-meters|
|horsepower-hours||2.684 X ||joules|
|inches of mercury||0.03342||atmospheres|
|inches of mercury||1.133||feet of water|
|inches of mercury||345.3||kgs/sq meter|
|inches of mercury||70.73||pounds/sq foot|
|inches of mercury||0.4912||pounds/sq inch|
|inches of water||0.002458||atmospheres|
|inches of water||0.07355||inches of mercury|
|inches of water||25.40||kgs/square meter|
|inches of water||0.5781||ounces/square inch|
|inches of water||5.204||pounds/square foot|
|inches of water||0.03613||pounds/square inch|
|kilograms||1.102 X [10-3]||short tons|
|kilogram-calories||1.558 X [10-3]||horsepower-hours|
|kilowatts||4.425 X ||foot-pounds/minute|
|kilowatts-hours||2.655 X ||foot-pounds|
|kilowatts-hours||3.6 X ||joules|
|kilowatts-hours||3.671 X ||kilogram-meters|
|meter-kilograms||9.807 X ||centimeter-dynes|
|miles||1.609 X ||centimeters|
|ounces/square inch||0.0625||pounds/square inch|
|pints (dry)||33.60||cubic inches|
|pints (liquid)||28.87||cubic inches|
|pounds of water||0.01602||cubic feet|
|pounds of water||27.68||cubic inches|
|pounds of water||0.1198||gallons|
|pounds of water/min.||2.669 X [10-4]||cubic feet/second|
|pounds/cubic foot||0.01602||grams/cubic cms.|
|pounds/cubic foot||16.02||kgs/cubic meter|
|pounds/cubic foot||5.787 X [10-4]||pounds/cubic inch|
|pounds/square foot||4.882||kgs/sq meter|
|pounds/square foot||6.944 X [10-3]||pounds/square inch|
|pounds/square inch||703.1||kgs/square meter|
|pounds/square inch||144.0||pounds/square foot|
|quarts (dry)||67.20||cubic inches|
|quarts (liquid)||57.75||cubic inches|
|square centimeters||1.076 X [10-3]||square feet|
|square centimeters||0.1550||square inches|
|square centimeters||[10-6]||square meters|
|square centimeters||100||square millimeters|
|square feet||2.296 X [10-5]||acres|
|square feet||929.0||square centimeters|
|square feet||144.0||square inches|
|square feet||0.09290||square meters|
|square feet||3.587 X [10-8]||square miles|
|square feet||0.1111||square yards|
|square inches||6.452||square centimeters|
|square inches||645.2||square millimeters|
|square meters||2.471 X [10-4]||acres|
|square meters||10.764||square feet|
|square meters||3.861 X [10-7]||square miles|
|square meters||1.196||square yards|
|square miles||2.7878 X ||square feet|
|square miles||2.590||square kilometers|
|square miles||3.098 X ||square yards|
|square yards||2.066 X [10-4]||acres|
|square yards||9.0||square feet|
|square yards||0.8361||square meters|
|square yards||3.228 X [10-7||square miles|
|temp (degs C) + 237||1.0||abs temp (degs K)|
|temp (degs C) + 17.8||1.8||temp (degs F)|
|temp (deqs F) - 32||5/9||temp (degs C)|
|tons (short)/sq. foot||9,765||kgs/square meter|
|tons (short)/sq. foot||13.89||pounds/square inch|
|tons (short)/sq. inch||1.406 X ||kgs/square meter|
|tons (short)/sq. inch||2,000||pounds/square inch|
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