Talk:Native crops by region

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Clearer Definitions[edit]

I think we need to better define a lot of things. How were the different regions chosen? By biodiversity, climate, culture, ecoregion, culture?

Also, importantly, it's not clear what primary, secondary, and supplementary/tertiary really means. Perhaps we'd be better off if we just made categories like sweetener crop, herb/spice/preservative crop, cash crop, cereal crop, staple crop, feed (animal feed) crop, oil crops, and entheogenic/narcotic crops (caffeine, weed, psychedelic, alcoholic, etc).

I agree. I would love if these definitions were based on some peer reviewed definitions! I am excited to see what you are developing here. Feel free to change it significantly, especially with some good citations. --Lonny (talk) 16:37, 17 March 2019 (PDT)

To be added[edit]

  • Momordica charantia
  • Cyclanthera pedata
  • Parmentiera edulis

KVDP 09:39, 23 July 2013 (PDT)

Reformatting the table[edit]

What do you think of a format more like this? It would reduce the need for excessive explaining of what all the codes and formats mean

Region Importance Use Crops
East Asia Primary Protein soybean [1], wild Azuki bean[2][3], wild rice bean[4]
Carbohydrate rice, foxtail millet [5][6]
Secondary tea bush [7]
Supplementary monk fruit [8][9]
Oceania Primary Carbohydrate yam[10], swamp taro [11]
Secondary great morinda [12], common nutmeg[13]
Supplementary sugarcane [14], Arenga palm[15], Asian Palmyra Palm [16], Nypa fruticans [17], True Sago Palm (for palm sugar production)[18], New Guinea Palmyra Palm[19][20]
coconut [21]
Central Asia Primary Protein Moringa oleifera [22], broad bean[23][24]Moth bean [25][26], Horse Gram[27][28]Guar bean, [29][30]wild Mung bean [31], Wild pigeon pea [32], Black gram[33]wild Velvet bean [34][35]
Carbohydrate taro [36]
Secondary black pepper [37], Hibiscus sabdariffa [38], lemon grass [39], Ceylon cinnamon [40], basil [41]
Supplementary Indian date palm (for palm sugar production)[42], Caryota urens [43]
West Asia and South Europe Primary Protein oat [44][45], wild pea [46], wild chickpea[47], lentil [48]
Carbohydrate wheat, rye [49][50], wild parsnip[51]
Secondary rosemary [52], spear mint [53], dill [54], coriander [55], saffron [56], anise [57], black and white mustard [58]
Supplementary Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) [59][60]
North Africa and South Africa Primary Protein wild cow pea[61][62]
Carbohydrate pearl millet, barley [63][64]
Secondary Kola nut [65]
Supplementary African Palmyra Palm[66], Ake Assi's Palmyra Palm[67][68]
Borassus madagascariensis[69][70]
Central Africa Primary Protein Wild hyacinth bean[71], White Wild Musk Mallow[72][73][74], Psophocarpus grandiflorus R. Wilczek[75][76]
Carbohydrate Sorghum bicolor, teff [77][78]
Secondary coffee plant (coffea arabica, coffea robusta)[79]
North Europe, North Asia, and North America Primary Protein Amaranthus hypochondriacus[80][81][82], American groundnut[83], wild tepary bean[84][85], slimjim bean [86]
Flatpod peavine[87]
Carbohydrate Northern wild rice [88], Wild rice[89], Texas wild rice[90], Jerusalem artichoke[91][92]
buckwheat[93][94], Manchurian wild rice[95]
Secondary sassafras albidum [96], Ephedra [97]
rosa canina [98], small-leaved linden [99], valerian [100], chamomile [101], garlic/Allium longicuspis [102]
Supplementary birch (Betula papyrifera var. humilis and Betula neoalaskana)[103], sugar maple[104]
honey (from Apis mellifera mellifera)[105][106][107], sweet cicely root[108],licorice [109]
Central America Primary Protein Amaranthus cruentus [110][111][112][113],wild runner bean[114][115]
Carbohydrate maize [116]
Secondary vanilla [117]
Supplementary sugar pine [118], Agave salmiana, Agave tequilana [119]
South America (north) Primary Protein quinoa [120][121][122], Amaranthus caudatus [123][124][125][126], lima bean [127][128], peanut, Lupinus piurensis[129][130][131]
Carbohydate potato [132]
Secondary Capsicum annuum [133], guarana [134]
Supplementary Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni and other species [135][136], yacón syrup [137]
South America (central) Primary Carbohydrate cassava [138]
South America (south) Primary Carbohydrate sweet potato [139][140]
Secondary yerba maté [141]

—The preceding comment was added by Tr3ndyBEAR (talkcontribs) 21:10, 11 March 2019‎


I think it looks much better like this! --Lonny (talk) 18:56, 12 March 2019 (PDT)

I'm going to change the page, but here's a copy of what it used to be:

Type of crops indicated in this article[edit]

Primary crops: divided in primary crops carbohydrates (PC_C_) and primary crops protein (PC_P_). Both abbreviations are followed by a number to indicate the region.
Secondary crops: abbreviation SC_ followed by a number to indicate the region. These are generally herbs, spices (most widely used kitchen herbs/spices) or crops for making beverages
Supplementary (or tertiary) crops: TC_ followed by a number to indicate the region. These crops are generally sweet crops or sweeteners

Not indicated crops[edit]

Fruits or "quartary crops" are not indicated on this page. Quintary crops or vegetables are also not indicated. Separate maps of both can be found via the links below.

Regions[edit]

Region 1: East-Asia
Region 2: Oceania
Region 3: Central-Asia
Region 4: West-Asia & South-Europe
Region 5: North-Africa & South-Africa
Region 6: Central-Africa
Region 7: North-Europe, North-Asia & North-America
Region 8: Central-America
Region 9: South-America (north)
Region 10: South-America (central)
Region 11: South-America (south)

Names of the native crops[edit]

PC_C_1: rice, foxtail millet [142][143]
PC_P_1: soybean [144], wild Azuki bean[145][146], wild rice bean[147]
SC_1: tea bush [148]
TC_1: monk fruit [149][150]
PC_C_2: yam[151], swamp taro [152]
PC_P_2:
SC_2: great morinda [153], common nutmeg[154]
TC_2: sugarcane [155], Arenga palm[156], Asian Palmyra Palm [157], Nypa fruticans [158], True Sago Palm (for palm sugar production)[159], New Guinea Palmyra Palm[160][161]
TC_2-1: coconut [162]
PC_C_3: taro [163]
PC_P_3: Moringa oleifera [164], broad bean[165][166]Moth bean [167][168], Horse Gram[169][170]Guar bean, [171][172]wild Mung bean [173], Wild pigeon pea [174], Black gram[175]wild Velvet bean [176][177]
SC_3: black pepper [178], Hibiscus sabdariffa [179], lemon grass [180], Ceylon cinnamon [181], basil [182]
TC_3: Indian date palm (for palm sugar production)[183], Caryota urens [184]
PC_C_4: wheat, rye [185][186], wild parsnip[187]
PC_P_4: oat [188][189], wild pea [190], wild chickpea[191], lentil [192]
SC_4: rosemary [193], spear mint [194], dill [195], coriander [196], saffron [197], anise [198], black and white mustard [199]
TC_4: Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) [200][201]
PC_C_5: pearl millet, barley [202][203]
PC_P_5: wild cow pea[204][205]
SC_5: Kola nut [206]
TC_5: African Palmyra Palm[207], Ake Assi's Palmyra Palm[208][209]
TC_5-2:Borassus madagascariensis[210][211]
PC_C_6: Sorghum bicolor, teff [212][213]
PC_P_6: Wild hyacinth bean[214], White Wild Musk Mallow[215][216][217], Psophocarpus grandiflorus R. Wilczek[218][219]
SC_6: coffee plant (coffea arabica, coffea robusta)[220]
TC_6:
PC_C_7: Northern wild rice [221], Wild rice[222], Texas wild rice[223], Jerusalem artichoke[224][225]
PC_P_7: Amaranthus hypochondriacus[226][227][228], American groundnut[229], wild tepary bean[230][231], slimjim bean [232]
SC_7: sassafras albidum [233], Ephedra [234]
PC_C_7-2: buckwheat[235][236], Manchurian wild rice[237]
PC_P_7-2: Flatpod peavine[238],
SC_7-2: rosa canina [239], small-leaved linden [240], valerian [241], chamomile [242], garlic/Allium longicuspis [243]
TC_7: birch (Betula papyrifera var. humilis and Betula neoalaskana)[244], sugar maple[245]
TC_7-2: honey (from Apis mellifera mellifera)[246][247][248], sweet cicely root[249],licorice [250]
PC_C_8: maize [251]
PC_P_8: Amaranthus cruentus [252][253][254][255],wild runner bean[256][257]
SC_8: vanilla [258]
TC_8: sugar pine [259], Agave salmiana, Agave tequilana [260]
PC_C_9: potato [261]
PC_P_9: quinoa [262][263][264], Amaranthus caudatus [265][266][267][268], lima bean [269][270], peanut, Lupinus piurensis[271][272][273]
SC_9: Capsicum annuum [274], guarana [275]
TC_9: Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni and other species [276][277], yacón syrup [278]
PC_C_10: cassava [279]
PC_P_10:
SC_10:
TC_10:
PC_C_11: sweet potato [280][281]
PC_P_11:
SC_11: yerba maté [282]
TC_11:
  1. Soybean's origin=Korea
  2. Vigna angularis var. nipponensis ancestor to Azuki bean
  3. Wild azuki bean native to Japan
  4. Vigna umbellata var.gracilis native to Southern China, near Vietnam
  5. Rice's origin= China, 3 locations along Yangtsekiang
  6. Foxtail millet origin=China (though somewhat more north than indicated)
  7. Tea bush (var. sinensis) native to western Yunnan, while C. sinensis var. assamica is native to the warmer parts of Assam (India)
  8. Monk fruit native to china, near taiwan
  9. Luo han guo
  10. Yam's origin=Indonesia
  11. Swamp taro origin=melanesia
  12. Great morinda native to Southeast Asia (Indonesia) and Australia
  13. Common nutmeg native to the Banda Islands of Indonesia
  14. Sugarcane encompassing 37 species, indigenous to tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia. Different species likely originated in different locations, with S. barberi originating in India and S. edule and S. officinarum coming from New Guinea
  15. Arenga pinnata palm native to tropical Asia, from eastern India east to Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines in the east.
  16. Borassus flabellifer native along the entire northern shores of the Indian Ocean, from the mouth of the Tigris to New Guinea, yet more dominant in region between Indonesia and Pakistan
  17. Nypa fruticans native within the Indomalaya ecozone -in southern Asia, Indochina, the Malesian region, and northern Australia-
  18. Metroxylon sagu native to western New Guinea
  19. Borassus heineanus native to New Guinea
  20. Borassus heineanus used probably as a same way as Borassus akeasi, so not for palm sugar
  21. Cocunut's origin: somewhere between northwest-South america and Melanesia
  22. Moringa oleifera native to northwestern India
  23. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vicia_faba Vicia faba has been cultivated since 6000 BC, unknown ancestor
  24. Vicia faba native to Afghanistan
  25. Phaseolus aconitifolius native to East India
  26. Moth bean can be consumed by humans
  27. Macrotyloma uniflorum native to India
  28. Horse Gram being high in protein content, can be consumed as seed or meal for humans
  29. Cyamopsis tetragonoloba native to northwest India
  30. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/afcm/guar.html Guar bean rich in protein
  31. Vigna radiata var.sublobata native to India
  32. Cajanus cajan native to north-east India
  33. Vigna mungo var.silvestris native to India
  34. Mucuna pruriens having no ancestors
  35. Mucuna pruriens native to Southern China, near East India
  36. Taro origin=between India & Bangladesh
  37. Black pepper native to Western Ghats of Kerala State, India
  38. Hibiscus sabdariffa native to tropical Asia, from India to Malaysia
  39. Lemon grass species native to Southern India, Sri Lanka
  40. Ceylon cinnamon native to Sri Lanka
  41. Basil native to northeast India
  42. Indian date palm native to southern Pakistan, most of India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh
  43. Caryota urens native to Sri Lanka, Singapore, Myanmar, and India
  44. Oat origin=Fertile Crescent, Near East
  45. Oat having high comparitive protein content, thus usable as PC_P crop
  46. Pisum sativum elatius native to Bulgaria - Mediterranean basin, Near East. Earliest archaeological finds of peas come from Neolithic Syria, Turkey and Jordan.
  47. Cicer reticulatum native to southeastern Turkey and Syria
  48. Lentils native to eastern Turkey, north Syria
  49. Wheat origin=Fertile Crescent, Near East
  50. Rye origin=Fertile Crescent, Near East
  51. Pastinaca sativa sylvestris native to Eurasia, primarily east Europe (Ukraine, Azerbaijan)
  52. Rosemary native to the Mediterranean area
  53. Mentha cordifolia native to much of Europe and southwest Asia
  54. Dill native to southern Russia/East Europe
  55. Coriander native to southwestern Asia west to north Africa
  56. Saffron native to Southwest Asia, near Greece
  57. Anise native to the eastern Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia
  58. Black mustard native to southern Mediterranean region, white mustard (sinapis alba) native to the Mediterranean region and the Crimea
  59. Date palm native to Persian Gulf, near Syria
  60. Note that other data palms too exist, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoenix_(plant) yet not all are used for human consumption
  61. Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata var spontanea ancestor of cow pea
  62. Wild cow pea native to West Africa, native to savanna
  63. Pearl millet origin=West Africa, near the Sahel strip
  64. Barley origin=Egypt
  65. Kola nut native to the tropical forests of West Africa
  66. Borassus aethiopum native to Sudan and the whole northern Sahelian border, in particular in the east an in savannah vegetation
  67. Borassus akeassii native to West Africa, ie Burkina Faso
  68. Borassus akeassii mainly used for preparing drinks, not for palm sugar
  69. Borassus madagascariensis native to Madagascar
  70. Sambirano Palmyra Palm also exists in Madagascar yet has no particular use, ref:Plant Resources of Tropical Africa: Vegetables by G. J. H. Grubben
  71. Lablab purpureus subsp. uncinatus native to East Africa
  72. Abelmoschus ficulneus ancestor of Abelmoschus esculentus
  73. Abelmoschus ficulneus native to Ethiopia
  74. Abelmoschus ficulneus bearing edible fruit
  75. Psophocarpus grandiflorus ancestor to Psophocarpus tetragonolobus
  76. Psophocarpus grandiflorus native to east Africa (area between Ethiopia and Uganda)
  77. Origin sorghum bicolor= between Ehiopia & Sudan (also named Sudanese grass)
  78. Teff origin=Ethiopia
  79. Coffee native to Ethiopia
  80. Compararing protein crops
  81. Amaranth high in nutrients, useful as PC_P crop
  82. Amaranthus hypochondricus origin=North America
  83. Apios americana native to eastern southern, central North America
  84. [http://www.seedsofchange.com/enewsletter/issue_56/tepary_beans.aspx Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray native to Sonoran desert
  85. No ancestors of tepary bean
  86. Phaeseolus filiformis native to Sonoran desert
  87. Lathyrus cicera native to south-east Europe, ancestor of Lathyrus sativa
  88. Zizania palustris native to Great lakes region, USA
  89. Zizania aquatica native to Saint Lawrence River, USA
  90. Zizania texana native to San Marcos River in central Texas, USA
  91. Helianthus tuberosus native to eastern Canada and northeastern USA
  92. Helianthus tuberosus as ancestor of sunflower
  93. Buckwheat origin=northern hemisphere
  94. http://www.cliffordawright.com/caw/food/entries/display.php/topic_id/9/id/122/ Buckwheat origin=between Lac Baikal & Manchuria]
  95. Zizania latifolia native to Manchuria, China
  96. Sassafras albidum native to eastern North America, from southern Maine and southern Ontario west to Iowa, and south to central Florida and eastern Texas
  97. Ephedra funerea, Ephedra viridis and Ephedra nevadensis native to Nevada, California
  98. Rosa canina native to Europe, including Britain, northwest Africa and western Asia
  99. small-leaved linden native to much of Europe and western Asia
  100. Valerian native to Europe and parts of Asia
  101. chamomile native to Europe and Western Asia
  102. Allium longicuspis native to central and southwestern Asia
  103. Betula papyrifera var. humilis and Betula neoalaskana native to Alaska, northern Canada
  104. Sugar maple (used to make maple syrup) native to the hardwood forests of northeastern North America, from Nova Scotia west to southern Ontario, and south to Georgia and Texas.
  105. Apis florea and Apis andreniformis native to South and South East Asia (including the Philippines)
  106. Apis mellifera mellifera native to East-Europe
  107. Apis mellifera having 14 subspecies, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Honeybee and http://www.imkerpedia.nl/wiki/index.php/Ondersoorten_van_de_Apis_mellifera
  108. Sweet cicely native to Europe
  109. Licorice native to southeastern Europe, near Romania/Bulgaria
  110. Compararing protein crops
  111. Amaranth high in nutrients, useful as PC_P crop
  112. Amaranthus cruentus origin=Central America
  113. Amaranthus cruentus origin=Central America
  114. Phaseolus formosus Kunth. ancestor of Phaseolus coccineus
  115. Phaseolus formosus Kunth. native to region between north Mexico and Panama
  116. Maize's origin=Mexico
  117. Vanilla native to Mexico
  118. Sugar pine native to the mountains of the Pacific coast of North America, from Oregon through California to Baja California
  119. Agave salmiana and Agave tequilana native to central Mexico
  120. Quinoa indigenous to Peru, protein content=14g/100g serving
  121. Quinoa origin=around Lake Titicaca
  122. Quinoa having high comparitive protein content, hence useful as PC_P_ crop
  123. Comparing protein crops
  124. Amaranth high in nutrients, useful as PC_P crop
  125. Amaranthus caudatus origin=Peru
  126. Amaranthus causates origin=south America
  127. Phaseolus lunatus origin=Andes
  128. Phaseolus lunatus var. silvester Baudet ancestor of Lima bean
  129. [www.systbot.uzh.ch/static/personen/colin_hughes_assets/Lupinus.pdf Lupinus piurensis ancestor of Lupinus mutabilis]
  130. Lupinus piurensis native to the western slopes of the Andes, Peru
  131. Lupinus piurensis bearing edible plant parts, after treatment
  132. Potato origin=Peru
  133. Capsicum species having a common ancestor which originated somewhere in the northwest Brazil - Colombia area
  134. Guarana native to the Amazon, in the region of Manaus and Parintins
  135. Stevia encompassing 240 species, native to subtropical and tropical regions from western North America to South America
  136. Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni is native to Paraguay
  137. Yacón native to lower Andes/Peru
  138. Cassava origin= west-central Brazil
  139. Sweet potato origin=South America
  140. Cassava's origin
  141. Yerba maté native to subtropical South America in northeastern Argentina, Bolivia, southern Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay
  142. Rice's origin= China, 3 locations along Yangtsekiang
  143. Foxtail millet origin=China (though somewhat more north than indicated)
  144. Soybean's origin=Korea
  145. Vigna angularis var. nipponensis ancestor to Azuki bean
  146. Wild azuki bean native to Japan
  147. Vigna umbellata var.gracilis native to Southern China, near Vietnam
  148. Tea bush (var. sinensis) native to western Yunnan, while C. sinensis var. assamica is native to the warmer parts of Assam (India)
  149. Monk fruit native to china, near taiwan
  150. Luo han guo
  151. Yam's origin=Indonesia
  152. Swamp taro origin=melanesia
  153. Great morinda native to Southeast Asia (Indonesia) and Australia
  154. Common nutmeg native to the Banda Islands of Indonesia
  155. Sugarcane encompassing 37 species, indigenous to tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia. Different species likely originated in different locations, with S. barberi originating in India and S. edule and S. officinarum coming from New Guinea
  156. Arenga pinnata palm native to tropical Asia, from eastern India east to Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines in the east.
  157. Borassus flabellifer native along the entire northern shores of the Indian Ocean, from the mouth of the Tigris to New Guinea, yet more dominant in region between Indonesia and Pakistan
  158. Nypa fruticans native within the Indomalaya ecozone -in southern Asia, Indochina, the Malesian region, and northern Australia-
  159. Metroxylon sagu native to western New Guinea
  160. Borassus heineanus native to New Guinea
  161. Borassus heineanus used probably as a same way as Borassus akeasi, so not for palm sugar
  162. Cocunut's origin: somewhere between northwest-South america and Melanesia
  163. Taro origin=between India & Bangladesh
  164. Moringa oleifera native to northwestern India
  165. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vicia_faba Vicia faba has been cultivated since 6000 BC, unknown ancestor
  166. Vicia faba native to Afghanistan
  167. Phaseolus aconitifolius native to East India
  168. Moth bean can be consumed by humans
  169. Macrotyloma uniflorum native to India
  170. Horse Gram being high in protein content, can be consumed as seed or meal for humans
  171. Cyamopsis tetragonoloba native to northwest India
  172. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/afcm/guar.html Guar bean rich in protein
  173. Vigna radiata var.sublobata native to India
  174. Cajanus cajan native to north-east India
  175. Vigna mungo var.silvestris native to India
  176. Mucuna pruriens having no ancestors
  177. Mucuna pruriens native to Southern China, near East India
  178. Black pepper native to Western Ghats of Kerala State, India
  179. Hibiscus sabdariffa native to tropical Asia, from India to Malaysia
  180. Lemon grass species native to Southern India, Sri Lanka
  181. Ceylon cinnamon native to Sri Lanka
  182. Basil native to northeast India
  183. Indian date palm native to southern Pakistan, most of India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh
  184. Caryota urens native to Sri Lanka, Singapore, Myanmar, and India
  185. Wheat origin=Fertile Crescent, Near East
  186. Rye origin=Fertile Crescent, Near East
  187. Pastinaca sativa sylvestris native to Eurasia, primarily east Europe (Ukraine, Azerbaijan)
  188. Oat origin=Fertile Crescent, Near East
  189. Oat having high comparitive protein content, thus usable as PC_P crop
  190. Pisum sativum elatius native to Bulgaria - Mediterranean basin, Near East. Earliest archaeological finds of peas come from Neolithic Syria, Turkey and Jordan.
  191. Cicer reticulatum native to southeastern Turkey and Syria
  192. Lentils native to eastern Turkey, north Syria
  193. Rosemary native to the Mediterranean area
  194. Mentha cordifolia native to much of Europe and southwest Asia
  195. Dill native to southern Russia/East Europe
  196. Coriander native to southwestern Asia west to north Africa
  197. Saffron native to Southwest Asia, near Greece
  198. Anise native to the eastern Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia
  199. Black mustard native to southern Mediterranean region, white mustard (sinapis alba) native to the Mediterranean region and the Crimea
  200. Date palm native to Persian Gulf, near Syria
  201. Note that other data palms too exist, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoenix_(plant) yet not all are used for human consumption
  202. Pearl millet origin=West Africa, near the Sahel strip
  203. Barley origin=Egypt
  204. Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata var spontanea ancestor of cow pea
  205. Wild cow pea native to West Africa, native to savanna
  206. Kola nut native to the tropical forests of West Africa
  207. Borassus aethiopum native to Sudan and the whole northern Sahelian border, in particular in the east an in savannah vegetation
  208. Borassus akeassii native to West Africa, ie Burkina Faso
  209. Borassus akeassii mainly used for preparing drinks, not for palm sugar
  210. Borassus madagascariensis native to Madagascar
  211. Sambirano Palmyra Palm also exists in Madagascar yet has no particular use, ref:Plant Resources of Tropical Africa: Vegetables by G. J. H. Grubben
  212. Origin sorghum bicolor= between Ehiopia & Sudan (also named Sudanese grass)
  213. Teff origin=Ethiopia
  214. Lablab purpureus subsp. uncinatus native to East Africa
  215. Abelmoschus ficulneus ancestor of Abelmoschus esculentus
  216. Abelmoschus ficulneus native to Ethiopia
  217. Abelmoschus ficulneus bearing edible fruit
  218. Psophocarpus grandiflorus ancestor to Psophocarpus tetragonolobus
  219. Psophocarpus grandiflorus native to east Africa (area between Ethiopia and Uganda)
  220. Coffee native to Ethiopia
  221. Zizania palustris native to Great lakes region, USA
  222. Zizania aquatica native to Saint Lawrence River, USA
  223. Zizania texana native to San Marcos River in central Texas, USA
  224. Helianthus tuberosus native to eastern Canada and northeastern USA
  225. Helianthus tuberosus as ancestor of sunflower
  226. Compararing protein crops
  227. Amaranth high in nutrients, useful as PC_P crop
  228. Amaranthus hypochondricus origin=North America
  229. Apios americana native to eastern southern, central North America
  230. [http://www.seedsofchange.com/enewsletter/issue_56/tepary_beans.aspx Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray native to Sonoran desert
  231. No ancestors of tepary bean
  232. Phaeseolus filiformis native to Sonoran desert
  233. Sassafras albidum native to eastern North America, from southern Maine and southern Ontario west to Iowa, and south to central Florida and eastern Texas
  234. Ephedra funerea, Ephedra viridis and Ephedra nevadensis native to Nevada, California
  235. Buckwheat origin=northern hemisphere
  236. http://www.cliffordawright.com/caw/food/entries/display.php/topic_id/9/id/122/ Buckwheat origin=between Lac Baikal & Manchuria]
  237. Zizania latifolia native to Manchuria, China
  238. Lathyrus cicera native to south-east Europe, ancestor of Lathyrus sativa
  239. Rosa canina native to Europe, including Britain, northwest Africa and western Asia
  240. small-leaved linden native to much of Europe and western Asia
  241. Valerian native to Europe and parts of Asia
  242. chamomile native to Europe and Western Asia
  243. Allium longicuspis native to central and southwestern Asia
  244. Betula papyrifera var. humilis and Betula neoalaskana native to Alaska, northern Canada
  245. Sugar maple (used to make maple syrup) native to the hardwood forests of northeastern North America, from Nova Scotia west to southern Ontario, and south to Georgia and Texas.
  246. Apis florea and Apis andreniformis native to South and South East Asia (including the Philippines)
  247. Apis mellifera mellifera native to East-Europe
  248. Apis mellifera having 14 subspecies, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Honeybee and http://www.imkerpedia.nl/wiki/index.php/Ondersoorten_van_de_Apis_mellifera
  249. Sweet cicely native to Europe
  250. Licorice native to southeastern Europe, near Romania/Bulgaria
  251. Maize's origin=Mexico
  252. Compararing protein crops
  253. Amaranth high in nutrients, useful as PC_P crop
  254. Amaranthus cruentus origin=Central America
  255. Amaranthus cruentus origin=Central America
  256. Phaseolus formosus Kunth. ancestor of Phaseolus coccineus
  257. Phaseolus formosus Kunth. native to region between north Mexico and Panama
  258. Vanilla native to Mexico
  259. Sugar pine native to the mountains of the Pacific coast of North America, from Oregon through California to Baja California
  260. Agave salmiana and Agave tequilana native to central Mexico
  261. Potato origin=Peru
  262. Quinoa indigenous to Peru, protein content=14g/100g serving
  263. Quinoa origin=around Lake Titicaca
  264. Quinoa having high comparitive protein content, hence useful as PC_P_ crop
  265. Comparing protein crops
  266. Amaranth high in nutrients, useful as PC_P crop
  267. Amaranthus caudatus origin=Peru
  268. Amaranthus causates origin=south America
  269. Phaseolus lunatus origin=Andes
  270. Phaseolus lunatus var. silvester Baudet ancestor of Lima bean
  271. [www.systbot.uzh.ch/static/personen/colin_hughes_assets/Lupinus.pdf Lupinus piurensis ancestor of Lupinus mutabilis]
  272. Lupinus piurensis native to the western slopes of the Andes, Peru
  273. Lupinus piurensis bearing edible plant parts, after treatment
  274. Capsicum species having a common ancestor which originated somewhere in the northwest Brazil - Colombia area
  275. Guarana native to the Amazon, in the region of Manaus and Parintins
  276. Stevia encompassing 240 species, native to subtropical and tropical regions from western North America to South America
  277. Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni is native to Paraguay
  278. Yacón native to lower Andes/Peru
  279. Cassava origin= west-central Brazil
  280. Sweet potato origin=South America
  281. Cassava's origin
  282. Yerba maté native to subtropical South America in northeastern Argentina, Bolivia, southern Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay