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{{topic header| default.png |Climate change}}
 
{{topic header| default.png |Climate change}}
'''Climate change'''{{W|Climate change}} is a significant and lasting change in the weather pattern over a period of decades to periods of millions of years. In this article we discuss the rise in the average temperature of Earth's atmosphere and oceans since from the 19th to the 21st century (the current '''global warming''').<ref>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_warming</ref> Global warming is expected to have far greater negative effects on [[developing countries]] as on developed countries.
+
'''Climate change'''{{W|Climate change}} is a significant and lasting change in the Earth's climate over an extended period. In this article we discuss the impact of a rise in the average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans from the 19th century to the present. <ref>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_warming</ref> Climate change is expected to have far greater negative effects on [[developing countries]] than on developed countries due to numerous factors including exposure to extreme weather and infrastructure considerations.
  
 
== The science of climate change ==
 
== The science of climate change ==
 
{{main|Science of climate change}}
 
{{main|Science of climate change}}
  
Although the existence of global warming is unquestioned since 1896<ref>[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_climate_change_science Discovery of global warming by Svante Arrhenius]</ref>, there are people that remain critical of specifics written in some reports of the IPCC{{w|Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change}} and other organisations. These people, called climate change skeptics{{w|Climate change skeptics}}, make critical analysis' and so are able to make a positive contribution.<ref>Take the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hockey stick controversy Michael E. Mann hockeystick graph] for example which has been proven wrong. A significant rise in the new graph (by McIntyre and McKitrick) is still predicted, but the graph is less abrupt</ref>
+
Although the existence of the greenhouse effect has been largely understood since 1896<ref>[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Svante_Arrhenius#Greenhouse_effect]</ref>, there are still a tiny minority of scientists who remain critical of specifics written in some reports of the IPCC{{w|Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change}} and other organisations. These so-called climate change skeptics{{w|Climate change skeptics}} are generally misinformed or are deliberately attempting to create doubt and uncertainty about the science.
 
   
 
   
Often, civil government politicians and economists try to bend information of climate change skeptics to their own advantage, portraying an image that global warming does not exist, poses but a minor problem, or may even be beneficial, so as to be able to not act on it, and as such prevent them of losing votes due to this issue.
+
Certain politicians, lobbyists and economists refer to disinformation from climate change 'skeptics' for their own advantage, portraying an image that climate change does not exist, poses but a minor problem, or may even be beneficial so as to be able to prevent action to reduce greenhouse gases (mostly resulting from the burning of fossil fuels). The GWPF in the UK is an example of a political lobbying group, which is secretly funded by fossil fuel interests.[http://www.theguardian.com/environment/climate-consensus-97-per-cent/2014/oct/08/gwpf-funder-leach-relying-on-unreliable-sources-of-info Guardian article on the secret funding of the GWPF]
  
== Uncertainties in the impact of global warming ==
+
== The impact of climate change ==
 
[[File:Natural disasters caused by climate change.png|thumb|right|200px|Natural disasters caused or aggrevated by global warming]]
 
[[File:Natural disasters caused by climate change.png|thumb|right|200px|Natural disasters caused or aggrevated by global warming]]
Although global warming itself has been proven, there are many uncertainties in predicting the effects global warming will have on the world. The IPCC is certain that following effects will occur, though the severety and time thereof ''may'' differ to some extend of the numbers mentioned in the reports:
+
Although climate change itself has been proven, uncertainties still exist regarding predicting the effects. The IPCC is highly confident that impacts will increase as greenhouse gases and associated positive feedback effects kick in (e.g. methane release from melting permafrost, changing albedo), though their severity and the timescales may differ to some extent. Examples of impacts include:
  
* changing weatherpatterns (greater or fewer precipitation on specific areas, the weather is also expected to be much more radical). This will negatively affect [[farming]]<ref>www.knmi.nl/africa_scenarios/brochure_Afrika.pdf</ref><ref>http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/Water/images/precipitation_intensity_map.png Precipitation changes</ref><ref>http://climatelab.org/@api/deki/files/462/=Desertification_map.png</ref><ref>One solution is to grow less fragile crops, ie more resistant to changes in watering</ref>
+
* Increasing heat stresses as global temperatures rise. While some regions such as Canada may benefit to some degree from rising temperatures, the overall effects on the ability of the planet to support life will be negative. As temperatures rise, many equatorial regions will become hostile to life;
* natural disasters (ie mud slides, hurricanes, ...) are expected to occur much more frequently. Death toll in 2003 = 150000 people <ref>[http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2003/12/61562 150000 people killed by global warming upto 2003]</ref><ref>http://climatelab.org/climate_change_security</ref>
+
* Changing weather patterns, especially more extreme weather events and changing rainfall patterns, specifically increasing or decreasing precipitation levels. Increasing floods and drought periods will have a generally negative effect on [[farming]]<ref>www.knmi.nl/africa_scenarios/brochure_Afrika.pdf</ref><ref>http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/Water/images/precipitation_intensity_map.png Precipitation changes</ref><ref>http://climatelab.org/@api/deki/files/462/=Desertification_map.png</ref><ref>One solution is to grow more resilient crops, i.e. more resistant to changes in rainfall and disease</ref>;
* Sea-level rise<ref>Sea level rise: 2m rise expected by 2100 A.D., 6,5m by 2200 A.D.</ref> will contaminate a very large percentage of the agricultural fields with sea salt and make them no longer suitable for continued food production.<ref>Earth under water documentary</ref> In addition, many low-lying islands and coastlines will need to be abandoned, forcing many people to move.
+
* Natural disasters (ie mud slides, hurricanes, ...) are expected to increase in their severity. Death toll in 2003 = 150,000 people <ref>[http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2003/12/61562 150000 people killed by global warming up to 2003]</ref><ref>http://climatelab.org/climate_change_security</ref>:
 +
* Sea level rise<ref>Sea level rise: 2m rise expected by the year 2100, 6.5m by 2200</ref> will contaminate a very large percentage of the planets' agricultural fields with sea salt and make them no longer suitable for continued food production.<ref>Earth under water documentary</ref> In addition, many low-lying islands and coastlines will need to be abandoned, forcing many people to move.
 +
* Increasing ocean acidity. As the pH of water decreases due to the input of carbonic acid (resulting from CO2 dissolving in water), life forms which rely on a chalk shell will find it increasingly impossible to survive. This will have negative effects on many ocean ecosystems, especially coral reefs which are the most bio-diverse of any ecosystem on the planet.
 +
 
 +
==Historic changes in the earth's climate==
 +
 
 +
The term "climate change" is often used to describe the impact of human-caused pollution on the earth's climate, but is important to understand that climate change is also caused by natural phenomena.
 +
 
 +
History of Ice Ages
 +
 
 +
The earth's climate is subject to large fluctuations. The climate is dominated by ices ages<ref>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_glaciation</ref>, which reduce the earth's surface temperature and cover large parts of the surface in ice sheets. There have only been five ice ages to date, that have lasted from 30 million up to 300 million years. The most recent one occurred during to "Quaternary", which started about 2.5 million years ago and is still lasting. In between ice ages, the poles are not covered by glaciers and the temperature is higher. The climate is quite stable in these periods, however during ice ages strong variations occur. These variations are called glacial (cold) and interglacial (hot) periods<ref>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_glaciation</ref>. Glacial and interglacial periods alternate every 5,000-15,000 years. The current interglacial period started 14,000 years ago.
  
 
== Climate change mitigation ==
 
== Climate change mitigation ==
 
{{main|Measures to stop global warming}}
 
{{main|Measures to stop global warming}}
  
Several options are available to reduce the global warming. Most of these (the most efficient ones) are lifestyle changes (ie diet, propogation, ...) and can be put in place today. We also do not need to wait for any specific technology to became available. Rather, the essential technology is allready here today.<ref>See an overview of the measures needed at http://kvdp.blogspot.com</ref><ref>Politicians often portray a different picture but it is not based in reality</ref>
+
Several options are available to reduce the impacts of a changing climate. Most of these (the most efficient ones) are lifestyle changes (i.e. stop the burning of fossil fuels, stop eating meat etc.) and can be put in place today. We also do not need to wait for any specific technology to became available. Rather, the essential technology is already here today. Politicians often portray a different picture but it is rarely based in reality. Selected options include:
+
Our options are:
+
* Reduce carbon consumption
+
* [[Carbon sequestration]] - prevent consumed carbon from getting into the atmosphere. After combustion, pump it underground or underwater.
+
* Remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, e.g. through [[ocean nourishment]], [[biochar]], planting [[trees]].
+
* Reduce the temperature in other ways (paint roads and [[paint roofs white|roofs white]], spray sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere, to reflect a proportion of sunlight back into space. Note: this direct temperature reduction does not reduce carbon levels, so [[ocean acidification]] from higher carbon dioxide is still a problem.
+
* [[Climate change mitigation]]: build [[heat tolerant houses]] ([[passive solar]] with suitable [[insulation]]), [[flood control]] barriers)
+
* Grin and bear it: put up with the inconveniences and the expected loss of biodiversity and increases in certain types of [[natural disasters]] (and hope that there will be improvements in other areas).
+
  
The best solution is probably a mix of some of these, as no single solution or even class of solutions appears adequate. The less action is taken, the more we will depend on the "grin and bear it" option.
+
* Reducing the release of greenhouse gases{{W|Greenhouse gas}} (GHG's) into the atmosphere (ie through energy efficiency, ...)
 +
* Prevent carbon dioxide from being released into the atmosphere (ie through carbon capture and storage (CCS), [[biochar]], ...). With [[Carbon sequestration]]/CCS, after combusting a fuel, the CO<sub>2</sub> is stored in a cavity underground.
 +
* Remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, e.g. through geo-engineering [[ocean fertilisation]], planting extra [[trees]], ...
 +
* Shield some of the planet from the sun, or reflect a proportion of sunlight back into space (i.e. by painting roads, parking spaces and [[White roofs|roofs]] white, spraying sulphate aerosols into the stratosphere, ...)<ref>Note: this direct temperature reduction does not reduce carbon levels, so [[ocean acidification]] from higher carbon dioxide is still a problem</ref>
 +
* [[Climate change mitigation]]: build [[heat tolerant houses]] ([[passive solar]] with suitable [[insulation]]), [[flood control]] barriers, ...
 +
* Grin and bear it: put up with the inconveniences and the expected loss of biodiversity and increases in certain types of [[natural disasters]] and wait for extinction.
  
=== Technology ===
+
The IPCC already considers a 2°C temperature rise to be almost inevitable. In addition, it also advises the use of most other measures, yet stays critical of [[geoengineering]] options, due to the risks involved.
The [[bright green]] approach puts its trust in [[technology]] to give us answers in time, if we just put suitable resources into researching and applying solutions.
+
  
Technology is advancing and technologies such as [[thin film solar photovoltaics]]{{w|thin film solar photovoltaics}} (e.g. copper indium gallium diselenide{{w|copper indium gallium diselenide}}) offer great hope. However, the rate of progress is uncertain, and as climate change is already happening, action is needed now, without waiting for these new technologies.
+
== Climate change chain reactions ==
  
=== Low hanging fruit ===
+
The change in temperature and weather has a huge impact on wildlife which can become dangerous if the change stays the same.Even the minor change of temperature can lead to earlier hatching of insects or melting of snow which protects snow rabbits from their  natural hunters.These effects cause problems like insect overpopulation or too less surviving rabbits to reproduce sustainably.The insects are dangerous because they consume crops and other plans and in huge amounts they are even able to consume a whole field of possible food.Because this problem is getting bigger and even endangers species and if it goes on like this many species will die out and even our own food capacity may shrink exponentionally.
The logical place to start is in the area where potential gains are greatest and costs are lowest. This is '''[[energy efficiency]]''', and it offers cost savings in many areas. Thus the most important, pressing actions to be taken can be taken immediately without economic penalty, with suitable planning. Financial planning is an important aspect of this, as investment now may be required to gain long term benefits; it may be important to have programs such as [[light bulb]] exchanges or loans for energy efficiency measures (perhaps paid off through electricity bills<ref> If the energy company benefits from people using more energy, there may be a conflict of interest, so different reward models need to be explored; when the energy company is a government-owned corporation, this may give more flexibility to apply a different model in order to encourage uptake.  (See [[Incentives for sustainability]] and [[Incentives to pollute]].</ref>)
+
  
Another measure is [[renewable energy]], which is more attractive in some locations than others (e.g. [[solar]] and [[biodiesel]] may be the most cost effective sources of electricity in a sunny isolated location, and [[solar hot water]] is perhaps the most cost-effective form of renewable energy in most locations{{fact}}). At this stage the majority of the population in [[developed countries]] have access to renewable energy through "[[green energy]]" offered by electricity companies (which is often not truly "green", but it varies in degree). The cost premium for such energy is very modest compared with most people's overall living costs (and modest compared with the money that most people spend on luxuries or entertainment). ''See [[How to increase the uptake of green energy]].''
+
== Climate Change on the Ocean ==
  
=== Reducing carbon usage ===
+
Earth is called the blue planet because approximately 72 percent of it is covered by oceans. The oceans influence the weather on local to global scales, while changes in climate can fundamentally alter many properties of the oceans.
[[Simple living]] offers various ways of reducing impact as well. To have a serious impact, these need to be actions which appeal to a large number of people, which may be very difficult without changes at the community level. The self-sacrificial aspects of simple living are unlikely to appeal to many people, based on past patterns.  
+
  
Other aspects do improve [[quality of life]] and are at least possible. These include promotion of behavior changes, and changing infrastructure in ways that encourage lower-energy behavior. Building of [[cycleways]] rather than highways, making communities more walkable, making [[public transport]] a more attractive option, and introducing congestion charges (as in London) are supported by many sustainability advocates and organizations.
+
=== Ocean conveyor system ===
  
Ensuring that buyers of houses and other buildings have access to all appropriate information about energy costs, livability (which improves with good [[passive solar]] design) and environmental impact, could make a big difference to the building industry, and ensure that sustainability is taken more seriously by more builders.  
+
The thermohaline circulation also called the great ocean conveyor belt or global ocean conveyor belt, is a large scale ocean circulation that distributes vast quantities of heat and moisture around on a planetary scale.
 +
 
 +
=== Gulf stream ===
 +
 
 +
Gulf stream has the length of 10.000 km. It is one of the largest and fastest ocean current on earth. Originating from the tip of Florida, at 2 <sup>m</sup>/<sub>s</sub>, it brings 100.000.000 <sup>m<sup>3</sup></sup>/<sub>s</sub> water towards Europe.
 +
 
 +
=== Sea level rise ===
 +
 
 +
As water gets warmer, it takes up more space. Each drop of water only expands by a little bit, but when you multiply this expansion over the entire depth of the ocean, it all adds up and causes sea level to rise. But that's not the only cause of the rise of sea level. The rise of sea level also caused by the melting of glaciers and polar ice caps and ice loss from Greenland and West Antarctica.
 +
 
 +
=== Ocean acidification ===
 +
 
 +
Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease on ocean pH cause by human CO<sub>2</sub> Emission.
 +
Ocean pH has decreased by about 30% already and if we continue emitting CO2 at the same rate by 2100 ocean acidity will increase by about 150%, a rate that has not been experienced for at least 400,000 years. Such a monumental alteration in basic ocean chemistry is likely to have wide implications for ocean life, especially for those organisms that require calcium carbonate to build shells or skeletons.
 +
 
 +
== Impact of climate change on species ==
 +
 
 +
Through rising temperatures resulting in a shift of climate zones forces species to adapt to the new climatic conditions. By a rapidly increased temperature the risk for especially plants not to find areas with suitable living conditions early enough is higher. Observations of several species conclude that they are moving their ranges polewards to keep up with changing climate.
  
=== Cost effectiveness of action ===
 
Note that the cost balance may appear different if [[externalities]] are accounted for - e.g. deaths due to vehicles, including emissions; improved health from cycling and walking acting to reduce health costs and improve  productivity; and possibly even social cohesion as a result  of people mingling on cycle, foot, and public transport, instead of traveling by car.
 
  
 
==Notes==
 
==Notes==
Line 70: Line 89:
 
== External Links ==
 
== External Links ==
  
*[http://www.ourfutureplanet.org/topic-climate-change OurFuturePlanet - Climate Change]
+
[http://www.skepticalscience.com/ Skeptical Science]
 +
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_glaciation]
 +
 
  
  

Latest revision as of 05:19, 10 January 2019


Default.png    See also the Climate change category.
for subtopics, how-tos, project pages, designs, organization pages and more.


Climate changeW is a significant and lasting change in the Earth's climate over an extended period. In this article we discuss the impact of a rise in the average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans from the 19th century to the present. [1] Climate change is expected to have far greater negative effects on developing countries than on developed countries due to numerous factors including exposure to extreme weather and infrastructure considerations.

The science of climate change[edit]

Although the existence of the greenhouse effect has been largely understood since 1896[2], there are still a tiny minority of scientists who remain critical of specifics written in some reports of the IPCCW and other organisations. These so-called climate change skepticsW are generally misinformed or are deliberately attempting to create doubt and uncertainty about the science.

Certain politicians, lobbyists and economists refer to disinformation from climate change 'skeptics' for their own advantage, portraying an image that climate change does not exist, poses but a minor problem, or may even be beneficial so as to be able to prevent action to reduce greenhouse gases (mostly resulting from the burning of fossil fuels). The GWPF in the UK is an example of a political lobbying group, which is secretly funded by fossil fuel interests.Guardian article on the secret funding of the GWPF

The impact of climate change[edit]

Natural disasters caused or aggrevated by global warming

Although climate change itself has been proven, uncertainties still exist regarding predicting the effects. The IPCC is highly confident that impacts will increase as greenhouse gases and associated positive feedback effects kick in (e.g. methane release from melting permafrost, changing albedo), though their severity and the timescales may differ to some extent. Examples of impacts include:

  • Increasing heat stresses as global temperatures rise. While some regions such as Canada may benefit to some degree from rising temperatures, the overall effects on the ability of the planet to support life will be negative. As temperatures rise, many equatorial regions will become hostile to life;
  • Changing weather patterns, especially more extreme weather events and changing rainfall patterns, specifically increasing or decreasing precipitation levels. Increasing floods and drought periods will have a generally negative effect on farming[3][4][5][6];
  • Natural disasters (ie mud slides, hurricanes, ...) are expected to increase in their severity. Death toll in 2003 = 150,000 people [7][8]:
  • Sea level rise[9] will contaminate a very large percentage of the planets' agricultural fields with sea salt and make them no longer suitable for continued food production.[10] In addition, many low-lying islands and coastlines will need to be abandoned, forcing many people to move.
  • Increasing ocean acidity. As the pH of water decreases due to the input of carbonic acid (resulting from CO2 dissolving in water), life forms which rely on a chalk shell will find it increasingly impossible to survive. This will have negative effects on many ocean ecosystems, especially coral reefs which are the most bio-diverse of any ecosystem on the planet.

Historic changes in the earth's climate[edit]

The term "climate change" is often used to describe the impact of human-caused pollution on the earth's climate, but is important to understand that climate change is also caused by natural phenomena.

History of Ice Ages

The earth's climate is subject to large fluctuations. The climate is dominated by ices ages[11], which reduce the earth's surface temperature and cover large parts of the surface in ice sheets. There have only been five ice ages to date, that have lasted from 30 million up to 300 million years. The most recent one occurred during to "Quaternary", which started about 2.5 million years ago and is still lasting. In between ice ages, the poles are not covered by glaciers and the temperature is higher. The climate is quite stable in these periods, however during ice ages strong variations occur. These variations are called glacial (cold) and interglacial (hot) periods[12]. Glacial and interglacial periods alternate every 5,000-15,000 years. The current interglacial period started 14,000 years ago.

Climate change mitigation[edit]

Several options are available to reduce the impacts of a changing climate. Most of these (the most efficient ones) are lifestyle changes (i.e. stop the burning of fossil fuels, stop eating meat etc.) and can be put in place today. We also do not need to wait for any specific technology to became available. Rather, the essential technology is already here today. Politicians often portray a different picture but it is rarely based in reality. Selected options include:

  • Reducing the release of greenhouse gasesW (GHG's) into the atmosphere (ie through energy efficiency, ...)
  • Prevent carbon dioxide from being released into the atmosphere (ie through carbon capture and storage (CCS), biochar, ...). With Carbon sequestration/CCS, after combusting a fuel, the CO2 is stored in a cavity underground.
  • Remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, e.g. through geo-engineering ocean fertilisation, planting extra trees, ...
  • Shield some of the planet from the sun, or reflect a proportion of sunlight back into space (i.e. by painting roads, parking spaces and roofs white, spraying sulphate aerosols into the stratosphere, ...)[13]
  • Climate change mitigation: build heat tolerant houses (passive solar with suitable insulation), flood control barriers, ...
  • Grin and bear it: put up with the inconveniences and the expected loss of biodiversity and increases in certain types of natural disasters and wait for extinction.

The IPCC already considers a 2°C temperature rise to be almost inevitable. In addition, it also advises the use of most other measures, yet stays critical of geoengineering options, due to the risks involved.

Climate change chain reactions[edit]

The change in temperature and weather has a huge impact on wildlife which can become dangerous if the change stays the same.Even the minor change of temperature can lead to earlier hatching of insects or melting of snow which protects snow rabbits from their natural hunters.These effects cause problems like insect overpopulation or too less surviving rabbits to reproduce sustainably.The insects are dangerous because they consume crops and other plans and in huge amounts they are even able to consume a whole field of possible food.Because this problem is getting bigger and even endangers species and if it goes on like this many species will die out and even our own food capacity may shrink exponentionally.

Climate Change on the Ocean[edit]

Earth is called the blue planet because approximately 72 percent of it is covered by oceans. The oceans influence the weather on local to global scales, while changes in climate can fundamentally alter many properties of the oceans.

Ocean conveyor system[edit]

The thermohaline circulation also called the great ocean conveyor belt or global ocean conveyor belt, is a large scale ocean circulation that distributes vast quantities of heat and moisture around on a planetary scale.

Gulf stream[edit]

Gulf stream has the length of 10.000 km. It is one of the largest and fastest ocean current on earth. Originating from the tip of Florida, at 2 m/s, it brings 100.000.000 m3/s water towards Europe.

Sea level rise[edit]

As water gets warmer, it takes up more space. Each drop of water only expands by a little bit, but when you multiply this expansion over the entire depth of the ocean, it all adds up and causes sea level to rise. But that's not the only cause of the rise of sea level. The rise of sea level also caused by the melting of glaciers and polar ice caps and ice loss from Greenland and West Antarctica.

Ocean acidification[edit]

Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease on ocean pH cause by human CO2 Emission. Ocean pH has decreased by about 30% already and if we continue emitting CO2 at the same rate by 2100 ocean acidity will increase by about 150%, a rate that has not been experienced for at least 400,000 years. Such a monumental alteration in basic ocean chemistry is likely to have wide implications for ocean life, especially for those organisms that require calcium carbonate to build shells or skeletons.

Impact of climate change on species[edit]

Through rising temperatures resulting in a shift of climate zones forces species to adapt to the new climatic conditions. By a rapidly increased temperature the risk for especially plants not to find areas with suitable living conditions early enough is higher. Observations of several species conclude that they are moving their ranges polewards to keep up with changing climate.


Notes[edit]

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_warming
  2. [1]
  3. www.knmi.nl/africa_scenarios/brochure_Afrika.pdf
  4. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/Water/images/precipitation_intensity_map.png Precipitation changes
  5. http://climatelab.org/@api/deki/files/462/=Desertification_map.png
  6. One solution is to grow more resilient crops, i.e. more resistant to changes in rainfall and disease
  7. 150000 people killed by global warming up to 2003
  8. http://climatelab.org/climate_change_security
  9. Sea level rise: 2m rise expected by the year 2100, 6.5m by 2200
  10. Earth under water documentary
  11. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_glaciation
  12. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_glaciation
  13. Note: this direct temperature reduction does not reduce carbon levels, so ocean acidification from higher carbon dioxide is still a problem

See also[edit]

Interwiki links[edit]

External Links[edit]

Skeptical Science [2]