Recipes from the past
The following unorganized list of recipes has been taken from the Household Cyclopedia, published in 1881. This publication has hundreds of almost lost recipes, such as how the make mock turtle soup from a calf's head!
This book also contains some terms from our past that may take a bit of detective work. The book's list of measurements is placed first so that you will know about gills and pecks. And be careful of certain advice such as the suggestion to use molds made of lead for candy making. Remember that this advice dates back over 100 years, well before many modern understandings of health and safety concerns.
Weights and measures[edit | edit source]
Solids[edit | edit source]
Butter, when soft, one pound is one quart.
Eggs, ten are one pound.
Flour, wheat, one pound is one quart.
Meal, Indian, one pound two ounces is one quart.
Sugar, best brown, one pound two ounces is one quart.
Sugar, loaf, broken, one pound Is one quart.
Sugar, white, powdered, one pound one ounce is one quart.
Flour, four quarts are half a peck.
Flour, sixteen quarts are half a bushel.
Liquids[edit | edit source]
Four tablespoonfuls are half a gill.
Eight spoonfuls are one gill.
Two gills, or sixteen spoonfuls, are half a pint.
Two pints are one quart.
Four quarts are one gallon.
Sixty drops are one teaspoonful.
Four tablespoonfuls are one wineglassful.
Twelve spoonfuls are one teacupful.
Sixteen spoonfuls, or half a pint, are one tumblerful.
Sample recipes[edit | edit source]
Salads[edit | edit source]
Cole-Slaw: Get a fresh cabbage, take off the outside leaves, out it in half, and with a sharp knife shave it into fine slips. Put it into a deep dish, and pour over it a dressing prepared in the following manner: Beat up 2 eggs, add to it 1 gill of vinegar and water mixed; place it on the range; when it begins to thicken stir in a piece of butter the size of a small walnut, a little salt, when cold pour it over the cabbage and stir it together; and before sending to table sprinkle with a little black pepper.
Pasta[edit | edit source]
A Dish of Macaroni: Boil 4 ounces of macaroni till it is quite tender, then lay it on a sieve to drain, and put it into a stewpan with about a gill of cream, and a piece of butter rolled in flour; stew it five minutes and pour it on a plate. Lay Parmesan cheese toasted all over it’ and send it up in a water-plate.
Vegetables[edit | edit source]
To boil peas: Early peas require about half an hour to boil and the later kinds rather longer, the water should boil when they are put in; when they are tough and yellow, they may be made tender and green by putting in a little pearl-ash or ashes tied up in a bag, just before they are taken up, this will tender all green vegetables, but do not put too much; when done dip them out; drain and season them with butter, pepper and salt; put a bench of parsley in the middle of the dish.
String beans: These, to be tender, should be boiled from three to four hours, after the strings have been very carefully removed. Add a little butter, salt and black pepper when they are dished.
Potatoes[edit | edit source]
Be careful in your choice of potatoes; no vegetable varies so much in color, size, shape, consistence and flavor. Choose those of a large size, free from blemishes, and fresh, and buy them in the mould; they must not be wetted till they are cleaned to be cooked. Protect them from the air and frost by laying them in heaps in a cellar, covering them with mats or burying them in sand or in earth. The action of frost is most destructive, if it be considerable, the life of the vegetable is destroyed, and the potato speedily rots.
General instructions: The vegetable kingdom affords no food more wholesome, more easily prepared, or less expensive than the potato, yet, although this most useful vegetable is dressed almost every day, in almost every family-for one plate of potatoes that comes to table as it should, ten are spoiled.
To steam potatoes: Put them clean-washed, with their skins on, into a steam saucepan, and let The water under them be about half boiling; let them continue to boil rather quickly, until they are done. If the water once relaxes from its heat the potato is sure to be affected, and to become sodden, let the quality be ever so good. A too precipitate boiling is equally disadvantageous, as the higher parts to the surface of the root begin to crack and open while the centre part continues unheated and undecomposed.
1. Potatoes boiled: This method of managing potatoes is in every respect equal to steaming them; and they are dressed in half the time.
- Wash them, but do not pare or cut them unless they are very large; fill a saucepan half full of potatoes of equal size (or make them so by dividing the larger ones), put to them as much cold water as will cover them about an inch: they are sooner boiled, and more savory than when drowned in water; most boiled things are spoiled by having too little water, but potatoes are often spoiled by too much; they must merely be covered, and a little allowed for waste in boiling) so that they may be just covered at the finish.
- Set them on a moderate fire till they boil, then take them off, and set them by the side of the fire to simmer slowly till they are soft enough to admit a fork (place no dependence on the usual test of their skin cracking, which, if they are boiled fast, will happen to some potatoes when they are not half done, and the inside is quite hard); then pour the water off (if you let the potatoes remain in the water a moment after they are done enough they will become waxy and watery), uncover the saucepan, and set it at such a distance from the fire as will secure it from burning; their superfluous moisture will evaporate, and the potatoes will be perfectly dry and mealy.
- There is such an infinite variety of sorts and sizes of potatoes, that it is impossible to say how long they will take to cook; the best way is to try them with a fork. Moderate sized potatoes will generally be done in fifteen or twenty minutes.
- You may afterwards place a napkin, folded up to the size of the saucepan’s diameter, over the potatoes, to keep them hot and mealy till wanted.
2. Cold potatoes fried: Put a bit of clean dripping into a frying pan; when it is melted slice in your potatoes with a little pepper and salt, put them on the fire, keep stirring them; when they are quite hot they are ready.
3. Potatoes boiled and broiled: Dress your potatoes as before directed, and put them on a gridiron over a very clear and brisk fire; turn them till they are brown all over, and send them up dry, with melted butter in a cup.
4. Potatoes fried in slices or shavings: Peel large potatoes, slice them about a quarter of an inch thick, or cut them in shavings round and round as you would peel a lemon. Dry them well in a clean cloth, and fry them in lard or dripping. Take care that your fat and frying pan are quite clean; put the pan on a quick fire, watch it, and as soon as the lard boils, and is still, put in the slices of potatoes, and keep moving them till they are crisp; take them up and lay them to drain on a sieve: send them up with a very little salt sprinkled over them.
5. Potatoes fried whole: When nearly boiled enough, as directed above (under "Boiling"), put them into a stew-pan with a bit of butter, or some nice clean beef drippings; shake them about often (for fear of burning them) till they are brown and crisp; drain them from the fat. It will be an improvement to the three last receipts, previously to frying or broiling the potatoes, to flour them and dip them in the yolk of an egg, and then roll them in fine sifted breadcrumbs.
6. Potatoes mashed: When your potatoes are thoroughly boiled, drain dry, pick out every speck, etc., and while hot rub them through a colander into a clean stew-pan, to a pound of potatoes put about half an ounce of butter, and a tablespoonful of milk; do not make them too moist; mix them well together.
7. Potatoes Mashed with onions: Prepare some boiled onions, by putting them through a sieve, and mix them with potatoes. In proportioning the onions to the potatoes, you will be guided by your wish to have more or less of their flavor.
8. Potatoes escalope: Mash potatoes as directed in above, then butter some nice clean scallop shells, or patty-pans; put in your potatoes, make them smooth at the top, cross a knife over them, strew a few fine bread crumbs on them, sprinkle them with a paste brush with a few drops of melted butter, and then set them in a Dutch oven; when they are browned on the top, take them carefully out of the shells, and brown the other side.
9. Colcannon: Boil potatoes and greens, or spinach, separately; mash the potatoes, squeeze the greens dry, chop them quite fine, and mix them with the potatoes with a little butter, pepper and salt; put it into a mould, greasing it well first; let it stand in a hot oven for ten minutes
10. Potatoes roasted: Wash and dry your potatoes (all of a size), and put them in a tin Dutch oven, or cheese toaster; take care not to put them too near the fire, or they will get burnt on the outside before they are warmed through. Large potatoes will require two hours to roast them.
11. Potatoes roasted under meat: Half boil large potatoes, drain the water from them, and put them into an earthen dish, or small tin pan under meat that is roasting, and baste them with some of the dripping when they are browsed on one side, turn them and brown the other; send them up round the meat, or in a small dish
12. Potato balls: Mix mashed potatoes with the yolk of an egg, roll them into balls, flour them, or egg and breadcrumb them, and fry them in clean drippings, or brown them in a Dutch oven.
13. Potato snow: The potatoes must be free from spots, and the whitest you can pick out; put them on in cold water; when they begin to crack strain the water from them, and put them into a dean stew-pan by the side of the fire till they are quite dry and fall to pieces; rub them through a wire sieve on the dish they are to be sent up in and do not disturb them afterwards.
14. Potato pie: Peel and slice your potatoes very thin into a pie dish. Between each layer of potatoes put a little chopped onion (three-quarters of an ounce of onion is sufficient for a pound of potatoes), between each layer sprinkle a little pepper and salt, put in a little water and cut about two ounces of fresh butter into little bits and lay it on The top, cover it close with puff paste. It will take about an hour and a half to bake it.
Tomatoes[edit | edit source]
To broil (top-down grill) tomatoes: Wash and wipe the tomatoes, and put them on the gridiron over live coals, with the stem down. When that side is brown turn them and let them cook through. Put them on a hot dish and send quickly to table, to be there seasoned to taste.
To bake tomatoes: Season them with salt and pepper. Flour them over, put them in a deep plate with a little butter and bake in a stove.
Mushrooms[edit | edit source]
Be careful in gathering mushrooms that you have the right kind: they are pink underneath and white on the top, and the skin will peel off easily, but it sticks to the poisonous ones: and the smell and taste of the good ones are not rank. After you have peeled them, sprinkle them with salt and pepper, and put them in a stew-pan, with a little water and a lump of butter. Let them boil fast ten minutes, and stir in a thickening of flour and cream. They may be fried in butter, or broiled on a gridiron. They are sometimes very abundant in the fall, on ground that has not been ploughed for several years; they appear after a warm rain. They may be peeled, salted, and allowed to stand for some hours before cooking.
Meats[edit | edit source]
Chicken pot-pie: Take a pair of tender, fat chickens, singe, open and cut them into pieces, by separating all the joints. Wash them through several waters, with eight or ten pared white potatoes, which put into a pan, and, after seasoning highly with salt and black pepper, dredge in three tablespoonful of flour. Stir well together, then line the sides (half way up) of a medium-sized stew-kettle with paste made with two pounds of flour and one of butter. Put the chicken and potato into the kettle with water just sufficient to cover them. Roll out some paste for a cover, the size of the kettle, and join it with that on The sides; cut a small opening in the centre, cover the kettle, and hang it over clear fire or set it in the oven, as moist convenient turn the kettle round occasionally, that the sides may be equally browned. Two hours over a clear fire, or in a quick oven, will cook it. When done, cut the top crust into moderate-sized pieces, and place it round a large dish, then, with a perforated skimmer, take up the chicken and potatoes and place in the centre; cut the side crust and lay it on the top, put the gravy in a sauce tureen, and send all to table hot.
Grains, seeds and cereals[edit | edit source]
Oatmeal gruel: Boil a handful of raisins in a pint of water for ten minutes. Mix 2 tablespoonfuls of good oatmeal with a little cold water, and pour it into saucepan, and boil fifteen or twenty minutes. Salt a little, and sweeten to taste.
Arrowroot: Mix 2 tablespoonfuls of arrow-root (Bermuda is the best) in a little water to a paste. Add a little lemon or orange peel to a pint of boiling water, and stir in the arrowroot while boiling. Cook it till clear, and season with nutmeg and sugar to taste, and wine, if desired. Half milk and half water, or all milk, may be used instead of water.
Tapioca: Cover 3 tablespoonfuls of tapioca with water, and soak it two or three hours. Add a little water to it, and boil till clear. Sweeten to taste, and eat alone or with cream.
Tapioca jelly: Wash thoroughly 2 tablespoonfuls of tapioca; pour over it a pint of water, and soak for three hours. Place it then over a slow fire and simmer till quite clear. If too thick, add a little boiling water. Sweeten with white sugar, and flavor with a little wine.
Apple tapioca: Pare, core, and quarter 8 apples, take 1/2 tablespoonful tapioca which has been all night soaking in water; add 1/2 teacupful white sugar, and a little nutmeg or cinnamon. Put the tapioca into a stew-pan to simmer 10 minutes; then add The apples, and simmer ten minutes more. When cold it will form a jelly around the apples.
Puddings[edit | edit source]
To make Dr. Kitchener’s pudding: Beat up the yolks and whites of 3 eggs, strain them through a sieve, and gradually add to them about a quarter of a pint of milk. Stir these well together. Mix in a mortar 2 ounces of moist sugar and as much grated nutmeg as will lie on a six pence; stir these into the eggs and milk; then put in 4 ounces of flour, and beat it into a smooth batter; stir in, gradually, 8 ounces of very fine chopped suet and 3 ounces of bread-crumbs. Mix all thoroughly together, at least half an hour before putting the pudding into the pot. Put it into an earthenware mould that is well buttered, and tie a pudding-cloth over it.
Nottingham pudding: Peel 6 good apples; take out the cores with the point of a small knife, tent be sure to leave the apples whole, fill up where the core was taken from with sugar, place them in a pie-dish, and pour over them a nice light batter, prepared as for batter pudding, and bake them an hour in a moderate oven.
To make Yorkshire pudding: This nice dish is usually baked under meat, and is thus made. Beat 4 large spoonful of flour, 2 eggs, and a little salt for fifteen minutes, put to them 3 pints of milk, and mix them well together: then butter a dripping-pan, and set it under beef, mutton, or veal, while roasting. When it is brown, cut it into square pieces, and turn it over, and, when the under side is browned also, send it to the table on a dish.
Dutch pudding: Cut a round piece out of the bottom of a Dutch loaf, and put that and the piece that was cut out into a quart of cold new milk, in the evening, and let it stand all night. If the milk is all soaked up by the morning, add some more. Put the piece in the bottom again, tic the loaf up in a cloth, and boil it an hour. Eat it with sugar, or with melted butter, white wine, and sugar sauce.
To make a dish of frumenty: Boil an approved quantity of wheat; when soft, pour off thewater, and keep it for use as it is wanted. The method of using it is to put milk to make it of an agreeable thickness; then, warming it, adding some sugar and nutmeg.
To make a Windsor pudding: Shred half a pound of suet very fine, grate into it half a pound of French roll, a little nutmeg, and the rind of a lemon. Add to these half a pound of chopped apples, half a pound of currants, clean washed and dried, half a pound of jar raisins, stoned and chopped, a glass of rich sweet wine, and 5 eggs, beaten with a little salt. Mix all thoroughly together, and boil it in a basin or mould for three hours. Sift fine sugar over it when sent to table, and pour white wine sauce into the dish.
A Cheshire pudding: Make a crust as for a fruit pudding, roll it out to fourteen or fifteen inches in length and eight or sine in width; spread with raspberry jam or any other preserve of a similar kind, and roll it up in the manner of a collared eel. Wrap a cloth round it two or three times, and tie it tight at each end. Two hours and a quarter will boil it.
To make a plain pudding: Weigh three-quarters of a pound of any odd scraps of bread, whether crust or crumb, cut them small, and pour on them a pint and a half of boiling water to soak them well. Let it stand till the water is cool, then press it out, and mash the bread smooth with the back of a spoon. Add to it a teaspoonful of beaten ginger, some moist sugar, and three quarters of a pound of currants. Mix all well together, and lay it in a pan well buttered. Flatten it down with a spoon, and lay some pieces of batter on the top. Bake it in a moderate oven, and serve it hot. When cold it will turn out of the pan, and eat like good plain cheesecakes.
Transparent pudding: Beat up 8 eggs, put them in a stew-pan with half a pound of sugar, the same of butter, and some grated nutmeg, and set it on the fire, stirring it till it thickens; then pour it into a basin to cool. Set a rich paste round the edge of your dish, pour in your pudding, and bake it in a moderate oven. A delicious and elegant article.
A potato rice pudding: Wash a quarter of a pound of whole rice; dry it in a cloth and beat it to a powder. Set it upon the fire with a pint and a half of new milk, till it thickens, but do not let it boil. Pour it out, and let it stand to cool. Add to it some cinnamon, nutmeg, and mace, pounded; sugar to the taste; half a pound of suet shred very small, and 8 eggs well beaten with some salt. Put to it either half a pound of currants, clean washed and dried by the fire, or some candied lemon, citron, or orange peel. Bake it half an hour with a puff cruet under it.
Swiss pudding: Butter your dish; lay in it a layer of bread crumbs, grated very fine; then boil 4 or 5 apples very tender, add a little butter nutmeg, and fine sifted sugar. Mix all up together, and lay on the bread-crumbs, then another layer of the crumbs; then add pieces of fresh better on the top, and bake in a slow oven for a quarter of an hour, until it becomes a delicate brown. It may be eaten hot or cold.
Carrot pudding: Take 1/4 peck of carrots, boil and mash them well; then add 1/2 pound flour, 1/2 pound currants, 1/2 pound raisins, 1/2 pound suet chopped fine, 1/2 cup of sugar, 2 tablespoonful of cinnamon, 1 tea” spoonful of allspice. Boil four hours, and serve hot with sauce flavored with Madeira wine.
Plain rice pudding: One quart of milk, 1/2 a teacupful of rice, 2 teaspoonsful of sugar, 1/2 of a nutmeg, grated; a small piece of butter, size of hickory-nut. Pick and wash the rice; add all the ingredients. Stir all well together, and put in a slack oven one and half to two hours. When done pour it in a pudding dish, and serve when cold. If baked in an oven, take off the brown skin before it is poured in the pudding-dish, and replace it on the Sop of the pudding as before.
Potato pudding: Take 5 potatoes, boil, and mash there through a colander, with a little salt and 1 teacupful of milk or cream; 1/4 pound of butter, 1/2 pound of sugar, beaten to a cream. Beat 4 eggs, and stir them with the latter; then add the mashed potatoes when cool. Season with 1 tablespoonful of brandy and 1 nutmeg, grated, with a little cinnamon, Bake in a quick oven.
Bread pudding: Take a pint measure of bread broken small or crumbed; boil a quart of milk, with a little salt and pour it over the bread; cover and let the bread swell till it can be mashed smooth. Beat 4 eggs and stir into it, with 4 tablespoonsful of flour. Sprinkle a bag inside with flour, pour in the pudding, tie loosely, and boil one hour.
To make Oldbury pudding: Beat 4 eggs well, have ready a pint basin floured and buttered, pour in the eggs and fill it up with new milk previously boiled, and when cold beat them together, put a white paper over the basin, cover with a cloth, and boil it twenty minutes. Send it up with wine and butter sauce.
Quince pudding: Scald the quinces tender, pare them thin, serape off the pulp, mix with sugar very sweet, and add a little ginger and cinnamon. To a pint of cream put three or four yolks of eggs, and stir it into the quinces till they are of a good thickness. Butter the dish, pour it in, and bake it.
Lemon pudding: Cut off the rind of 3 lemons, boil them tender’ pound them in a mortar, and mix them with a quarter of a pound of Naples biscuits boiled up in a quart of milk or cream; beat up 12 yolks and 6 whites of eggs. Melt a quarter of a pound of fresh butter, and put in half a pound of sugar, and a little orange-flower water. Mix all well together, stir it over the fire till thick, and squeeze in the juice of half a lemon. Put puff paste round the dish, then pour in the pudding, cut candied sweetmeats, and straw over, and bake it for three quarters of an hour.
Batter pudding: Take 6 ounces of fine flour, a little salt and 3 eggs, beat up well with a little milk, added by degrees till the batter is quite smooth, make it the thickness of cream, put into a buttered pie dish and bake three-quarters of an hour, or into a buttered and floured basin tied over tight with a cloth, boil one and a half or two hours.
Newmarket pudding: Put on to boil a pint of good milk, with half a lemon peel, a little cinnamon boil gently for five or ten minutes, sweeten with loaf sugar, break the yolks of 5 and the whites of 3 eggs into a basin, beat them well, and add the milk, beat all well together, and strain through a fine hair sieve, have some bread and butter cut very thin, lay a layer of it in a pie dish, and then a layer of currants, and so on till the dish is nearly full, then pour the custard over it, and bake half an hour.
Newcastle, or cabinet pudding: Butter a half melon mould, or quart-basin, and stick all round with dried cherries, or fine raisins, and fill up with bread and butter, etc., as in the above, and steam it an hour and a half.
Vermicelli pudding: Boil a pint of milk, with lemon peel and cinnamon, sweeten with loaf sugar, strain through a sieve, and add a quarter of a pound of vermicelli, boil ten minutes, then put in the yolks of 5 and the whites of 3 eggs, mix well together, and steam it one hour and a quarter; the same may be baked half an hour.
Bread pudding: Make a pint of bread-crumbs, put them into stew-pan with as much milk as will cover them, the peel of a lemon, and a little nutmeg, grated; a small piece of cinnamon; boil about ten minutes; sweeten with powdered loaf sugar, take out the cinnamon, and put in 4 eggs; beat all well together, and bake half an hour, or boil rather more than an hour.
Suet pudding: Suet, quarter of a pound; flour, 3 tablespoonfuls; eggs, 2; and a little grated ginger; milk, half a pint. Mince the suet as fine as possible, roll it with the rolling-pin so as to mix it well with the flour; beat up the eggs, mix them with the milk, and then mix all together; wet your cloth well in boiling water, flour it, tie it loose, put into boiling water, and boil an hour and a quarter.
Custard pudding: Boil a pint of milk, and a quarter of a pint of good cream; thicken with flour and water, made perfectly smooth, till it is stiff enough to bear an egg on it; break in the yolks of 5 eggs, sweeten with powdered loaf sugar, grate in a little nutmeg and the peel of a lemon; add half a glass of good brandy, then whip the whites of the 5 eggs till quite stiff, and mix gently all together; line a pie dish with good puff paste, and bake half an hour.
Ground rice, potato flour, panada, and all puddings made from powders, are, or may be, prepared in the same way.
Boiled pudding: One quart of milk, 5 eggs, 12 large tablespoonsful of flour. Whisk the eggs very light, then put in the flour; add a little of the milk, and beat the whole perfectly smooth. Then pour in the remainder of the milk and enough salt, just to taste. Rinse your pudding-bag in cold water and flour it well inside. Pour in the mixture and allow a vacancy of from two to three inches at the top of the bag, as the pudding will swell as soon as it begins to boil. Be careful to tie the bag tight, and put it immediately in a large kettle of boiling water. Let it boil for two hours. As soon as it is taken out of the kettle, dip it for an instant into a pan of cold water. This prevents the pudding from adhering to the bag. Serve it immediately, as it would spoil by standing. It may be eaten with wine sauce, or any other sauce which may be preferred.
Indian meal pudding: One quart of milk, 4 tablespoonfuls of very fine Indian meal, 3 ounces of butter, 5 eggs, 1/4 of a pound of sugar, a little salt, half a gill of brandy, half a grated nutmeg, a little cinnamon. Boil the milk and stir in the meal as if for mush. Let it boil fifteen minutes, and beat it perfectly smooth. Add the salt and butter while it is hot. As soon as it becomes cool stir in the eggs, which have been beaten very thick, and then the other ingredients. If the quarter of a pound of sugar does not make the mixture sufficiently sweet, more may be added. Bake in a light paste like other puddings.
Baking and desserts[edit | edit source]
Indian pone: Put on one quart of water in a pot, as soon as it boils stir in as much Indian meal as will make a very thin batter. Beat it frequently while it is boiling, which will require ten minutes; then take it off, pour it in a pan, and add one ounce of butter, and salt to taste. When the batter is lukewarm stir in as much Indian meal as will make it quite thick. Set it away to rise in the evening; in the morning make it out in small cakes, butter your tins and bake in a moderate oven. Or the more common way is to butter pans, fill them three parts full, and bake them. This cake requires no yeast.
Blackberry mush: Put your fruit in a preserving kettle, mash it to a pulp, with sugar enough to make it quite sweet. Set it over the fire, and, as soon as it begins to simmer, stir in very gradually two teaspoonsful of your to a quart of fruit. It should be stirred all the time it is boiling. Serve it either warm or cold, with cream. Raspberries may be cooked in the same way.
To make raspberry dumplings: Make a puff paste, and roll it out. Spread raspberry jam, and make it into dumplings. Boil them an hour, pour melted butter into a dish, and strew grated sugar over it.
To make raspberry and cream tarts: Roll out thin puff paste, lay it in a patty-pan; put in raspberries, and strew fine sugar over them. Put on a lid, and when baked, out it open, and put in 1/2 a pint of cream, the yolks of 2 eggs well beaten, and a little sugar.
To make paste for tarts: Put an ounce of loaf sugar, beat and sifted, to 1 pound of fine flour. Make it into a stiff paste, with a gill of boiling cream, and 3 ounces of butter. Work it well, and roll it very thin.
Pie crust: Sift a pound and a half of flour, and take out a quarter for rolling cut in it a quarter of a pound of lard, mixed with water and roll it out; cut half a pound of butter, and put it in at two rollings with the flour that was left out. For making the bottom crust of pies, put half a pound of lard into a pound of flour, with a little salt, mix it stiff, and grease the plates before you make pies; always make your paste in a cold place and bake it soon. Some persons prefer mixing crust with milk instead of water.
To make a good paste for large pies: Put to a peck of flour 3 eggs, then put in half a pound of suet and a pound and a half of butter. Work it up well and roll it out.
Another method: Take a peek of flour, and 6 pounds of butter, boiled in a gallon of water, then skim it off into the flour, with as little of the liquor as possible. Work it up well into a paste, pull it into pieces till gold, then make it into the desired form.
Puff pastry: Sift a pound of flour. Divide 1 pound of butter into four parts, cut one part of the butter into the flour with a knife; make it into dough with water, roll it, and flake it with part of the butter. Do this again and again till it is all in. This will make enough crust for at least ten puffs. Bake with a quick heat, for ten or fifteen minutes.
To make a puff pastry: Take a quarter of peck of flour, and rub it into a pound of better very fine. Make it up into a light paste with cold water just stiff enough to work it up. Then lay it out about as thick as a silver dollar; put a layer of butter all over, then sprinkle on a little flour, double it up, and roll it out again. Double and roll it with layers of butter three times, and it will be fit for use.
Mince pies, not very rich: Take 4 pounds of beef after it teas been boiled and chopped, 1 pound of suet, 2 pounds of sugar, 2 pounds of raisins, and 4 pounds of chopped apples, mix these together with a pint of wine and eider, to make it thin enough; season to your taste with mace, nutmeg, and orange-peel; if it is not sweet enough, put in more sugar. Warm the pies before they are eaten. Where persons are not fond of suet, put batter instead, and stew the apples instead of so much cider.
To make a short crust: Put 6 ounces of butter to 8 ounces of flour, and work them well together; then mix it up with as little water as possible, so as to have it a stiffish paste; then roll it out thin for use.
Boiled custards[edit | edit source]
Put a quart of new milk into a stewpan, with the peel of a lemon cut very thin, a little grated nutmeg, a small stick of cinnamon; set it over a quick fire, but be careful it does not boil over.
When it boils, set it beside the fire, and simmer ten minutes, break the yolks of 8, and the whites of 4 eggs into a basin, beat them well, then pour in the milk a little at a time, stirring it as quickly as possible to prevent the eggs curdling, set it on the fire again, and stir well with a wooden spoon.
Let it have just one boil; pass it through a fine sieve; when cold, add a little brandy, or white wine, as may be most agreeable to palate; serve up in glasses, or cups.
Two and a half pounds of pumpkin, 6 ounces of butter, 6 eggs, 1 tablespoonful of wine, 2 tablespoonful of brandy, sugar to taste, 1 teaspoonful of cinnamon and half a teaspoonful of ginger. Cut the pumpkin in slices, pare it, take out the seeds and soft parts; out it into small pieces, and stew it in very little water, until it becomes tender; then press it in a colander until quite dry; turn it out in a pan, put in the butter and a little salt, mash it very fine. When cool, whisk the eggs until thick and stir in; then add sugar to taste, with the brandy, wine, and spice. This is sufficient for three or four puddings. Line your plates with paste, and bake in a quick oven. Rhubarb Pies.
Take off the skin from the stalks, cut them into small pieces; wash and put them to stew with no more water than that which adheres to them; when done, mash them fine and put in a small piece of butter, and when cool sweeten to taste and add a little nutmeg. Line your plates with paste, put in the filling, and bake in a quick oven. When done sift white sugar over.
Pare and core large tart apples. An apple-corer is better than a knife to cut out the seeds, as it does not divide the apple. Make a paste of 1 pound of flour and 1/2 pound of butter; cover the apples with the paste, tie them in cloth, but do not squeeze them tightly.
Tender apples will boil in three-quarters of an hour. Send to the table hot. Eat with butter and molasses, or sugar and cream.
One pound of flour, 3 eggs beaten very light, as much milk as will make it as thick as cream, a little salt. Add the eggs to the flour with the milk; salt to taste. Stir all well together until perfectly smooth. Put in the pan a piece of lard about the size of a chestnut, as soon as it is hot put in two tablespoonful of the batter, and move the pan about to cause the batter to spread. When done on one side turn it over. Serve them hot with any sauce you please.
One pound and a quarter of flour, 3 half pints of milk, 4 eggs. Beat the eggs until thick, to which add the milk. Place the flour in a pan and by degrees stir in the egg and milk, beating the whole until very smooth. Salt to taste. With a tablespoon drop them into hot lard, and fry a light brown on both sides. Send to table hot, and eat with nun’s butter, or butter and molasses.
Take 1/4 of a calf’s rennet, wash it well, cut it in pieces and put it into a decanter with a pint of Lisbon wine. In a day or two it will be fit for use. To one pint of milk add a teaspoonful of the wine. Sweeten the milk and warm it a little and add the wine and nutmeg, stirring it slightly. Pour it immediately into a dish, move it gently to a cold place, and in a few minutes it will become custard. It makes a firmer curd to put in the wine omitting the sugar. It may be eaten with sugar and cream.
Green Gooseberry Cheese.
Take 6 pounds of unripe rough gooseberries, cut off the blossoms and stems, and put them in cold water for an hour or two; then take them out, bruise them in a marble mortar, and put them into a brass pan or kettle over a clear fire, stirring them till tender; then add 4 1/2 pounds of lump sugar pounded, and boil it till very thick and of a fine green color, stirring it all the time.
Take a small piece of white bread, put it into a pint of milk and set it over the fire. Then put some nutmeg and sugar into a pint of ale, warm it, and when the milk boils pour it upon the ale. Let it stand a few minutes to clear.
Coffee for Thirty People.
Put 1 pound of best coffee into a stewpan sufficiently large to hold 7 quarts of water; put it on the fire to dry, or roast the coffee (be sure to shake it for fear it should burn), then take it off the fire and put the whites of two eggs into it, stir it till it is mixed, then pour on it 6 quarts of water boiling, let it stand 1/4 of an hour covered closely, then strain it through a jelly-bag, or let it stand awhile to settle; pour into an urn and serve hot for use.
Grind one teacupful of cocoa into a coffee-mill. Put it in a small bag made of very thin muslin tie it close put it in a pot with three half pints of boiling water and l pint of boiling milk. Boil the whole for half an hour, then pour it into another pot and send it to table. This will be found to suit invalids much better than chocolate, as it contains no butter.
Boil a pint of milk and pour into it a gill of wine (Madeira or Sherry), and let it boil again, take it from the fire and stand a few moments without stirring. Remove the curd and sweeten the whey.
Into a tumbler full of milk put 1 or 2 tablespoonful of brandy, whiskey, or Jamaica rum. Sweeten it well, and grate nutmeg on the top.
Beat a fresh raw egg well and add 1 or 2 tablespoonful of wine. Sweeten to taste.
Icing for Cakes.
Put 1 pound of fine sifted, treble-refined sugar into a basin, and the whites of three new-laid eggs, beat the sugar and eggs up well with a silver spoon until it becomes very white and thick dust the cake over with flour and then brush it off, by way of taking the grease from the outside, which prevents the icing from running; put it on smooth with a palette knife and garnish according to fancy; any ornaments should be put on immediately, for if the icing gets dry it will not stick on.
A Plain Poundcake.
Beat l pound of butter and l pound of sugar in an earthen pan until it is like a fine thick cream, then beat in 9 whole eggs till quite light. Put in a glass of brandy, a little lemon-peel shred fine, then work in 1 1/4 pound of flour; put it into the hoop or pan and bake it for an hour. A pound plumcake is made the same with putting 1 1/2 pound of clean washed currants, and 1/2 pound of candied lemon-peel.
Mix 3 pounds of flour with 4 ounces of moist sugar, 1/2 ounce of powdered ginger, and 13 pounds of warm molasses; melt 1/2 pound of fresh butter in it, put it to the flour and make it a paste, then form it into tarts or cakes, or bake it in one cake.
Mix 6 pounds of flour with 2 ounces of caraway seeds, 2 ounces of ground ginger, 2 ounces of candied orange peel, the same of candied lemon peel cut in pieces, a little salt, and 6 ounces of moist sugar; melt 1 pound of fresh butter in about a pint of milk, pour it by degrees into 4 pounds of molasses, stir it well together, and add it, a little at a time, to the flour; mix it thoroughly, make it into a paste; roll it out rather thin and cut it into cakes with the top of a dredger or wine glass; put them on floured tins, and bake them in rather a brisk oven.
Six eggs, l pint molasses, 1/2 pound sugar, 1/2 pound butter, wineglass of brandy, 1 lemon, 1 nutmeg, 3 tablespoonful of ginger, 2 teaspoonfuls of ground cloves, l tablespoonful of cinnamon, l teaspoonful of soda. Flour enough to make a stiff batter.
Mix well together 1/2 pound of butter, 1 pound of flour, 5 eggs, and a cupful of yeast. Set the whole before the fire to rise, which effected add a 1/4 of a pound of fine powdered sugar, 1 ounce of caraways well mixed in, and roll the paste out into little cakes. Bake them on tins.
Mix 1/2 pound of butter well beaten like cream, and the same weight of flour, 1 egg, 6 ounces of beaten and sifted loaf sugar, and 1/2 ounce of caraway seeds. Form these into a paste, roll them thin, and lay them in sheets of tin; then bake them in a slow oven.
Mix into a pound of fine flour a pound of loaf sugar, beaten and sifted, and rub it into a pound of butter, till it is thick, like grated white bread, then put to it 2 tablespoonfuls of rose-water, 2 of sack, and 10 eggs; work them well with a whisk, and put in 8 ounces of currants. Butter the tin pans, fill them half full, and bake them.
Ginger Cakes without Butter.
Take 1 pound of sugar, 1/4 of a pound of ginger, l pint of water, 2 pounds of flour, and 8 caps of orange-peel. Pound and sift the ginger, and add l pint of water, boil it 5 minutes, then let it stand till cold. Pound the preserved orange-peel, and pass it through a hair-sieve; put the flour on a pasteboard, make a wall, and put in the orange peel and ginger with the boiled water, mix this up to a paste and roll it out, prick the cakes before baking them.
To 1 pound of fine sifted sugar put the yolks of 10 eggs (have the whites in a separate pan), and set it, if in summer, in cold water if there is any ice set the pan on it, as it will cause the eggs to be beat finer. Then beat the yolks and sugar well with a wooden spoon for 20 minutes, and put in the rind of a lemon grated; beat up the whites with a whisk, until they become quite stiff and white as snow. Stir them into the batter by degrees, then add 3/4 of a pound of well-dried flour; finally, put it in a mould in a slack oven to bake.
Beat the yolks of 15 eggs for nearly 1/2 an hour with a whisk, mix well with them 10 ounces of fine sifted loaf sugar, put in 1/2 a pound of ground rice, a little orange water or brandy, and the rinds of 2 lemons grated, then add the whites of 7 eggs well beaten, and stir the whole together for 1/4 of an hour. Put them into a hoop and set them in a quick oven for 1/2 an hour, when they will be properly done.
Take 1 pound of dough made for white bread, roll it out, and put bits of butter upon the same as for puff-paste, till 1 pound of the same has been worked in; roll it out very thin, then cut it into bits of an oval size, according as the cakes are wanted. Mix some good moist sugar with a little brandy, sufficient to wet it, then mix some clean washed currants with the former, put a little upon each bit of paste, close them up, and put the side that is closed next the tin they are to be baked upon. Lay them separate, and bake them moderately, and afterwards, when taken out, sift sugar over them. Some candied-peel may be added’ or a few drops of the essence of lemon.
Beat the whites of 9 eggs to a stiff froth, Stir it gently with a spoon lest the froth should fall, and to every white of an egg grate the rinds of 2 lemons; shake in gently a spoonful of double refined sugar sifted fine, lay a wet sheet of paper on a tin, and with a spoon drop the froth in little lumps on it near each other. Sift a good quantity of sugar over them, set them in the oven after the bread is out, and close up the mouth of it, which will occasion the froth to rise. As soon as they are colored they will be sufficiently baked; lay them by 2 bottoms together on a sieve, and dry them in a cool oven.
Set 2 pounds of flour with a little salt before the fire till quite warm; then mix it with warm milk and water till it is as stiff as it can be stirred; let the milk be as warm as it can be borne with the finger, put a cupful of this with 3 eggs well beaten, and mixed with 3 teaspoonfuls of very thick yeast; then put this to the batter and beat them all well together in a large pan or bowl, add as much milk and water as will make it into a thick batter. Cover it close and put it before the fire to rise; put a bit of butter in a piece of thin muslin, tie it up, and rub it lightly over the iron hearth or frying-pan, then pour on a sufficient quantity of batter at a time to make one crumpet; let it do slowly, and it will be very light. Bake them all the same way. They should not be brown, but of fine yellow.
Mix a quarter of fine flour, 1 1/2 pints of warm milk and water, with 1/4 of a pint of good yeast, and a little salt, stir them together for 1/4 of an hour, then strain the liquor into 1/4 of a peck of fine flour; mix the dough well and set it to rise for an hour, then roll it up and pull it into small pieces, make them up in the hand like balls and lay a flannel over them while rolling, to keep them warm. The dough should be closely covered up the whole time; when the whole is rolled into balls, the first that are made will be ready for baking. When they are spread out in the right form for muffins, lay them on tins and bake them, and as the bottoms begin to change color turn them on the other side.
One quart of milk, 1 ounce of butter, 3 eggs, 4 tablespoonfuls of yeast; salt to taste; flour sufficient to make a thick batter. Warm the milk and butter together, when cool, whisk the eggs, and stir in. Then put 1 1/2 pounds of flour in a pan, to which add the milk and eggs gradually. If not sufficiently thick for the batter to drop from the spoon, more flour may be added until of proper consistence, after beating well; then add the salt and yeast. Cover, and set the batter to rise in a warm place; when light, grease the muffin-rings and griddle, place the rings on, and fill them half full of batter, when they are a light brown, turn them over, ring and muffin together. The griddle should not be too hot, or else the muffin will be sufficiently browned before cooked through. Send to table hot; split open, and eat with butter.
One pint of fine Indian meal, 1 pint of wheat flour, 1 teaspoonful of salt, 2 gills of yeast. Mix the wheat and Indian meal together, with as much tepid water as will make it into a batter, not quite as thin as for buckwheat cakes; then add the salt and yeast, and set them in a moderately warm place to rise. When light, bake them on a griddle; butter, and send to table hot.
Rub 4 ounces of butter into 2 pounce of flour, a little salt, 4 ounces of sugar, a dessertspoonful of caraways, and a teaspoonful of ginger; put some warm milk or cream to 4 tablespoonful of yeast; mix all together into a paste, but not too stiff; cover it over and set it before the fire an hour to rise, then make it into buns, put them on a tin, set them before the fire for 1/4 of an hour, cover over with flannel, then brush them with very warm milk and bake them of a nice brown in a moderate oven.
Put 2 1/2 pounds of fine flour into a wooden bowl, and set it before the fire to warm; then add 1/2 a pound of sifted sugar, some coriander seed, cinnamon and mace powdered fine; melt 1/2 a pound of butter in 1/2 a pint of milk; when it is as warm as the finger can bear, mix with it 3 tablespoonfuls of very thick yeast, and a little salt; put it to the flour, mix it to a paste, and make the buns as directed in the last receipt. Put a cross on the top, not very deep.
Beat up 7 eggs, mix them with 1/2 a pint of warm new milk, in which 1/4 of a pound of butter has been melted, add 1/4 of a pint of yeast, and 3 ounces of sugar; put them gradually into as much flour as will make a light paste nearly as thin as batter; let it rise before the fire 1/2 an hour, add more flour to make it a little stiffer, work it well and divide it into small loaves or cakes, about 5 or 6 inches wide, and flatten them. When baked and cold put them in the oven to brown a little. Those cakes when first baked, are very good buttered for tea; they are very nice cold.
One quart of buckwheat meal, 1 pint of wheat flour, 1/2 a teacupful of yeast; salt to taste. Mix the flour, buckwheat and salt with as much water, moderately warm, as will make it into a thin batter. Beat it well, then add the yeast; when well mixed, set it in a warm place to rise. As soon as they are very light, grease the griddle, and bake them a delicate brown, butter them with good butter, and eat while hot.
Three pounds of flour; three-quarters of a pound of butter; one pound of sugar; one quart of sponge. Rub the flour, butter and sugar together, then add the sponge, with as much milk as will make a soft dough. Knead well and replace it in the pan to rise. This must be done in the afternoon; next morning knead lightly, make it into small cakes about the size of a silver dollar, and half an inch in thickness; place them on slightly buttered tins, one inch apart each way, set them in a warm place to rise; when light bake them in a quick oven; when done wash them over with a little water, not having the brush too wet, and let them remain on the tins until cool.
Take sugar biscuits which have been baked the day previous; cut them in half between the upper and under crusts with a sharp knife. Place them on tins, and soon after the fire has ignited in the oven put them in, and as the heat increases they become gradually dried through. When a light brown they are done. These are universally liked by the sick.
One pound of sweet almonds; 1 pound and a quarter of sugar, 6 whites of eggs, and the raspings of 2 lemons. Pound the almonds very fine with 6 whites of eggs, feel the almonds, and if they are free from lumps they will do; then add the powdered sugar, and mix it well with the lemon raspings. Dress them in wafer paper of the required shape; bake them in a moderate heat, then let them stand till cold, cut the wafer paper round them, but leave it on the bottoms.
Beat the yolks of 12 eggs for half an hour; then put in 1 1/2 pounds of beaten sifted sugar, and whisk it till it rises in bubbles; beat the whites to a strong froth, and whisk them well with the sugar and yolks; work in 14 ounces of flour, with the rinds of 2 lemons grated. Bake them in tin moulds buttered, in a quick oven, for an hour; before they are baked sift a little fine sugar over them.
Slice a penny loaf as thin as possible; pour on it a pint of boiling cream, and let it stand two hours. Beat together 8 eggs, half a pound of butter, and a grated nutmeg; mix them into the cream and bread with half a pound of currants, well washed and dried, and a spoonful of white wine or brandy. Bake them in patty-pans, on a raised crust.
Boil 4 ounces of rice till it is tender, and then put it into a sieve to drain; mix with it 4 eggs well beaten up, half a pound of butter, half a pint of cream, 6 ounces of sugar, a nutmeg grated, a glass of brandy or ratafia water. Beat them all well together, then put them into raised crusts, and bake them in a moderate oven.
Take half a quarter of dough, roll it out thin, spread equally over it 5 ounces each of coffee And sugar, a little nutmeg or allspice, and 2 ounces of butter; then fold and roll it again two or three times, to mix well the ingredients. Afterwards roll it out thin, and spread over it 4 rather large apples, pared, cored, and chopped small; fold it up, and roll until mixed. Let it stand to rise after. Half a pound of butter may be added.
Take 1 quart of milk; stir in enough breadcrumbs to make a thin batter. Beat 3 eggs well and stir them in, adding a little salt, add 2 tablespoonfuls of flour. Bake them on the griddle and serve hot.
One quart of milk; 5 eggs; 2 ounces of butter. Warm the milk sufficiently to melt the butter, when cool separate the eggs and beat the yolks in the milk, with as much flour as will make it into thick batter, then salt to taste; lastly, beat the whites until stiff and dry, which stir in, half at a time, very lightly. Bake in irons. This method is very good; by it they may be made in a short time.
Rub 3 ounces of butter into a pound of flour; then add 3 eggs beaten very light, a little salt, 1 gill of yeast, and as much milk as will make it into a soft dough. Knead it well. Put it in a buttered pan, cover it, and set it in a warm place to rise. Bake in a moderate oven, and send to table hot. To be eaten with butter.
A Cheap Fruit-Cake.
Take 4 pounds of flour, 3 of butter, 3 of sugar, 2 of raisins, 1 of currants, 2 dozen eggs, an ounce of mace, 3 nutmegs, and a half pint of brandy. If you want it dark put in a little molasses. Mix the ingredients together, and bake it from two to three hours.
Take a pound of flour, half a pound of butter, and three quarters of a pound of sugar, 3 eggs, a little nutmeg, and rose brandy. Mix the butter and sugar together, and add the doer and eggs; mould them in rings, and bake them slowly.
Half a pound of butter, half a pound of sugar, 1 pint of molasses, 2 ounces of ginger, half an ounce of ground cloves and allspice mixed, 2 tablespoonfuls of cinnamon, as much flour as will form a dough. Stir the butter and sugar together; add the spice, ginger, molasses, and flour enough to form a dough. Knead it well, make it out in small cakes, bake them on tins in a very moderate oven. Wash them over with molasses and water before they are put in to bake.
TO MAKE PUNCH.
For a gallon of punch take six fresh Sicily lemons, rub the outsides of them well over with lumps of double refined loaf-sugar, until they become quite yellow; throw the lumps into the bowl; roll your lemons well on a clean plate or table: out them in half and squeeze them with a proper instrument over the sugar, bruise the sugar, and continue to add fresh portions of it mixing the lemon pulp and juice well with it. Much of the goodness of the punch will depend upon this. The quantity of sugar to be added should be great enough to render the mixture without water pleasant to the palate even of a child. When this is obtained, add gradually a small quantity of hot water, just enough to render the syrup thin enough to pass through the strainer. Mix all well together, strain it, and try if there be sugar enough; if at all sour add more. When cold put in a little cold water, and equal quantities of the best cognac brandy and old Jamaica rum, testing its strength by that infallible guide the palate. A glass of calves’-foot jelly added to the syrup when warm will not injure its qualities.
The great secret of making good punch may be given in a few words: a great deal of fresh lemon juice - more than enough of good sugar - a fair proportion of brandy and rum, and very little water.
To make Nectar.
Put half a pound of loaf sugar into a large porcelain jug; add one pint of cold water, bruise and stir the sugar till it is completely dissolved; pour over it half a bottle of hock and one bottle of Madeira. Mix them well together, and grate in half a nutmeg, with a drop or two of the essence of lemon. Set the jug in a bucket of ice for one hour.
To Make Coffee.
The best coffee is imported from Mocha. It is said to owe much of its superior quality to being kept long. Attention to the following circumstances is likewise necessary. 1. The plant should be grown in a dry situation and climate. 2. The berries ought to be thoroughly ripe before they are gathered. 3. They ought to be well dried in the sun; and 4. Kept at a distance from any substance (as spirits, spices, dried fish, etc.) by which the taste and flavor of the berry may be injured.
To drink coffee in perfection, it should be made from the best Mocha or Java, or both mixed, carefully roasted, and after cooling for a few minutes, reduced to powder, and immediately infused, the decoction will then be of a superior description. But for ordinary use, Java, Laguayra, Maracaibo, Rio and other grades of coffee may be used. An equal mixture of Mocha, Java and Laguayra make an excellent flavor. We have been recently shown (1865) some samples of African coffee from Liberia, which is said to possess a very superior flavor, The following mode of preparing it may be adopted:
1. The berries should be carefully roasted, by a gradual application of heat, browning, but not burning them.
2. Grinding the coffee is preferable to pounding, because the latter process is thought to press out and leave on the sides of the mortar some of the richer oily substances’ which are not lost by grinding.
3. A filtrating tin or silver pot, with double sides, between which hot water must be poured, to prevent the coffee from cooling, as practised in Germany, is good. Simple decoction, in this implement, with boiling water is all that is required to make a cup of good coffee; and the use of isinglass, the white of eggs, etc., to fine the liquor, is quite unnecessary. By this means, also, coffee is made quicker than tea.
Generally, too little powder of the berry is given, It requires about one small cup of ground coffee to make four cups of decoction for the table. This is at the rate of an ounce of good powder to four common coffee cups. When the powder is put in the bag, as many cups of boiling water are poured over it as may be wanted, and if the quantity wanted is very small, so that after it is filtrated it does not reach the lower end of the bag the liquor must be poured back three or four times, till it has acquired the necessary strength.
Another Method. - Pour a pint of boiling water on an ounce of coffee; let it boil five or six minutes, then pour out a cupful two or three times and return it again, put two or three isinglass chips into it, or a lump or two of fine sugar; boil it five minutes longer. Set the pot by the fire to keep hot for ten minutes, and the coffee will be beautifully clear. Some like a small bit of vanilla. Cream or boiled milk should always be served with coffee. In Egypt, coffee is made by pouring boiling rater upon ground coffee in the cup; to which only sugar is added. 6.1. PLAIN COOKERY. 335 For those who like it extremely strong, make only eight cups from three ounces. If not fresh roasted, lay it before a fire till hot and dry; or put the smallest bit of fresh butter into a preserving-pan; when hot throw the coffee into it, and toss it about till it be freshened. Coffee most certainly promotes wakefulness, or, in other words, it suspends the inclination to sleep. A very small cup of coffee, holding about a wine glassful, called by the French une demi tasse, drunk after dinner very strong, without cream or milk, is apt to promote digestion.
Persons afflicted with asthma have found great relief, and oven a cure, from drinking very strong coffee, and those of a phlegmatic habit would do well to take it for breakfast. It is of a rather drying nature, and with corpulent habits it would also be advisable to take it for breakfast. Arabian Method of Preparing Coffee.
The Arabians, when they take their coffee off the fire, immediately wrap the vessel in a wet cloth, which fines the liquor instantly, makes it cream at the top, and occasions a more pungent steam, which they take great pleasure in snuffing up as the coffee is pouring into the cups. They, like all other nations of the East, drink their coffee without sugar.
People of the first fashion use nothing but Sultana coffee, which is prepared in the following manner: Bruise the outward husk or dried pulp, and put it into an iron or earthen pan, which is placed upon a charcoal fire; then keep stirring it to and fro, until it becomes a little brown, but not of so deep a color as common coffee; then throw it into boiling water, adding at least the fourth part of the inward husks, which is then boiled together in the manner of other coffee. The husks must be kept in a very dry place, and packed up very close, for the least humidity spoils the flavor. The liquor prepared in this manner is esteemed preferable to any other. The French, when they were at the court of the king of Yemen, saw no other coffee drank, and they found the flavor of it very delicate and agreeable. There was no occasion to use sugar, as it had no bitter taste to correct. Coffee is less unwholesome in tropical than in other climates.
In all probability the Sultana coffee can only be made where the tree grows; for, as the husks have little substance if they are much dried, in order to send them to other countries, the agreeable flavor they had when fresh is greatly impaired.
Improvement in making Coffee.
The process consists in simmering over a small but steady flame of a lamp. To accomplish this a vessel of peculiar construction is requisite. It should be a straight-sided pot, as wide at the top as at the bottom, and enclosed in a case of similar shape, to which it must be soldered airtight at the top. The case to be above an inch wider than the pot, and descending somewhat less than an inch below it. It should be entirely open at the bottom, thus admitting and confining a body of hot air round and underneath the pot. The lid to be double, and the vessel, of course, furnished with a convenient handle and spout. The extract may be made either with hot water or cold. If wanted for speedy use, hot water, not actually boiling, will be proper, and the powdered coffee being added, close the lid tight, stop the spout with a cork, and place the vessel over the lamp. It will soon begin to simmer, and may remain unattended, till the coffee is wanted. It may then be strained through a bag of stout, close linen, which will transmit the liquid so perfectly clear as not to contain the smallest particle of the powder.
Though a fountain lamp is preferable, any of the common small lamps, seen in every tin shop, will answer the purpose. Alcohol, pure spermaceti oil [note: no longer used], or some of the recent preparations of petroleum [note: not advisable in 2000s] are best, and if the wick be too high, or the oil not good, the consequence will be smoke, soot, and extinction of the aroma. The wick should be little more than one-eighth of an inch high. In this process, no trimming is required. It may be left to simmer, and will continue simmering all night without boiling over, and without any sensible diminution of quantity.
Parisian Method of making Coffee.
In the first place, let coffee be of the prime quality, grain small, round, hard and clear; perfectly dry and sweet, and at least three years old - let it be gently roasted until it be of a light brown color; avoid burning, for a single scorched grain will spoil a pound. Let this operation be per formed at the moment the coffee is to be used then grind it while it is yet warm, and take of the powder an ounce for each cup intended to be made; put this along with a small quantity of shredded saffron into the upper part of the machine, galled a grecque or biggin; that is, a large coffee-pot with an upper receptacle made to fit close into it, the bottom of which is perforated with small holes, and containing in its interior two movable metal strainers, over the second of which the powder is to be pinged, and immediately under the third; upon this upper strainer pour boiling water, and continue doing so gently until it bubbles up through the strainer, then shut the cover of the machine close down, place it near the fire, and so soon as the water has drained through the coffee, repeat the operation until the whole intended quantity be passed. Thus all the fragrance of its perfume will be retained with all the balsamic and stimulating powers of its essence; and in a few moments will be obtained -without the aid of isinglass, whites of eggs, or any of the substances with which, in the common mode of preparation, it is mixed - a beverage for the gods. This is the true Parisian mode of preparing coffee; the invention of it is due to M. de Belloy, nephew to the Cardinal of the same name.
A coffee-pot upon an entirely new plan, called the Old Dominion, and made in Philadelphia, Pa., is very much liked by some. Perhaps, however, the old mode of boiling and clearing with egg, or the French mode, with the biggie or strainer, is the best.
Sufficient attention is not, however, paid to the proper roasting of the berry, which is of the utmost importance, to have the berry done just enough and not a grain burnt. It is customary now in most large cities for grocers to keep coffee ready roasted, which they have done in large wire cylinders, and generally well done, but not always fresh.
Boil a dessertspoonful of ground coffee in about a pint of milk a quarter of an hoer, then put in it a shaving or two of isinglass, and clear it; let it boil a few minutes, and set it on the side of the fire to fine. Those of a spare habit, and disposed towards affections of the lungs would do well to use this for breakfast, instead of ordinary coffee.
6.2 Cookery. It was the intention in our article on Cookery to divide it into two parts, separating fine from plain, every-day receipts, but this was found impractical, no two judgments agreeing upon the proper division, hence our abandonment of the plan, and leaving to each reader his or her own judgment.
To make a Savory Dish of Veal.
Cut some large scallops from a leg of veal, spread them on a dresser, dip them in rich egg batter; season them with gloves, mace, nutmeg and pepper beaten fine: make force-meat with some of the veal, some beef suet, oysters chopped, sweet herbs shred fine, strew all these over the scallops, roll and tie them up, put them on skewers and roast them. To the rest of the force-meat add two raw eggs, roll them in balls and fry them. Put them into the dish with the meat when roasted; and make the sauce with strong broth, an anchovy or a shallot, a little white wine and some spice. Let it stew, and thicken it with a piece of butter rolled in flour. Pour the sauce into the dish, lay the meat in with the force-meat balls, and garnish with lemon.
Lamb’s Kidneys, au vin.
Cut your kidneys lengthways, but not through, put 4 or 5 on a skewer, lay them on a gridiron over clear, lively goals, pouring the red gravy into a bowl each time they are turned, five minutes on the gridiron will do. Take them up, cut them in pieces, put them into a pan with the gravy you have saved, a large lump of butter, with pepper, salt, a pinch of flour, glass of Madeira (champagne is better), fry the whole for two minutes, and serve very hot.
Breast of Veal’ glacee.
Cut your breast as square as possible, bone it and draw the cut pieces together with a thread; put it into a pan with a ladle of veal bouillon, cover it with slices of salt pork and a buttered paper, previously adding 2 carrots in bits, 4 onions in slices, 2 bay leaves, 2 gloves, pepper and salt; put some coals on the lid as well as below; when two-thirds done take out the vegetables, reduce your gravy to jelly, turn your meat and set on the cover till done, it takes in all two hours and a half over a gentle fire.
Shoulder en Galatine.
Bone a fat, fleshy shoulder of veal, cut off the ragged pieces to make your stuffing, viz., 1 pound of veal to 1 pound of salt pork minced extremely fine, well seasoned with salt, pepper, spices, and mixed with 3 eggs, spread a layer of this stuffing well minced over the whole shoulder to the depth of an inch; over this mushrooms, slips of bacon, slices of tongue, and carrots in threads, cover this with stuffing as before, then another layer of mushrooms, bacon, tongue, etc., when all your stuffing is used, roll up your shoulder lengthways, tie it with a thread, cover it with slips of lardine and tie it up in a clean white cloth, put into a pot the bones of the shoulder, 2 calves-feet, slips of bacon, 6 carrots 10 onions, 1 stuck with 4 cloves, 4 hay leaves, thyme, and a large bunch of parsley and shallots, moisten the whole with bouillon; put in your meat in the cloth and boil steadily for three hours. Try if it is done with the larding needle; if so, take it up, press all the liquor from it and set it by to grow cold; pass your jelly through a napkin, put 2 eggs in a pan, whip them well and pour the strained liquor on them, mixing both together, add peppercorns, a little of the 4 spices, a bay leaf, thyme, parsley; let all boil gently for half an hour, strain it through a napkin, put your shoulder on its dish, pour the jelly over it and serve cold. Shoulder of Mutton.
Bone the larger half of your shoulder, lard the inside with well seasoned larding, tie it up in the shape of a balloon, lay some slips of bacon in your pan, on them your meat, with 3 or 4 carrots 5 onions, 3 gloves, 2 bay leaves, thymes and the bones that have been taken out moisten with bouillon, set all on the fire and simmer for three hours and a half; garnish with small onions.
Fifteen tongues are sufficient for R dish; waste and clean them well, throw them into hot water for twenty minutes, wash them again in cold water, drain, dry and trim them neatly, lard them with seasoned larding and the small needle; lay in your pan slips of bacon, 4 carrots in pieces, 4 onions, 1 stuck with 2 cloves, slips of veal, 2 bay leaves, thyme, and a faggot of shallots and parsley; put your tongues in, cover them with slips of larding, moisten the whole with bouillon, and let it simmer five hours.
To make an Excellent Ragout of Cold Veal.
Either a neck, loin, or fillet of veal will furnish this excellent ragout, with a very little expense or trouble. Cut the veal into handsome thin cutlets, put a piece of butter or clean dripping into a fryingpan; as soon as it is hot, flour and fry the veal of a light brown, take it out, and if you have no gravy ready put a pint of boiling water into the fryingpan, give it a boil up for a minute, and strain it into a basin while you make some thickening in the following manner: Put about an ounce of butter into a stewpan; as soon as it melts, mix with it as much flour as will dry it up; stir it over the fire for a few minutes, and gradually add to it the gravy you made in the fryingpan; let them simmer together for ten minutes (till thoroughly incorporated), season it with pepper, salt, a little mace, and a wineglass of mushroom catsup, or wine; strain it through a tammy to the meat: and stew l very gently till the meat is thoroughly warmed. If you have any ready boiled bacon, cut it in slices, and put it to warm with the meat.
To make Veal Cake.
Take the best end of a breast of veal, bone and out it into three pieces, take the yolk out of eight eggs boiled hard, and slice the whites, the yolks to be cut through the middle, two anchovies, a good deal of parsley chopped fine, and some lean ham cut in thin slices, all these to be well seasoned separately with Cayenne, black pepper, salt and a little nutmeg; have ready a mug the size of the intended cake, with a little butter rubbed on it, put a layer of veal on the bottom, then a layer of egg and parsley, and ham to fancy, repeat it till all is in, lay the bones on the top and let it be baked three or four hours, then take off the bones and press down the cake till quite cold. The mug must be dipped in warm water and the cake turned out with great care, that the jelly may not be broken which hangs round it.
To make Dry Devils.
These are usually composed of the broiled legs and gizzards of poultry, fish bones, or biscuits, sauce piquante. Mix equal parts of fine salt, Cayenne pepper and curry powder, with double the quantity of powder of truffles; dissect a brace of woodcocks rather under roasted, split the heads subdivide the wings, etc., etc., and powder the whole gently over with the mixture, crush the trail and brains along with the yolk of a hard boiled egg, a small portion of pounded mace, the grated peel of half a lemon and half a spoonful of soy, until the ingredients be brought to the consistence of a fine paste; then add a tablespoonful of catsup, a full wineglass of Madeira and the juice of two Seville oranges; throw the sauce along with the birds into a stew-dish, to be heated with spirits of wine; cover close up, light the lamp and keep gently simmering, and occassionally stirring until the flesh has imbibed the greater part of the liquid. When it is completely saturated, pour in a small quantity of salad oil stir all once more well together, put out the light and serve it round instantly.
To make an Olio.
Boil in a broth pot a fowl, a partridge, a small leg of mutton, five or six pounds of large slices of beef and a knuckle of veal, soak all these without broth for some time, turn the meat to give it a good color, and add boiling water, when it has boiled about an hour, add all sorts of best broth herbs; this broth, when good, is of a fine brown color.
To make Beef a la Mode.
Take 11 pounds of themouse buttock, or clod of beef; cut it into pieces of 3 or 4 ounces each put 2 or 3 large onions and 2 ounces of beef dripping into a large, deep stewpan; as soon as it is quite hot flour the meat and put it into the stew pan; fill it sufficiently to cover the contents with water and stir it continually with a wooden spoon when it has been on a quarter of an hour, dredge it with flour, and keep doing so till it has beef stirred as much as will thicken it, then cover it with boiling water. Skim it when it boils and put in 1 drachm of black ground pepper, 2 of all spice and 4 bay leaves; set the pan by the sic’ of the fire to stew slowly about 4 hours. This is at once a savory and economical dish.
Beef a la Mode.
Take out the bone from a round and with a sharp knife cut many deep incisions in the meat Then wash and season well with salt and pepper. Crumb the soft part of a loaf of bread, to which add one teaspoonful of sweet marjoram, the same of sweet basil, one small onion minced fine, two or three small blades of mace finely powdered with sufficient salt and pepper to season it. Rub all well together with five ounces of fresh butter. Mix all these ingredients well together. With this dressing fill all the incisions and fasten well with skewers. Tie a piece of tape round the meat to keep it in shape. Cut 3 or 4 thin slices of pickled pork, which place in a large stewkettle with 3 half-pints of water; put in the meat, stick 6 or 8 gloves over the top, cover the kettle very close and set it in a quick oven. It will take several hours to cook, as it requires to be well done. When sufficiently cooked place it on a heated dish remove the pork from the kettle, and, if not sufficient gravy, add a little boiling water and dredge in sufficient flour to make the gravy of a proper thickness; then stir in 1 dessertspoonful of sugar browned a very dark color, and season to taste. As soon as it comes to a boil add 1 gill of Madeira wine. After letting it simmer a short time put it in a sauce tureen, remove the skewers and tape from the meat, pour over the top 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls of gravy and send all to table hot.
Peel a handful of small onions, fry them in butter till they are of alight brown, throw in a handfull of flour, shake the pan well, add a glass of red wine, a pint of (bouillon) mace, salt, pepper, thyme and 2 bay leaves, bubble the whole gently till the onions are tender, and pour it over slices of cold bouilli. Set all in a saucepan well covered on hot ashes, to stand for 15 minutes. Take care it does not boil.
Beef en Daube.
Prepare a round or rump as for beef a 1a mode, well larded with the largest needle; put it into your pot with a spoonful of lard. Set the pot on hot goals, dust it with flour, turn your beef till it is well browned on both sides, have ready a kettle of bulling water, cover your meat, add in bits 6 large onions, 2 bunches of carrots and an egg plant in slices. Put on your lid and bubble slowly but steadily for 4 hours (for 16 pounds of beef longer if heavier) or till the skewer will pass easily into it. About half an hour before serving throw in a pint of smell mushrooms, season with pepper and salt, a dozen bay leaves and all kinds of spice. Set your beef in a deep dish and cover with the sauce.
Beef’s Tongue aux Champignons.
Wash your tongue well and boil for half an hour; season some larding with salt, pepper, all kinds of spice, shallots and chopped parsley; lard your tongue across; put it in a stewpan with a few slices of bacon and beef, carrots, onions, thyme, 3 bay leaves, 3 cloves; cover with bouillon and stew very gently for 4 hours: when done, skin your tongue and cut it up lengthways in the middle and under part, but not through, so that you can bend it up and lay it on your dish in the shape of a heart. Have ready a quantity of button mushrooms fried in butter, with a sprinkle of lemon juice moistened with boullion, and bubbled to a proper consistency. Pour it over your tongue and serve hot.
Fish en Matelotte.
Almost every kind of fish answers for this dish. Scale, clean and cut them in pieces, put them into a pan with a handful of small onions previously fried whole in butter, two bay leaves, a bunch of shallots and parsley, small mushrooms, thyme, salt and pepper, pour over the whole as much red wine as will cover it; set your pan on a quick fire; when the wine is one-half gone, mix a spoonful of flour with a lump of butter roll it in little balls and put them one by one into your sauce, stirring it the whole time. Arrange your fish handsomely on a deep dish, pour over it the sauce and garnish with slices of lemon.
To Fry Sweetbreads
Boil them in salt and water about a quarter of an hour; then take them out and let them cool. Skin and cut them in half, season with pepper and salt, and dust a little flour over and fry them slowly in equal portions of butter and lard. When of a fine brown, puree them on a dish; then dust a little flour into the pan with the fat they were fried in; stir it well and pour in about a gill of hot water; season the gravy to your taste with salt and pepper, and as soon as it boils pour it over the sweetbreads and serve them hot.
Pound them well with a rolling-pin or potato masher; then wash and dry them on a clean towel, and season with pepper and salt. Have ready a pint of fine powdered cracker, which season with salt and pepper. Whisk 2 eggs with 1 gill of milk, and pour over the cutlets; then take 1 at a time and place in the crumbs, pat well with the back of a spoon in order to make the cracker adhere close to the meat. Put them into hot lard, and fry slowly until well done and handsomely browned on both sides.
Steak a la Soyer.
The rump-steak to be broiled, and to be dressed with pepper, salt, Cayenne and flour, all in a dredge-box together, keep constantly turning the stock and dredging it; chop up 1 small shallot, put it in a stewpan with a little catsup; when the steak is sufficiently done add a little butter to it; strain the sauce through a small sieve, and serve up very hot.
Kidneys a la Brochette.
Let your kidneys steep 5 minutes in cold water to soften the skin; remove it and split each; through the middle put a wooden or silver skewer if you have it, when they are skewered, season them with pepper and salt. Dip each into oil or melted butter, and broil them on a gridiron. Before you serve remove the skewers, unless they are of silver, and serve them on a dish with butter and fine herbs.
Mince cold beef small with onions, add pepper and salt and a little gravy; put into a pie-dish or scallop-shells, until about 3 parts full. Then fill up with mashed potatoes. Bake in an oven or before the fire until done a light brown. Mutton may be cooked in the same way.
Timballe of Macaroni, with Chicken and Ham.
Simmer 1/2 pound macaroni in plenty of water, and a tablespoonful of salt till it is tender, but take care not to hove it too soft; strain the water from it; beat up 5 yolks and the whites of 2 eggs; take a pint of the best cream and the breast of a fowl and some slices of ham. Mince the breast of the fowl and some slices of ham, add them, with from 2 to 3 tablespoonful of finely grated Parmesan cheese, and season with pepper and salt. Mix all these with the macaroni, and put into a pudding-mould, well buttered. Let it strain in a stewpan of boiling water about 1 hour, and serve quite hot with rich gravy. It is very good cold.
Sweetbreads, French Style.
Take 3 large sweetbreads, put them into hot water, and let them boil 10 minutes; when cool, skin, but do not break them. Season with salt and pepper, and dredge over a little flour; then fry them slowly in butter a light brown on both sides. When done, place them on a dish, and remove all the brown particles from the pan (retaining the butter); then pour in, while off the fire, 1 gill of boiling water, and dredge in l dessertspoonful of browned flour, stirring it all the time. Then season with salt and water to taste; mix well, and, just before removing it from the fire stir in gradually 2 tablespoonsful of Madeira wine. After dredging in the flour, and seasoning the gravy, as soon as it comes to a boil, stir in the wine: while boiling hot, pour it over the sweetbreads, and send to table in a well heated (covered) dish.
Boiled Leg of Mutton a l’Anglaise.
Select a leg of mutton, rather fat,, and not kept above 3 or 4 days; trim it, and put it on to boil in a stock-pot or braizing-pan, filled up with cold water, when it boils, remove the scum, and put it on the side of the stove to continue gently boiling for about 2 1/2 hours; a handful of salt and a couple of turnips and carrots should be put into the pot to boil with the leg. When the mutton is done, drain and dish it up, garnish it round with mashed turnips, dressed with a little sweet cream, a pat of butter, pepper and salt; mould the trashed turnips in the shape of large eggs, with a tablespoon, and place these closely round the leg of mutton, introducing between each spoonful of mashed turnips a carrot nicely turned, that has been boiled, either with the mutton, or in some broth separately: pour some gravy under it, put a paper ruffle on the bone, and send it to table, accompanied with a sauce- boat of caper-sauce.
Roasted Sucking-Pig a l’Anglaise
In selecting a sucking-pig for the table, those of about 3 weeks old are generally preferred, their meat being more delicate than when allowed to grow larger. Let the pig be prepared for dressing in the usual way, that is, scalded, drawn, etc., pettitoes cut off, and the paunch filled with stuffing previously prepared for the purpose as follows: chop 2 large onions, and 12 sage-leaves, boil them in water for 2 minutes, and after having drained the sage and onions on to a sieve, place it in a stewpan with a pat of butter, pepper and salt, and set the whole to simmer gently for 10 minutes on a very slow fire, then add a double handful of bread-crumbs, 2 pats of butter, and the yolks of 2 eggs; stir the whole over the fire for 5 minutes, and then use the stuffing as before directed. When the sucking-pig is stuffed, sew the paunch up with twine; spit the pig for roasting, carefully fastening it on the spit at each end with small iron skewers, should be run through the shoulders and hips to secure it tightly, so that it may on no account slip round when down to roast. The pig will require about 2 hours to roast thoroughly, and should be frequently basted with a paste brush dipped in salad oil. Oil is better adapted for this purpose than either dripping or butter, giving more crispness to the skin; when basted with oil, the pig will, while roasting, acquire a more even and a finer color. When done, take it up from the fire on the spit, and immediately cut the head off with a sharp knife, and lay it on a plate in the hot closet. Next, cut the pig in two, by dividing it first with a sharp knife straight down the back to the spine, finishing with a meat-saw, a large dish should be held under the pig while it is thus being divided, into which it may fall when completely cut through; place the two sides back to beck on the dish, without disturbing the stuffing, split the head in two; put the brains in a small stewpan, trim off the snout and jaws, leaving only the cheeks and ears, place these one at each end of the dish, surround the remove with a border of small potatoes, fried of a light color, in a little clarified butter: pour under some rich brown gravy, and send to table with the following sauce: to the brains, put into a small stewpan as before directed, add a spoonful of blanched chopped parsley, pepper and salt, a piece of glaze the size of a large walnut, some well-made buttersauce, and the juice of a lemon; stir the whole well together over the fire, and when quite hot, send it to table separately, in a boat, to be handed round with the sucking-pig.
Braized Ham’ with Spinach, etc.
When about to dress a ham, care must be taken after it has been trimmed, and the thigh-bone removed, that it be put to soak in a large pan filled with cold water; the length of time it should remain in soak depending partly upon its degree of moisture, partly upon whether the ham be new or seasoned. If the ham readily yields to the pressure of the hand, it is no doubt new, and this is the case with most of those sold in the spring season for such as those a few hours’ soaking will suffice, but when hams are properly seasoned, they should be soaked for 24 hours. Foreign hams, however, require to be soaked much longer, varying in time from 2 to 4 days and nights. The water in which they are soaked should be changed once every 12 hours in winter, and twice during that time in summer; it is necessary to be particular also in scraping off the slimy surface from the hams, previously to replacing them in the water to finish soaking.
When the ham has been trimmed and soaked, let it be boiled in water for an hour, and then scraped and washed in cold water; place it in a braizing-pan with 2 carrots, as many onions, 1 head of celery, 2 blades of mace, and 4 cloves; moisten with sufficient common broth to float the ham, and then set it on the stove to braize very gently for about four hours. To obtain tenderness and mellowness, so essential in a well-dressed ham, it must never be allowed to boil, but merely to simmer very gently by a slow fire. This rule applies also to the braizing of all salted or cured meats. Where the ham is done, draw the pan in which it has braized away from the fire, and set it to cool in the open air, allowing the ham to remain in the braise. By this means it will retain all its moisture; for when the ham is taken out of the braize as soon as done, and put on a dish to get cold, all its richness exudes from it. The ham having partially cooled in its braise, should be taken out and trimmed, and afterwards placed in a braizing-pan with its own stock; and about three-quarters of an hour before dinner put either in the oven or on a slow fire. When warmed through place the ham on a baking-dish in the oven to dry the surface, then glaze it; replace it in the oven again for about three minutes to dry it, and glaze it again, by that time the ham, if properly attended to, will present a bright appearance. Put it now on its dish, and garnish it with well-dressed spinach, placed round the ham in tablespoonfuls, shaped like so many eggs, pour some sauce round the base, put a ruffle on the bone, and serve. Note. - Any of our home-cured hams, dressed according to the foregoing directions, may also be served with a garnish of asparagus-peas, young carrots, green peas, broad beans, French beans or Brussels sprouts.
Roast Turkey, a l’Anglaise.
Stuff a turkey with some well-seasoned veal stuffing, let it be trussed in the usual manner, and previously to putting it down to roast cover it with thin layers of fat bacon, which should be scoured on with buttered paper tied round the turkey, so as entirely to envelop it on the spit; then roast it, nod when done dish it up, garnish with stewed chestnuts and small pork sausages, nicely fried; pour a rich sauce round it, glaze the turkey, and send to table.
Plain Rump Steak.
The steak should be out rather thick, neatly trimmed seasoned with a little pepper and salt, and broiled over a clear fire, when done remove it carefully from the gridiron, in order to preserve the gravy which collects on its upper surface. Place the steak on its dish, rub a small pat of fresh butter over it, garnish round with grated horseradish, and send some beef gravy separately in a sauceboat.
Epicures, however, prefer the gravy which runs out of a juicy steak when well broiled to any other addition. Small ribs of beef, and especially steaks out from between the small ribs, form an excellent substitute for rump steaks both, when nicely broiled, may be served with cold Maitre e d’Hotel butter, anchovy ditto.
Beef Steak, a la Francaise
Cut one pound of trimmed fillet of beef across the grain of the meat into three pieces; flatten these with the cutletbat, and trim them of a round or oval form; then cut and trim three pieces of suet, half the size of the former: dip the steaks in a little clarified butter, season with pepper and salt, and place them on the gridiron over a clear fire to broil; when done glaze them on both sides; dish them up on two ounces of cold Maitre d’Hotel butter, garnish round with fried potatoes, and serve. These potatoes must be cut or turned in the form of olives, and fried in a little clarified butter.
Hashed Beef, Plain’,
Slice the beef up in very thin pieces, season with pepper and salt, and shake a little flour over it. Next chop a middle-sized onion, and put it into a stewpan with a tablespoonful of Harvey sauce, and an equal quantity of mushroom catsup; boil these together for two minutes, and then add half a pint of broth or gravy; boil this down to half its quantity, throw in the beef, set the bash to boil on the stove fire for five minutes longer, and then serve with sippets of toasted bread round it.
Slices of Braized Beef, a la Claremont.
Take braized beef remaining from a previous day’s dinner, and out in rather thin round or oval slices, placed in a saucepan in neat order, and warmed with a gravyspoonful of good stock; these must then be dished up in a circle, overlapping each other closely; pour some sauce over them, and serve.
Note. - Slices of braized beef warmed and dished up, as in the foregoing case, may be greatly varied by being afterwards garnished with macaroni prepared with grated cheese, a little glaze and tomato-sauce also with all sharp sauces, with purees of vegetables, and with vegetable garnishes.
Bubble and Squeak.
Cut some slices (not too thin) of cold boiled round or edge-bone of salt beef; trim them neatly, as also an equal number of pieces of the white fat of the beef, and set them aside on a plate. Boil two summer or Savoy cabbages, remove the stalks, chop them fine, and put them into a stewpan with four ounces of fresh butter and one ounce of glaze; season with pepper and salt. When about to send to table, fry the slices of beef in a sauce or fryingpan, commencing with the pieces of fat; stir the cabbage on the fire until quite hot, and then pile it up in the centre of the dish; place the slices of beef and the pieces of fat round it, pour a little brown sauce over the whole, and serve.
Mutton Cutlets, Plain.
Choose a neck of mutton that has been killed at least four days, saw off the scrag end, and as much of the rib-bongs as may be necessary in order to leave the cutlet-bones not more than three inches and a half long the spine-bones must also be removed with the saw, without damaging the fillet. Next cut the neck of mutton thus trimmed into as many cutlets as there are bones, detach the meat from the upper pert of each bone, about three-quarters of an inch, then dip them in water and flatten them with a cutlet-bat, trim away the sinewy part, and any superfluous fat. The cutlets must then be seasoned with pepper and salt, passed over with a pastebrush dipped in clari-fied butter, and nicely broiled over or before a clear fire. When they are done dish them up neatly, and serve with plain brown gravy under them.
Cutlets prepared in this way may also be served with either of the following sauces: Poor-man’s Poivrade; for which see another page.
Mutton Cutlets, Bread-crumbed and Broiled with Shallot Gravy.
Trim the cutlets in the usual manner, and season them with pepper and salt; then egg them slightly over with a paste-brush dipped in two yolks of eggs, beaten upon a plate for the purpose pass each cutlet through sorme fine bread-crumbs then dip them separately in some clarified butter, and bread-crumb them over once more; put them into shape with the blade of a knife, and lay them on a gridiron to be broiled over a clear fire, of a lightbrown color; then glaze and dish them up and serve them with plain or shallot gravy. These cutlets may also be served with any of the sauces directed to be used for plain broiled cutlets.
Sweetbreads Larded with Stewed Peas.
Three heart sweetbreads generally suffice for a dish. They must be procured quite fresh, otherwise they are unfit for the table, and should be steeped in water for several hours, and the water frequently changed, the sweetbreads are then to be scalded in boiling water for about X minutes and immersed in cold water for half an hour after which they must be drained upon a napkin trimmed free from any sinewy fat, and put between two dishes to be slightly pressed flat, and then closely larded with strips of bacon in the usual manner. The sweetbreads must next be placed in a deep saucepan on a bed of thinly sliced carrots, celery and onions, with a garnished faggot of parsely and green onions placed in the centre and covered with thin layers of fat bacon. Moisten with about a pint of good stock, place a round of buttered paper on the top, coyer with the lid, and after having put the sweetbreads to boil on the stove-fire, remove them to the oven or on a moderate fire (in the latter case live embers of charcoal must be placed on the lid) and allow them to braize rather briskly for about twenty minutes, frequently basting them with their own liquor. When dome remove the lid and paper covering and set them again in the oven to dry the surface of the larding; glaze them nicely and dish them up on some stewed peas (which see).
Sweetbreads prepared in this way may also be served with dressed asparagus, peas, French beans, scallops of cucumbers, braized lettuce, celery, and also with every kind of vegetable puree. To raise the sweetbreads above the garnish, or sauce served with them; it is necessary to place as many foundations as there are sweetbreads in the dish; these may be made either by boiling some rice in broth until it becomes quite soft, then working it into a paste, after this has been spread on a disk about an inch thick, a circular tin cutter must be used to stamp it out. They may also be prepared from veal force-meats or even fried croutons of bread will serve the purpose. Lamb Cutlets Bread-crumbed, with Asparagus Peas.
Trim the cutlets, season with pepper and salt, rub them over with a paste-blush dipped in yolks of eggs and roll them in bread crumbs, then dip them in some clarified butter and bread-crumb them over again; put them in shape with the blade of a knife and place them in neat order in a saucepan with some clarified butter. When about to send to table fry the cutlets of a light color, drain them upon a sheet of paper, glaze and dish them up; fill the centre with asparagus-peas, pour some thin sauce around them and serve.
Pork Cutlets Plain-broiled, with Gravy, etc.
These cutlets must be cut from the neck or loin of dairyfed pork, not too fat; they should be trimmed but very little, the rough part of the chine-bone only requiring to be removed, the skin must be left on and scored in six places. Season the cutlets with pepper and salt, and broil them on a gridiron over a clear fire; coke makes a better fire than coal for broiling, as it emits no gas and causes less smoke. Take care that they are thoroughly done and not scorched; dish them up with any of the following gravies or sauces, and serve: Sage and onion, shallot, onion, fine herbs, gravies, or essences, tomato sauce.
Venison for this purpose ought to be kept until it has become quite tender; a piece of the end of the neck may be used. Cut the fillet from the bone, with all the fat adhering to it; remove the outer skin, and then cut it into scallops, taking care not to trim off more of the fat than is necessary; place them in a saucepan with clarified butter, season with pepper and salt, and fry them brown on both sides; pour off all the grease, add some scallops of mushrooms, a piece of glaze and a glass of Port wine; simmer the whole together over a stove-fire for about 3 minutes, and then pour in some Poivrade sauce; toss the scallops in the sauce on the fire until quite hot, and then dish them up with a border of’ quenelles of potatoes and serve. These scallops may also be served with sweet sauce, in which case the mushrooms must be omitted.
Cut the chops about an inch thick from the end of the haunch or the best end of the neck, flatten them a little with a cutlet-bat, trim them without waste, season with pepper and salt and broil them on a gridiron over a clear fire of moderate heat, turning therm over every 3 minutes while on the fire; when done through with their gravy in them, lift them carefully off the gridiron without spilling the gravy that may be swimming on the surface, dish them up with a Iittle rich brown gravy under therm, and serve some currant jelly or venison sweet sauce separately in a boat.
Fricassee of Chickens with Mushrooms, etc.
Procure 2 fat, plump chickens, and after they have been drawn, singe them over the flame of a charcoal fire, and then cut up into small members or joints in the following manner: First remove the wings at the second joint, then take hold of the chicken with the left hand, and with a sharp knife make 2 parallel cuts lengthwise on the back about an inch and a half apart, so as partly to detach or at least to mark out where the legs and wings are to be removed; the chicken must next be placed upon its side on the table, and after the leg and fillet (with the pinion left on the upper side) have been cut, the same must be repeated on the other, and the thigh-bones must be removed. Then separate the back and breast, trim these without waste and cut the back across into 2 pieces; steep the whole in a pan containing clear tepid water for about 10 minutes, frequently squeezing the pieces with the hand too extract all the blood. Next strew the bottom of a stewpan with thinly-sliced carrot, onion and a little c elery, 3 cloves, 12 pepper-corns, a blade of mace and a garnished faggot of parsley; place the pieces of chicken in close and neat order upon the vegetables, etc., moisten with about a quart of boiling broth from the stockpot, or failing this, with water; cover with the lid and set the whole to boil gently by the side of the stove-fire for about half an hour, when the chicken will be done. They must then be strained in a sieve and their broth reserved in a basin; next immerse the pieces of chicken in cold water, wash and drain them upon a napkin, and afterward trim them neatly and place them in a stewpan in the larder.
Then put 2 ounces of fresh butter to melt in a stewpan; to this add 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, and stir the mixture over the fire for 3 minutes without allowing it to acquire any color; it should then be removed from the stove, and the chicken broth being poured into it the whole must be thoroughly mixed together into a smooth sauce; throw in some trimmings of mushrooms and stir the sauce over the fire until it boils, then set it by the side to continue gently boiling to throw up the butter and scum. When the sauce has boiled half an hour skim it, reduce it by further boiling to its proper consistency, and then incorporate with it a leason of 4 yolks of eggs mixed with a pat of butter and a little cream; set the leason in the sauce by stirring it over the fire until it nearly boils, then pass it through a tammy into the stewpan containing the pieces of chicken, and add thereto half a pottle of prepared button-mushrooms. When about to send to table warm the fricassee without allowing it to boil, and dish it up as follows: First put the pieces of the back in the centre of the dish, place the legs at the angles, the bones pointed inwardly; next place the fillets upon these, and then set the pieces of breast on the top; pour the sauce over the entree, and place the mushrooms about the fricassee in groups; surround the entree with eight or ten glazed croutons of fried bread cut in the shape of hearts, and serve.
Note. - Truffles cut into scallops, or shaped in the form of olives, crayfish-tails, button-onions, or artichokebottoms cut into small pointed quarters, may also be served with a fricassee of chickens.
Pigeons a la Gauthier.
Procure 4 young, fat pigeons; draw, singe and truss them with their legs thrust inside; next put a half-pound of fresh butter into a small stewpan with the juice of a lemon, a little mignonette, pepper, and salt; place this over a stove-fire, and when it is melted put the pigeons with a garnished faggot of parsley in it, cover the whole with thin layers of fat bacon and a circular piece of buttered paper, and set them to simmer very gently on a slow fire for about 20 minutes, when they will be done. The pigeons must then be drained upon a napkin, and after all the greasy moisture has been absorbed place them in the dish in the form of a square, with a large quenelle of fowl (decorated with truffles) in between each pigeon; fill the centre with a ragout of crayfish tails; pour some of the sauce over and round the pigeons, and serve.
Rabbits a la Bourguignonne
Cut the rabbits up into small joints, season with pepper and salt, and fry them slightly over the fire without allowing them to acquire much color; adding half a pint of button-onions previously parboiled in water, a very little grated nutmeg, and half a pottle of mushrooms; toss these over the fire for five minutes, then add a tumblerfull of French white wine (Chablis or Sauterne), and set this to boil sharply until reduced to half the quantity; next add 2 large gravyspoonsful of Poivrade sauce (which see), simmer the whole together gently for ten minutes longer, and finish by incorporating a leason of 4 yolks of eggs, the juice of 1/2 a lemon, and a dessertspoonful of chopped parboiled parsley; dish up the pieces of rabbit in a pyramidal form, garnish the entree with the onions, etc., placed in groups round the base, pour the sauce over it and serve.
Salmis of Wild Duck.
Roast a wild duck before a brisk fire for about 25 minutes, so that it may retain its gravy, place it on its breast in a dish to get cool, then cut it up into small joints comprising 2 fillets, 2 legs with the breast and back each cut into 2 pieces, and place the whole in a stewpan. Put the trimmings into a stewpan with 1/2 pint of red wine, 4 shallots a sprig of thyme, a bay-leaf, the rind of an orange free from pith, the pulp of a lemon, and a little Cayenne; boil these down to half their original quantity then add a small ladleful of sauce, allow the sauce to boil, skim it and pass it through a tammy on to, the pieces of wild duck. Then about to send to the table warm the salmis without boiling, dish it up, pour the sauce over it, garnish the entree with 8 heart-shaped croutons of fried bread nicely glazed, and serve.
Skin and draw the hare, leaving on the ears which must be scalped and the hairs scraped off pick out the eyes and cut off the feet or pads just above the first joint, wipe the hare with a clean cloth, and out the sinews at the back of the hindquarters and below the fore legs. Prepare some veal stuffing and fill the paunch with it, sew this up with string or fasten it with a wooden skewer then draw the legs under as if the hare was in sitting posture, set the head between the shoulders and stick a small skewer through them, running also through the neck to secure its position; run another skewer through the fore legs gathered up under the paunch, then take a yard of string, double it in two, placing the centre of it on the breast of the hare and bring both ends over the skewer, cross the string over troth sides of the other skewer and fasten it over the back. Split the hare and roast it before a brisk fire for about three-quarters of an hour, frequently basting it with butter or dripping. Five minutes before taking the hare up throw on a little salt, shake some flour over it with a dredger, and baste it with some fresh butter; when this froths up and the hare has acquired a rich brown crust take it off the spit, dish it up with water-cresses round it, pour some brown gravy under, and send some currant jelly in a boat to be handed round.
Draw the pheasant by making a small opening at the vent, make an incision along the back part of the neck, loosen the pouch, etc., with the fingers and then remove it; singe the body of the peasant and its legs over the flame of a charcoal fire or with a piece of paper, rub the scaly cuticle off the legs with a cloth, trim away the claws and spurs, cut off the neck close up to the back leaving the skin of the breast entire, wipe the pheasant clean, and then truss it in the following manner: Place the pheasant upon its breast, run a trussing-needle and string through the left pinion (the wings being removed), then turn the bird over on its back and place the thumb and fore-finger of the left hand across the breast, holding the legs erect; thrust the needle through the middle joint of both thighs, draw it out and then pass it through the other pinion and fasten the strings at the back; next pass the needle through the legs and body and tie the strings tightly; this will give it an appearance of plumpness. Spit and roast the pheasant before a brisk fire for about half an hour, frequently basting it; when done send to table with brown gravy under it and bread sauce (which see) separately fill a boat.
Wild Fowl, en Salmis.
Cut up a cold roast duck (wild), goose, brant, or whatever it may be. Put into a bowl or soup-plate (to every bird) a dessertspoonful of well made mustard, a sprinkle of cayenne and black pepper, with about a gill of red wine; mix them well together, set your pan on the fire with a lump of butter, when it melts add gradually the wine, etc., let it bubble a minute; put in your duck and bubble it for a few minutes. If your duck has proved tough when first cooked, use a saucepan and let it bubble till tender, taking care there is enough gravy to keep it from burning. Serve on dry toast very hot.
Pigeons may be broiled or roasted like chicken. They will cook in three-quarters of an hour. Make a gravy of the giblets, season it with pepper and salt, and thicken it with a little flour and butter.
Plunge them into boiling water till they are dead, take them out, pull off the outer skin and toe-nails, wash them in warm water and boll them with a teaspoonful of salt to each middling-sized terrapin till you can pinch the flesh from off the bone of the leg, turn them out of the shell into a dish, remove the sand-bag and gall, add the yolks of 2 eggs, cut up your meat, season pretty high with equal parts of black and cayenne pepper and salt. Put all into your saucepan with the liquor they have given out in cutting up, but not a drop of water, add 1/4 of a pound of butter with a gill of Madeira to every 2 middlesized terrapins; simmer gently till tender, closely covered, thicken with flour and serve hot.
To Stew Terrapins.
Wash 4 terrapins in warm water, then throw them in a pot of boiling water, which will kill them instantly; let them boil till the shells crack, then take them out and take off the bottom shell, cut each quarter separate, take the gall from the liver’ take out the eggs, put the pieces in a stewpan, pour in all the liquor and cover them with water; put in salt, cayenne, and black pepper and a little mace, put in a lump of butter the size of an egg and let them stew for half an hour, make a thickening of dour and water which stir in a few minutes before you take it up with two glasses of wine. Serve it in a deep covered dish, put in the eggs just us you dish it.
Chicken Stewed with New Corn.
Cut up the chickens as for pies, season them well, have green corn cut off the cob, put a layer of chicken in the bottom of a stewpan and a layer of corn, and so till you fill all in, sprinkle in salt, pepper and parsley and put a piece of butter in cover it with water and put on a crust with slits out in it, let it boil an hour, when done lay the crust in a deep dish. Dip out the chicken and corn and put it on the crust, stir in the gravy a thickening of milk and flour, when this boils up pour it in with the corn and chicken. Chicken and corn boiled together in a pot make very nice soup with dumplings.
A cold roast fowl divided into quarters; young lettuce cut in quarters find placed on the dish with salad dressing; eggs boiled hard and cut in quarters, placed round the dish as a garnish; caper’ and anchovies are sometimes added.
Have 2 slices of salmon, weighing about 1 pound each, which cut into pieces of the size of walnuts; cut up 2 middling-sized onions, which put into a stew-pan with 1 ounce of butter and a clove of garlic cut in thin slices; stir over the fire till becoming rather yellowish, then add a teaspoonful of curry powder, and half that quantity of curry paste. Mix all well together with a pint of good broth; beat up and pass through a tammy into a stewpan, put in the salmon, which stew about half an hour, pour off asmuch of the oil as possible. If too dry, moisten with a little more broth, mixing it gently; and serve as usual, with rice separate. Salmon curry may also be made with the remains left from a previous dinner, in which case reduce the curry sauce until rather thick before putting in the salmon, which only requires to be made hot in it. The remains of a turbot may also be curried in the same way, and so may any other kind of fish.
Truss half a dozen fine large pigeons, as for stewing; season them with pepper and salt, and fill them with veal stuffing or some parsley chopped very fine, and a little pepper, salt, and 3 ounces of butter mixed together. Lay at the bottom of the dish a rump steak of about a pound weight’ cut into pieces and trimmed neatly, seasoned and beat out with a chopper; on it lay the pigeons, the yolks of 3 eggs boiled hard, and a gill of broth: or water; wet the edge of the dish, and cover it over with puff-paste; wash it over with yolk of egg, and ornament it with leaves of paste, and the feet of the pigeons. Bake it an hour and a half in a moderate-heated oven. Before it is sent to table make an aperture in the top, and pour in some good gravy, quite hot.
Clean well, and half stew 2 or 3 sets of goose giblets, cut the leg in 2, the wing and neck into 3, and the gizzard into 4 pieces. Preserve the liquor, and set the giblets by till cold; otherwise the heat of the giblets wi1l spoil the paste you cover the pie with; then season the whole with black pepper and salt, and put them into a deep dish, cover it with paste, rub it over with yolk of egg, ornament and bake it and a half in a moderate oven. In the mean time take the liquor the giblets were stewed in, skim it free from fat put it over a fire in a clean stewpan, thicken it a little with flour and butter, or flour and water, season it with pepper and salt and the juice of half a lemon: add a few drops of browning, strain it through a fine sieve, and, when you take the pie from the oven, pour some of this into it through a funnel. Some lay in the bottom of the dish a moderately thick rump-steak. If you have any cold game or poultry, cut it in pieces, and add it to the above.
Rump Steak Pie.
Cut 3 pounds of rump steak, that has been kept till tender into pieces half as big as your hand; trim off all the skin, sinews, and every part which has not indisputable pretensions to be eaten, and beat them with a chopper. Chop very fine half a dozen eschalots, and mix them with half an ounce of pepper and salt mixed; strew some of the mixture at the bottom of the dish, then a Iayer of steak, then some more of the mixture, and so on till the dish is full; add half a gill of mushroom catsup, and the same quantity of gravy, or red wine; cover it as in the preceding receipt, and bake it two hours. Large oysters parboiled, bearded, and laid alternately with the steaks, their liquor reduced and substituted instead of the catsup and wine, will be a variety.
Parboil and then cut up neatly two young chickens; dry them; set them over a slow fire for a few minutes. Have ready some veal stuffing or forcemeat; lay it at the bottom of the dish, and place in the chickens upon it, and with it some pieces of dressed ham; cover it with paste. Bake it from an hour and a half to two hours. When sent to table add some good gravy, well seasoned and not too thick.
Duck pie is made in like manner, only substituting duck stuffing instead of the veal.
The above may be put into a raised French crust, and baked. When done take off the top, and put a ragout of sweetbread to the chicken.
Made in the same way, bait make a forcemeat to cover the bottom of the dish, by pounding a quarter pound of boiled bacon with the livers of the rabbits, some pepper and salt, some pounded mace, some chopped parsley, and an eschalot, thoroughly beaten together, and you may lay some thin slices of readydressed ham or bacon on the top of’ your rabbits.
Raised French Pie.
Make about 2 pounds of flour into a paste, as directed; knead it well, and into the shape of a ball; press your thumb into the centre, and work it by degrees into any shape (oval or round is the most general) till about five inches high; put it on a sheet of paper, and fill it with coarse flour or bran; roll out a covering for it about the same thickness as the sides; cement its sides with the yolk of egg; cut the edges quite even, and pinch it round with the finger and thumb, yolk-of-egg it over with a paste-brush, and ornament it in any way as fancy may direct, with the same kind of paste. Bake it of a fine brown color, in a slow oven, and when done cut out the top, remove the flour or bran, brush it quite clean, and fill it up with a fricassee of chicken, rabbit, or any other entree most convenient. Send it to table with a napkin under.
Raised Ham Pie.
Soak four or five hours a small ham; wash and scrape it well, cut off the knuckle, and boil it for half an hour, then take it up and trim it very neatly. Take off the rind and put it into an oval stewpan, with a pint of Madeira or Sherry, and enough veal stock to cover it. Let it stew for two hours, or till three-parts done; take it out and ’et in a cold place then raise a crust as in the foregoing receipt, large enough to receive it; put in the ham, and around it the veal forcemeat; cover and ornament. It will take about one hour and a half to bake in a slow oven. When done take off the cover, glaze the top, and pour round the following sauce, viz.: take the liquor the ham was stewed in, skim it free from fat, thicken with a little flour and butter mixed together, a few drops of browning, and some cayenne pepper.
The above is a good way of dressing a small ham, and has a good effect cold for a supper.
Raised Pork Pie.
Make a raised crust, of a good size, with paste, about four inches high, take the rind and chinebone from a loin of pork, cut it into chops, beat them with a chopper, season them with pepper and salt and powdered sage, and fill your pie; put on the top and close it, and pinch it round the edge; rub it over with yolk of egg, and bake it two hours, with a paper over to prevent the crust from burning. When done, pour in some good gravy, with a little ready-mixed mustard and a teaspoonful of catsup.
Scotch Minced Collops.
Take 2 pounds of the fillet of beef, chopped very fine, put it in a stewpan, and add to it pepper and salt and a little flour; add a little good gravy, with a little catsup and Harvey sauce, and let it stew for twenty minutes over a slow fire. Serve up very hot, garnished with fried sippet of bread. This quantity of beef makes a good-sized dish.
Get rump steaks, not too thick, beat them with a chopper, cut them into pieces about half the size of your hand, and trim off all the skin, sinews, etc., have ready an onion peeled and chopped fine, likewise some potatoes peeled and cut into slices a quarter of an inch thick; rub the inside of a basin or an oval plain mould with butter, sheet it with paste as directed for boiled puddings, season the steaks with pepper, salt, and a little grated nutmeg, put in a layer of steak, then another of potatoes, and so on till it is full, occasionally throwing in part of the chopped onion, ’add to it half a, gill of mushroom catsup, a tablespoonful of lemon pickle, and half a gill of water or veal broth, roll out a top, and close it well to prevent the water getting in, rinse a clean cloth in hoot water, sprinkle a little flour over it, and tie up the pudding; have ready a large pot of water boiling, put it in, and boil it two hours and a half, take it up, remove the cloth, turn it downwards in a deep dish, and when wanted take away the basin or mould.
Vol au Vent.
Roll off tart paste till about the eighth of an inch thick, then with a tin cutter made for that purpose (about the size of the bottom of the dish you intend sending to table), cut out the shape, and lay a baking plate with paper, rub it over with yolk of egg; roll out good puff-paste an inch thick, stamp it with the same cutter, and lay it on the tart paste, then take a cutter two sizes smaller, and press it in the centre nearly through the puff-paste, rub the top with yolk of egg and bake it in a quick oven about twenty minutes, of a light brown color; when done take out the paste inside the centre mark, preserving the top, put it on a, dish in a warm place, and when wanted, fill it with a white fricassee chicken, rabbit, ragout of sweetbread, or any other entree you wish.
To make a Perigord Pie.
Take half a dozen partridges, and dispose of their legs in the same manner as is done with chickens, when intended to be boiled. Season them well with pepper, salt, a small quantity of cloves, and mace beaten fine. Cut 2 pounds of lean veal, and 1 pound of fat bacon into small bits, and put them into a stewpan with 1/2 a pound of butter, together with some shallots, parsley, and thyme, all chopped together. Stew these till the meat appears sufficiently tender. Then season it in the same manner as directed for the partridges. Strain and pound the meat in a mortar till it is perfectly smooth, then mix the pulp in some of the liquor in which it has been stewed. The piecrust being raised, and ready to receive the partridges, put them in with the above-mentioned forcemeat over them, and over that lay some thin slices of bacon. Cover the pie with a thick lid, and be sure to close it well at the sides, to prevent the gravy from boiling out at the place where the joining is made, which would occasion the partridges to eat dry. This sized pie will require three hours’ baking, but be careful not to put it in a fierce heated oven. A pound of fresh truffles will add considerably to the merits of this excellent pie.
Beefsteak and oyster Pie.
Cut 3 pounds of fillet of beef or rump steaks into large scallops, fry them quickly over a very brisk fire so as to brown them before they are half done, then place them on the bottom of the dish, leaving the centre open in two successive layers; fill the centre with four dozen oysters, previously parboiled and bearded, season with pepper and salt, and pour the following preparation over the whole. When the scallops of’ beef have been fried in a sauce or fryingpan, pour nearly all the grease out, and shake a tablespoonful of flour into it, stir this over the fire for one minute, and then add a pint of good gravy or broth, two tablespoonsful of mushroom catsup, and an equal quantity of Harvey sauce, and the liquor of the oysters; stir the whole over the fire, and keep it boiling for a quarter of an hour. Half an hour after this sauce has been poured into the pie, cover it with puff paste in the usual way, bake it for an hour and a half, and serve.
Chicken Pie, a la Reine.
Cut 2 chickens into small members, as for fricassee, cover the bottom of the pie-dish with layers of scallops of veal and ham placed alternately; season with chopped mushrooms and parsley, pepper and salt, then add a little white sauce; next place in the dish the pieces of chicken in neat order, and round these put a plover’s egg in each cavity, repeat the seasoning and the sauce, lay a few thin slices of dressed ham neatly trimmed on the top; cover the pie with puff paste. Ornament this with pieces of the same cut into the form of leaves, etc., egg the pie over with a paste-brush, and bake it for one hour and a half. A very good chicken pie may be made by omitting the plover’s eggs, mushrooms, ham, and the sauce; substituting for these the yolk of eggs boiled hard, chopped parsley, bacon, and a little mushroom catsup, some common gravy’ or even water.
Beefsteak and Oyster Pudding.
Line a two-quart pudding basin with some beef suet paste; fill this lining with a preparation similar to that described for making beefsteak and oyster pie, except that the sauce must be more reduced. When the pudding is filled, wet the edges of the paste round the top of the basin with a paste-brush dipped in water, cover it with a piece of suetpaste rolled out to the size of the basin, fasten it down by bearing all round the edge with the thumb, and then with the thumb and forefinger, twist the edges of the paste over and over so as to give it a corded appearance. This pudding must be either steamed or boiled three hours; when done turn it out of the basin carefully, pour some rich brown gravy under it and serve.
Cut two pounds of sheep’s or lamb’s kidneys into scallops, put them into a basin with some chopped parsley, shallot, and a little thyme, and season with pepper and salt, then add a large gravyspoonful of good sauce, and the juice of half a lemon; mix these ingredients well together. Line a basin with suet-paste, and fill the pudding with the foregoing preperation. Cover it in the usual way, steam or boil it for two hours and a half, and when sent to table pour under it some rich brown gravy, to which has been added a little lndian soy, and serve.
Eggs, au Gratin.
Boil the eggs hard, and when done take off the shells, cut them in slices, and set them aside on a plate. Next, put a large tablespoonful of white sauce into a stewpan to boil over the stove fire, and when it is sufficiently reduced, add 2 ounces of grated Parmesan cheese, a small pat of butter, a little nutmeg, pepper, the yolks of 4 eggs, and the juice of half a lemon; stir this quickly over the stove until it begins to thicken, and then withdraw it from the fire. Place the eggs in close circular rows, in the dish, spread some of the preperation in between each layer, observing that the whole must be dished up in the form of a dome; smooth the surface over with the remainder of the sauce, strew some fried bread-crumbs mixed with grated Parmesan cheese over the top, put some fried croutons of bread or pastry round the base, and set them in the oven to bake for about ten minutes, then send to table.
Omelet, with fine Herbs.
Break 6 eggs in a basin, to these add 1/2 a gill of cream, a small pat of butter broken in small pieces, a spoonful of chopped parsley, some pepper and salt, then put 4 ounces of fresh butter in an omelet-pan on the stove fire;; while the butter is melting, whip the eggs, etc., well together until they become frothy; as soon as the butter begins to fritter, pour the eggs into the pan, and stir the omelet as the eggs appear to set and become firm; when the whole has become partially set, roll the omelet into the form of an oval cushion, allow it to acquire a golden color on one side over the fire, and then turn it out on its dish; pour a little thin sauce’ or half glaze under it, and serve.
Omelet, with Parmesan Cheese.
Break 6 eggs into a basin, then add a gill of cream, 4 ounces of grated Parmesan cheese, some pepper, and a little salt; beat the whole well together, and finish the omelet as previously directed.
Eggs a la Dauphine.
Boil 10 eggs hard, take off the shells, and out each egg into halves, lengthwise; scoop the yolks out and put them into the mortar, and place the whites on a dish. Add 4 ounces of butter to the yolks of eggs, also the crumb of a Frenchroll soaked in cream, some chopped parsley, grated nutmeg, pepper and salt, and 2 ounces of grated Parmesan cheese; pound the whole well together and then add l whole egg and the yolks of 2 others; mix these well together by pounding, and use this preparation for filling the whites of eggs kept in reserve for the purpose, smooth them over with the blade of a small knife dipped in water, and as they are filled place them on a dish. Next, with some of the remaining part of the preperation spread a thin foundation at the bottom of the dish, and proceed to raise the eggs up in 3 or 4 tiers, to a pyramidal form, a single egg crowning the whole; 4 hardboiled yolks of eggs must then be rubbed through a wiresieve, over the entremets for them to fall upon in shreds, like vermicelli; place a border of fried croutons of bread round the base, and set the eggs in the oven for about twenty minutes, that they may be baked of a bright yellow color, when done withdraw them, pour some thin Bechamel round the entremets, and serve.
Soak slices of veal, ham, sliced onions, carrots parsnips, and a white head of celery, add a glass of white wine, as much good broth, a clove of garlic, 4 shallots, 1 clove, a little coriander, and 2 slices of peeled lemons. Boil on a slow fire till the meat is done; skim it and sift in a sieve, add a little catsup, and a small quantity of fine chopped parsley, just before it is used.
Put slices of veal and ham in a stewpan, with a spoonful of oil, 2 mushrooms, a bunch of parsley a clove of garlic, 2 heads of cloves, 1/2 a loaf of laurel; let it catch a little on the fire;: then add some good broth, a little gravy, and some white wine, simmer it for some time, skim it well, and sift in a sieve. When ready add 2 or 3 green shallots, and a dozen of pistachio-nuts whole.
Put a bit of butter with 2 sliced onions into a Stewpan, with a carrot, a parsnip, a little thyme, laurel, basil, 2 gloves, 2 shallots, a clove of garlic, and some parsley; turn the whole over the fire until it be well colored; then shake in some flour and moisten it with some broth, and a spoonful of vinegar. Let it boil over a slow fire, skim and strain it through a sieve. Season it with salt and pepper, and serve it with any dish required to be heightened.
Sauce for Veal.
Take the bones of cold roast or boiled veal; dredge them well with flour, and put them into a stewpan, with a pint and a half of broth or water, a small onion, a little grated or finely minced lemon-peel’ or the peel of a quarter of a small lemon pared as thin as possible, half a teaspoonful of salt, and a blade of pounded mace; to thicken it, rub a tablespoonful of, flour into half an ounce of batter; stir it into the broth, and set it on the fire, and let it boil very gently for about half an hour, strain through a tammis or Sieve, and it is ready to put to the veal to warm up, which is to be done by placing the stewpan by the side of the fire. Squeeze in half a lemon, and cover the bottom of the dish with toasted bread sippets cut into triangles, and garnish the dish with slices of ham or bacon.
Bechamel, or White Sauce.
Cut in square pieces, half an inch thick, 2 pounds of lean veal, 1/2 a pound of lean ham, melt in a stewpan 2 ounces of butter; when melted let the whole simmer until it is ready to catch at the bottom (it requires great attention, as if it happen to catch at the bottom of the stewpan, it will spoil the look of your sauce), then add to it 3 tablespoonsful of flour, when well mixed, add to it 3 pints of broth or water, pour a little at a time that the thickening be smooth, stir it until it boils, put the stewpan on the corner of the stove to boil gently for two hours, season it with 4 cloves, 1 onion 12 peppercorns, a blade of mace, a few mushrooms, and a fagot made of parsley, a sprig of thyme, and a bay-leaf. Let the sauce reduce to a quart, skim the fat off, and strain it through a tammis cloth.
Kitchener’s (Dr.) Sauce, Superlative.
Claret or Port wine, and mushroom catsup, a pint of each; 1/2 a pint of walnut or other pickle liquor, pounded anchovies, 4 ounces fresh lemonpeel, pared very thin. 1 ounce; peeled and sliced shallots, the same; scraped horseradish, l ounce; allspice and black pepper powdered, 1/2 an ounce each, Cayenne, 1 drachm, or curry powder, 3 drachms, celery-seed, bruised, a drachm. All avoirdupois weight. Put these into a wide mouth bottle, stop it close, shake it up every day for a fortnight, and strain it, when some think it improved by the addition of a quarter pint soy, or thick browning, and you will have a ”delicious double relish.”
Put a piece of butter into a stewpan, with mushrooms, onion, parsley, and 1/2 of a laurel-leaf, all cut fine; turn the whole over the fire for some time, and shake in a little flour; moisten it with a glass of white wine, and as much good broth; add salt, pepper, and a little mace; beat all fine.. Let it boil half an hour; then skim away all the fat, and serve it up. A fine flavor may be given to it whilst boiling, by putting in a bunch of sweet herbs’ which take out before the dish is served up.
Ragout of Asparagus.
Scrape 100 of grass clean; put them into cold water; cut them as far as is good and green; chop small 2 heads of endive, 1 young lettuce, and 1 onion. Put 1/4 of a pound of butter into the stewpan, and when it is melted, put in the grass with the other articles. Shake them well, and when they have stewed 10 minutes, season them with a little pepper and salt, strew in a little flour, shake them about, and then pour on 1/2 a pint of gravy. Stew the whole till the sauce is very good and thick, and then pour all into the dish. Garnish with a few of the small tops of the grass.
Ragout of Mushrooms.
Broil on a gridiron some large peeled mushrooms, and clean off the inside; when the outside is brown, put them into a stewpan with a sufficient quantity of water to cover them, when they have stewed 10 minutes, put to them l spoonful of white wine the same of browning, and a little vinegar. Thicken it with butter and flour, give a gentle boil, and serve it up with sippets round the dish.
Ragout of Artichoke Buttons.
Soak them in warm water for two or three hours, changing the water; then put them into the stewpan with some good gravy, mushroom catsup or powder. Add a little Cayenne pepper and salt when they boil, thicken them with a little flour, put them into the dish with sauce over them, and serve them hot.
Ragout of Calves’ Sweetbreads.
Scald 2 or 3 sweetbreads, cut each into 3 or 4 pieces, and put them into a stewpan with mushrooms, butter, and a fagot of sweet herbs; soak these together a moment, then add broth and gravy, simmer on a slow fire, skim the sauce well, and reduce it; season with pepper, salt and lemon-juice when ready.
Ragout of Roots.
Cut carrots and parsnips to the length of a finger, and of much the same thickness, boil them till half done in water, put them into a stewpan with small bits of ham, chopped parsley, and shallots, pepper and salt, a glass of wine and broth, let them stew slowly until the broth is reduced pretty thick, and add the squeeze of a lemon when ready to serve. For maigre, instead of ham use mushrooms, and make a mixture beat up with yolks of eggs and maigre broth. Celery is done much the same, only it is cut smaller. If these roots are to be served in a boat for sauce, boil them tender in the broth- pot, or in water, out them into the desired length, and serve with a good gravy or white sauce.
Take 1 or more quarts of sour milk, put it in a warm place, and let it remain until the whey separates from the curd, then pour it into a three cornered bag, hang it up, and let it drain until every particle of whey has dripped from it; then turn it out, and mash with a spoon until very fine, after which add a little milk or cream, with salt to taste, before sending to table (if liked) dredge a little black pepper over the top.
Maitre d’Hotel Butter.
Put 1/4 of a pound of fresh butter upon a plate, the juice of two lemons, and 2 large tablespoonsful of chopped parsley, 1/2 a teaspoonful of salt and half that quantity of black pepper; mix all well together, and keep in a cool place for use.
Clean the mushrooms by wiping them, and cutting off the ends of the stems. Pot them in a deep pan, and sprinkle salt over each layer. Let them remain for 2 days. Then put them in a sieve, and strain off all the juice. Pour it into your preserving-kettle, allow 12 cloves, 12 allspice, 2 or 3 pieces of mace, and 1/2 of a small nutmeg, grated. Let it boil for fifteen minutes, remove it from the fire, and let it stand for two or three days, Strain and bottle for use.
Take 3 a peek of tomatoes, wash and slice them; put them in your preserving-kettle, and let them stew gently until quite soft, but do not stir them. Strain the juice through a sieve, pour it back into the kettle. Add 24 cloves, 1/2 an ounce of allspice, 1/2 an ounce of mace; salt and Cayenne to your taste. Set it on the fire, and let it boil until reduced to half the original quantity. The next day strain out the spice, and to every pint of juice l add 1/2 gill of vinegar, and bottle for use.
Two ounces of butter, 2 teaspoonsful of flour, a pint of boiling water, 1 gill of Madeira wine, 1/4 a pound of sugar, 1/2 a grated nutmeg. Mix the flour and better together, pour in the boiling water, let it boil a few minutes; then add the sugar and wine. Just before going to table add the nutmeg. Serve hot.
Cream Bechamel Sauce.
Put 6 ounces of fresh butter into a middle-sized stewpan; add 4 ounces of sifted flour, some nutmeg, a few peppercorns, and a little salt; knead the whole well together; then cut 1 carrot and 1 onion into very thin slices, throw them into the stewpan, and also a bouquet of parsley and thyme, tied together; next moisten these with a quart of white broth and a pint of cream; and having stirred the sauce over the stove-fire for about 1/2 an I hour, pass it through the tammy into the basin for use. This sauce is not expensive, neither does it require much time or trouble to make. It is useful as a substitute for other white sauces, and also for many other purposes.
Poor Man’s Sauce.
Chop an onion very fine,, put it into a stewpan with a small piece of butter, and gently fry the onion on the fire until it assumes a light-brown color; then add a tablespoonful of white-wine vinegar, and a pinch of pepper; allow these to simmer for 3 minutes, and then add a small ladleful of blond of veal or consomme, let the whole be reduced to half the original quantity and, just before using the sauce, throw in a spoonful of chopped and blanched parsley.
Take 1 carrot, 1 onion, and 1 head of celery; cut them into very small dice, and place them in a stewpan with 2 ounces of raw lean of ham out similarly, some thyme, and 1 bay-leaf, 1 blade of mace, a few peppercorns, and some parsley, fry these with a little butter, of a lightbrown color; moisten with 2 glasses of sherry and 1 of French vinegar; reduce the above to one-half its quantity and then add a small ladleful of brown sauce and a little consomme; stir the sauce till it boils, and then set it by the side to clear itself, skim it and pass it through a tammy to keep ready for use.
Indian Curry Sauce.
Take 2 large onions, 1 carrot, and 1 head of celery, and slice them very thin, place these with 2 ounces of fresh butter in a stewpan, and fry them over a slow fire till the onions are nearly melted, but without becoming nrown, add 3 blades of mace, some thyme, and 1 bayleaf, 1 bouquet of parsley, and 2 tablespoonsful of Cooks’ meat curry paste, 1 tablespoonful powder, and as much browning or flour as may be required to thicken the quantity of sauce needed moisten with some good broth or consomme, and stir the sauce on the fire till it boils; then set it by the side to clear itself of the butter, etc. Having skimmed and reduced the sauce to a proper consistency, pass it through a tammy (extracting the parsley), as for a puree, and take it up ready for use, or add it to whatever kind of meat is prepared for the curry; observing that the broth thereof should be used for making the sauce.
Brown Oyster Sauce.
Prepare this precisely as the last sauce, but, instead of the cream, use an equal quantity of brown gravy. Brown oyster sauce is a very desirable accessory to beefsteaks, beef-pudding, beefsteak pie, broiled slices of cod-fish, and various other plain dressed dishes.
German Sweet Sauce.
Stew 6 ounces of dried cherries in 2 glasses of red wine, together with some bruised cinnamon, cloves and lemon-peel, for 20 minutes on a slow fire; pass the whole through a tammy, and put it into a stewpan with a little reduced brown sauce and 6 ounces of stewed prunes. This sauce is in great request for German dishes; it improves the flavor of braized venison in its varied forms of preperation, and is preferred by many for that purpose to Poivrade or Piquante sauce.
Put a pot of black currant jelly into a stewpan, together with 6 ounces of dried cherries, a small stick of cinnamon, and 12 cloves tied up in a piece of muslin: moisten with 1/2 pint of red wine, and set the whole to simmer gently on a slow fire for 10 minutes; then take out the cinnamon and cloves, and send to table.
This kind of sauce is well adapted for roast hare or venison.
Red Currant Jelly Sauce for Venison.
Bruise 1 stick of cinnamon and 12 cloves, and put them into a small stewpan with 2 ounces of sugar, and the peel of one lemon pared off very thin and perfectly free from any portion of white pull;: moisten with 3 glasses of Port wine, and set the whole to simmer gently on the fire for 1/4 of an hour; then strain it through a sieve into a small stewpan, containing a pot of red currant jelly. Just before sending the same to table set it on the fire to boil, in order to melt the currant jelly, so that it may mix with the essence of spice, etc.
Fried Bread Sauce.
Mince a little lean ham, and put it into a small stewpan, with 1 chopped shallot, some grated nutmeg, mignonette-pepper, and 1/2 a pint of good gravy; simmer the whole on the stove-fire till reduced to half, then strain it with pressure through a tammy into another small stewpan, containing 4 tablespoonfuls of fried bread-crumbs of a lightbrown color, and some chopped parsley, and a little essence of chicken, and the juice of 1/2 a leman; stir the sauce till it boils, and serve. This kind of sauce is appropriate for all small birds, such as wheat-ears, orlotans, ruffs and reeves, etc., etc.
Brown Gravy for Roast Veal.
Place 4 ounces of fresh butter in a stewpan and knead it with a good tablespoonful of flour; add a ladleful of good brown gravy, some essence of mushrooms or mushroom catsup, a little grated nutmeg, and pepper, stir the sauce on the stove, and keep it gently boiling for ten minutes. If it becomes too thick add a little more gravy, so as to keep it of the same consistency as any other sauce; finish with a little lemon juice. If there is no gravy or essence of mushrooms, at hand, use in their stead a ladleful of water, a piece of glaze, some mushroom catsup and a little India soy; these will answer nearly the same purpose.
Plain Curry Sauce.
Put 2 ounces of fresh butter into a stewpan, together with rather more than an ounce of flour and a good tablespoonful of curry-paste or powder; knead these well together, then add a little shred carrot, celery and onions; moisten with about a pint of good strong consomme; stir the sauce on the fire until it boils, and after having kept it boiling for about twenty minutes, pass it through the tammy, as for a puree; then remove the sauce into a bainmarie or stewpan, to be used when required. This economical method of making curry sauce should only be resorted to in cases or emergency or necessity, otherwise it is desirable to follow the directions contained in Indian Curry Sauce.
Caper Sauce for Boiled Mutton.
To about half a pint of good butter sauce add a tablespoonful of capers, with a little pepper and salt.
Place two raw yolks of eggs in a round-bottomed basin, and set this in a deep saucepan containing some pounded ice; add a little pepper and salt to the yolks, and proceed to work them quickly with the back part of the bowl of a wooden spoon, moistening at intervals with salad-oil and vinegar. which must however, be sparingly used at first and gradually increased as you proceed until by this means the quantity of sauce desired is produced, add a little lemon-juice to make the sauce white.
Boar’s Head Sauce.
Grate a stick of horse-radish, and place it in a basin with 4 ounces of red currant-jelly a spoonful of mixed mustard, the grated rind of an orange and lemon, together with the juice of both. 2 ounces of pounded sugar, a tablespoonful of vinegar, and 2 tablespoonfuls of salad-oil. Mix these ingredients thoroughly together and serve.
Cut 4 pounds of a breast of veal into pieces, about two inches by one; put the trimmings into a stewpan with 2 quarts of water, 12 corns of black pepper, and the same of allspice; when it boils skim it clean, and let it boil an hour and a half, then strain it off; while it is boiling, fry of a nice brown in butter the bits of veal and 4 onions, when they are done put the broth to them, and put it on the fire; when it boils skim it clean, let it simmer half an hoer, then mix 2 spoonsful of curry and the same of flour with a little cold water, and a teaspoonful of salt, add these to the soup, and simmer it gently till the veal is quite tender, and it is ready; or bone a couple of fowls or rabbits, and stew them in the manner directed above for the veal, and you may put in a bruised shallot, and some mace and ginger, instead of black pepper and allspice.
A Tureen of Hodge-Podge of Different Sorts.
Take either a brisket of beef, mutton steaks whole pigeons, rabbits cut in quarters, veal or poultry, boil a long time over a slow fire in a short liquid, with some onions, carrots’ parsnips, turnips, celery, a bunch of parsley, green shallots, 1 clove of garlic, 3 of spices, a laurel leaf, thyme, a little basil, large thick sausages, and thin broth or water; when done drain the meat and place it upon a dish intermixed with roots, sift and skim the sauce, reduce some of it to a glaze, if desired glaze the meat with it, then add some gravy on the same stewpan, and broth sufficient to make sauce enough with pepper and salt; sift it in a sieve, and serve upon the meat. If brisket of beef is used, let it be half done before putting in the roots, which should be scalded first, as it makes the broth more palatable.
Hotch-Potch. (Meg Dod’s Recipe.)
Make the stock of sweet fresh mutton. Grate the zest of 2 or 3 large carrots, slice down also young turnips, young onions, lettuce and parsley. Have a full quart of these things when sliced, and another of green peas, and sprays of cauliflower, Put in the vegetables, withholding half the peas till near the end of the process. Cut down 4 pounds of ribs of lamb into small chops trimming off superfluous fat, and put them into the soup. Boil well and skim carefully; add the remaining peas, white pepper and salt, nod when thick enough serve the chops in the tureen with the hotch-potch.
Make a good brown stock of a small skin of beef, with vegetables, carrots, turnips, onions and celery; when suf-ficiently boiled the vegetables must be taken out whole, and the soup seasoned with pepper and salt and a little Cayenne to taste also a little Harvey sauce and catsup; then fry some mutton cutlets, the quantity required for the number, a pale brown, add them to the soup with the vegetables cut up small.
Vermicelli and Vegetable Soup.
Five pounds of lean beef, 2 heads of celery, 2 carrots, 2 turnips, 4 onions, l bunch of sweet herbs (in a muslin bag) 1/2 an ounce of white pepper, 1/2 an ounce of allspice, a little salt, 5 pints of water. To be boiled six hours well skimmed and strained from the vegetables, etc. Next day l carrot, l turnip, the hearts of the 2 heads of celery, to be boiled in water after being cut into dice, and added to the soup, with 1/4 of a pound of vermicelli.
Cut 1/2 a pound of freshly-killed beef or chicken into small pieces Add to it 1 1/8 pounds of water in which are dissolved 4 drops of muriatic acid and 3 of a drachm of salt. Mix all well together and let them stand for an hour. Then strain through a hair sieve, but without pressing or squeezing. Pour it again and again through the sieve until clear. Pour 1/2 a pound of pure water over what is left on the sieve. This broth is to be given cold to the sick.
Take the skin off 2 chickens; carve, wash and dry them; put them in a stewpan with a teacupful of water, salt, and a few onions, and stew them with a few green peas, or the egg-plant, till tender; then take a lump of butter the size of a pigeon’s egg, a little mace, cayenne pepper to taste, a teaspoonful each of fresh turmeric and cardamoms, pounded with a shallot in a marble mortar; roll these ingredients with a little flour in the butter, and dissolve them in the stew. If the curry is to be brown, it must be fried a little before the curry-ball is added to the gravy.
Another. - Carve a pair of fat young fowls with a sharp knife, precisely as if at table, dust them with flour, fry them in butter till they are well browned, lay them in a stewpan, with slips of 4 large onions; add boiling water to the browning, etc., left in the pan, give it a boil, and pour the whole over your chicken, if not liquor enough to rather more than cover it, add hot water, put on the lid of your pan and set it on hot coals. In half an hour take out a cup of the gravy, mix it well with a tablespoonful of curry powder, and throw it again into the pan, stir it well round, taste and see if your gravy is warm, if not add Cayenne; bubble the whole quietly till the fowls are tender, serve in a deep dish with boiled rice.
Proceed as above; fry the onions, pieces of fowls, and a couple of egg-plants in slices; put the whole in your stewpan with the milk of 2 cocoa-nuts; grate the flesh, put it into a linen bag and squeeze out the juice, which put in the saucepan likewise; add the curry and finish as above.
Coriander seed, 3 ounces, turmeric, 5 ounces, black pepper, mustard and ginger, each 1 ounce, lesser cardamom seeds, 1/2 an ounce; Cayenne pepper, 1/2 an ounce; cinnamon and cummin seed, 1/4 of an ounce each. Dry them well; reduce them separately to a powder; pass them through a line sieve; and mix them well. It should be kept in a closelystopped bottle in a dry place.
Stew a knuckle of veal and a scrag of mutton three or four hours, with spice; strain it, blanch a pound of sweet almonds; beat them with a spoonful or two of cream to prevent their oiling; put them with a pint of cream into the soup, stir it and give it a boil, strain it through a cloth, squeeze the almonds as dry as possible, heat it again, and thicken it as a custard with eggs; put a toasted roll in the tureen, and pour the soup over it. If there is a breast of cold fowl or veal less almonds will do. If the meat be stewed and strained the day before, it does much better.
To Make Jelly Broth.
Put into the stewpan slices of beef, veal fillet, a fowl, and one or two partridges, according to the quantity required. Put it on the fire without liquid until it catches a little, and a/1a the meat now and then. To give it a proper color, add some good clear boiling broth and scalded roots, as carrots, turnips, parsnips, parsley roots, celery, large onions, two or three cloves, a small bit of nutmeg and whole pepper. Boil it on a slow fire about four or five hours with attention, and add a few cloves of garlic or eschalots, and a small fagot or bunch of parsley and thyme tied together. When it is of a good yellow color, sift it; it serves for sauces, and adds strength to the soups.
Preparation of Calf’s Udder.
The udder is an elongated piece of fat-looking substance attached to the inner part of a leg of veal. It is easily separated from the meat by a knife, and should then be bound round with twine in the shape of a sausage, so as to prevent it from falling to pieces on taking it out of the stockpot; the udder so tied up is then put into the stockpot to boil. Having allowed the dressed udder time to cool and act firm, either on the ice or otherwise pare off the outside with a knife, cut it into small pieces, and pound it in a mortar, then rub it through a wire sieve with a wooden spoon, and put it on a plate upon the ice to cool, in order that it may be quite firm when required for use.
Note. - The two foregoing preparations being the basis of a great variety of forcemeats, it is essential that they should be well understood before attempting the following more complicated amalgamations. It should also be observed, that all meat and fish intended for querelles must be forced through a wire sieve by rubbing it vigorously with the back of a wooden spoon, and then be kept on fee till used.]
Forcemeat of Liver and Ham, for Raised Pies.
Take the whole or part of a light-colored calf’s liver, or several fat livers of any kind of poultry if to be obtained. If calf’s liver be used, cut it into rather small square pieces, and, if time permit, steep them in cold springwater in order to extract the blood, so that the forcemeat may be whiter. Take the pieces of liver out of the water and place them upon a clean rubber, to drain the water from them. Meanwhile cut some fat ham or bacon (in equal proportion to the liver) into square pieces, put them into a sauce-pan on a brisk fire to fry; after which add the pieces of liver, and fry the whole of a light-brown color; season with Cayenne pepper and salt, and a little prepared aromatic spice, some chopped mushrooms, parsley, and three shallots. After this take the pieces of liver and ham out of the pan, lay them on a choppingboard, and chop them fine; then put them into a mortar with the remaining contents of the pan; pound the whole thoroughly, and rub it through a wire sieve on to an earthen dish. This kind of forcemeat or farco is an excellent ingredient in making raised pies.
Take 4 carrots and as many turnips, scraped and washed; scoop them into the form of small olives or peas, with a vegetable scoop of either shape, add the white part of 2 beads of celery, 24 small onions (without the green stalk), and 1 head of firm white cauliflower, out into small flowerets. Blanch or parboil the foregoing in boiling water for three minutes, strain them on a sieve, and then throw them into 3 quarts of bright consomme of fowl. Let the whole boil gently for half an hour by the side of the stove fire;, then add the white leaves of 2 cabbagelettuces (previously stamped out with a round cutter the size of a shilling), a handful of sorrel-leaves, snipped or cut like the lettuces, a few leaves of tarragon and chervil, and a small piece of sugar. Let these continue to boil gently until done. When about to send the soup to table, put into the tureen half a pint of’ young green peas, an equal quantity of asparagusheads boiled green, and a handful of small croutons a la duchesse, prepared in the following manner: Cut the crust off a rasped French roll into strips; stamp or out out these with a round tin or steel cutter into small pellets, about the size of a dime, and dry them in the oven to be ready for use. Before sending the soup to table, taste it to ascertain whether it be sufficiently seasoned.
Take 3 red carrots of a large size, as many sound turnips, and the white parts of the same number of leeks, heads of celery, and onions. Cut al; these vegetables into fine shreds an inch long; put them into a convenient-sized stewpan, with 2 ounces of fresh butter, a little salt, and a teaspoonful of pounded sugar. Simmer these vegetables on a slow stove fire, taking care they do not burn. When they become slightly brown add 3 quarts of veal gravy or light-colored consomme; let the soup boil, skim all the butter off as it rises to the surface, and, when the vegetables are done throw in the leaves of two cabbagelettuces and a handful of sorrel, shred like the carrots, etc. add a few leaves of tarragon and chervil. Boil the whole for ten minutes longer, taste the soup in order to ascertain whether the seasoning is correct, and serve.
Take a neck of fresh mutton; trim it the same as for cutlets; take the scrag and trimmings with 2 carrots, 3 turnips 2 heads of celery, 2 onions, a bunch of parsley, and a sprig of thyme, and with these make some mutton broth, filling up with either broth from the common stockpot or with water. While the mutton broth is boiling, out up the neck of mutton, previously trimmed for the purpose, into chops, which should have the super-fluous skin and fat pared away, and place them in threequart stewpan, together with the red or outer part of 2 carrots, 3 turnips 2 leeks, 1 onion, and 2 heads of celery - the whole of these to be cut in the form of very small dice; add 6 ounces of Scotch barley, previously washed and parboiled, and then pour on to the whole the broth made from the scrag, etc. when strained and the fat recongelade. Allow the soup thus far prepared to boil gently until the chops and vegetables be thoroughly done. Five minutes before sending the soup to table throw into it a tablespoonful of chopped and blanched parsley. Be sparing in the use of salt, so as not to overpower the simple but sweet flavor which characterizes this broth.
Make the mutton broth as shown in the preceding directions, and in addition to its contents add a pint and a half of green peas (either marrowfats or Prussian-blues). Allow the soup to boil gently until the ingredients be thoroughly done, then mix in with them one pint of puree of green spinach and parsley; taste to ascertain that the seasoning be correct, and serve.
Lettuce and Whole-Pea Soup.
Pick, wash and blanch a dozen white-heart cabbagelettuces; out them open and spread them on a clean napkin season them with pepper and salt, then put two together face to face and proceed to tie them up with twine. Cover the bottom of a stewpan with thin layers of fat bacon and place the lettuce thereon; pour over them some broth from the boiling stockpot, over which lay a round of buttered paper place the lid on the stewpan, start them to boil on the fire, and then place them on a slackened stove to simmer gently for about an hour, after which drain the lettuces on a clean napkin, untie them, and after having cut them into inch lengths lay them in the soap-tureen, together with a pint of young green peas boiled for the purpose and a small pinch of pepper. Take every particle of fat off the broth in which the lettuces have been braized and add it to the lettuces and peas already in the tureen’ over which pour 2 quarts of bright, strong consomme of fowl; ascertain that the soup is palatable and having thrown in a handful of duchess’s crusts, send to table.
Procure a fine, lively, fat turtle, weighing about 120 pounds, fish of this weight being considered the best, as their fat is not liable to be impregnated with that disagreeable, strong flavor objected to in fish of larger size. On the other hand, turtles of very small size seldom possess sufficient fat or substance to make them worth dressing. When time permits kill the turtle overnight that it may be left to bleed in a cool place till the next morning when at an early hour it should be cut up for scalding, that being the first part of the operation. If, however, the turtle is required for immediate use, to save time the fish may be scalded as soon as it is killed. The turtle being ready for cutting up, lay it on its back, and with a large kitchen-knife separate the fat or belly-shell from the back by making an incision all round the inner edge of the shell, when all the fleshy parts adhering to the shell have been carefully out away, it may be set aside. Then detach the intestines by running the sharp edge of a knife closely along the spine of the fish, and remove them instantly in a pail to be thrown away. Cut off the fins and separate the fleshy parts, which place on a dish by themselves till wanted. Take particular care of every particle of the green fat, which lies chiefly at the sockets of the fore-fins, and more or less all round the interior of the fish, if in good condition. Let this fat, which, when in a healthy state, is elastic and of a bluish color while raw, be steeped for several hours in cold spring-water, in order that it may be thoroughly cleansed of all impurities; then with a meat-saw divide the upper and under shells into pieces of convenient size to handle and baying put them with the fins and head into a large vessel containing boiling water, proceed quickly to scald them; by this means they will be separated from the horny substance which covers them, which will then be easily removed. They must then be put into a larger stockpot nearly filling with fresh hot water and left to continue boiling by the side of the stove fire until the glutinous substance separates easily from the bones. Place the pieces of turtle carefully upon clean dishes and put them in the larder to get cold, they should then be cut up into pieces about an inch and a half square; which pieces are to be finally put into the soup when it is nearly finished. Put the bones back into the broth to boil an hour longer, for the double purpose of extracting all their savor and to effect the reduction of the turtle broth, which is to be used for filling up the turtle stockpot hereafter. In order to save time, while the above is in operation the turtle stock or consomme should be prepared as follows: With 4 ounces of fresh butter spread the bottom of an 18 gallon stockpot; then place in it 3 pounds of raw ham cut in slices; over these put 40 pounce of leg of beef and knuckles of veal, 4 old hens (after having removed their fillets, which are to be kept for making the quenelles for the soup); to these add all the fleshy pieces of the turtle (excepting those pieces intended for entres), and then place on the top the head and fins of the turtle; moisten the whole with a bottle of Madeira and 4 quarts of good stock. add a pottle of mushrooms, 12 cloves, 4 blades of mace, a handful of parsley roots and a good-sized bouquet of parsley tied up with 2 bay leaves, thyme, green onions and shallots, Set the consomme thus prepared on a brisk stove fire to boil sharply, and when the liquid has become reduced to a glaze fill the stockpot up instantly, and as soon as it boils skim it thoroughly, garnish with the usual complement of vegetables, and remove it to the side of the stove to boil gently for 6 hours. Remember to probe the head and fins after they have been boiled 2 hours, and as soon as they are done drain them on a dish, corer them with a wet napkin well saturated with water to prevent it from sticking to them, and put them away in a cool place with the remainder of the glutinous parts of the turtle already spoken of. The stockpot should now be filled up with the turtle broth reserved for that purpose as directed above. When the turtle stock is done strain it off into an appropriate-sized stockpot, remove every particle of fat from the surface, and then proceed to thicken it with a proportionate quantity of dour to the consistency of thin sauce. Work this exactly in the same manner as practised in brown sauce, in order to extract all the butter and scum, so as to give it a brilliant appearance One bottle of old Madeira must now be added, together with a puree of herbs of the following kinds, to be made as here directed: Sweet basil must form one-third proportion of the whole quantity of herbs intended to be used; winter savory, marjoram and lemon-thyme in equal quantities, making up the other two-thirds; add to these a doublehandful of green shallots and some trimmings of mushrooms; moisten with a quart of broth, and having stewed these herbs for about an hour rub the whole through the tammy into a purse. This purse being added to the soup, a little Cayenne pepper should then be introduced. The pieces of turtle, as well as the fins, which have also been out into small pieces rend the larger bones taken out, should now be allowed to boil in the soup for a quarter of an hour, after which carefully remove the whole of the scum as it rises to the surface. The degree of seasoning must be ascertained that it may be corrected if faulty. To excel in dressing turtle it is necessary to be very accurate in the proportions of the numerous ingredients used for seasoning this soup. Nothing should predominate, tent the whole should be harmoniously blended. Put the turtle away in four-quart-sized basins, dividing the fat (after it has been scalded and boiled in some of the sauces) in equal quantities into each basin, as also some small quenelles, which are to be made with the fillets of hens reserved for that purpose, and in which, in addition to the usual ingredients in ordinary cases, put 6 yolks of eggs boiled hard. Mould these querelles into small, round balls, to imitate turtles’ eggs, roll them with the hand on a marble slab or table, with the aid of a little flour, and poach them in the usual way. When the turtle soup is wanted for use warm it, and just before sending it to table add a small glass of Sherry or Madeira and the juice of one lemon to every four quarts of turtle. The second stock of the turtle consomme should be strained off after it has boiled for two hours, and immediately boiled down into a glaze very quickly and mixed in with the turtle soup previously to putting it away in the basins, or else it should be kept in reserve for the purpose of adding proportionate quantities in each tureen of turtle as it is served. [For this and several other receipts in fine cookery we are indebted to Francatelli.] Mock-Turtle Soup. Procure a scalded calf’s head, or as it is sometimes called, a turtle head, bone it in the following manner: Place the calf’s head on the table with the front part of the head facing you, draw the sharp point of a knife from the back part of the head right down to the nose, making an incision down to the bone of the skull, then with the knife clear the scalp and cheeks from the bones right and left, always keeping the point of the knife close to the bone. Having boned the head put it into a large stewpan of cold water on the fire: as soon as it boils skim it well and let it continue to boil for ten minutes; take the calf’s head out and put it into a pan full of cold water; then get a proper sized stockpot and after having buttered the bottom thereof, place in it 4 slices of raw ham, 2 large knuckles of veal, and an old hen partially roasted; moisten with 2 quarts of broth and put the stockpot on the stove fire to boil until the broth is reduced to a glaze, when instantly slacken the heat by covering the fire with ashes; and then leave the soup to color itself gradually. Allow the glaze at the bottom of the stewpan to be reduced to the same consistency as for brown sauce, and fill up the stockpot with water leaving room for the calf’s head, which separate into two halves, and pare off all the rough cuticle about the inner parts of the mouth, then place it in the stock, and after setting it to boil and thoroughly skimming it garnish with the usual complement of vegetables, 6 cloves, 2 blades of mace, 1/2 a pottle of mushrooms, 4 shallots, and a good bunch of parsley green onions, thyme and bay-leaf tied together’ and a little salt. Set it by the fire to boil gently till the calf’s head is done, then take the pieces of head out and place them on a dish to cool, afterward to be out into squares and put into a basin till required for adding them to the soup. Strain the stock through a broth cloth and thicken it with some light colored browning to the consistency of thin brown sauce, let it boil and allow it to throw up all the butter and classify itself thoroughly, then add 1/2 a bottle of Sherry, about a pint of puree ie. of turtle herbs in which 6 anchovies have been mixed, a little Cayenne pepper, and the calf’s head cut into squares, as also the tongue braized with it. Let these boil together for about ten minutes, then add 3 or 4 dozen small round querelles and a little lemon-juice and send to table.
Scald a calf’s head with the skin on, and take off the horny part, which cut into two-inch square pieces; clean and dry them well in a cloth, and put them into a stewpan, with 4 quarts of water made as follows: Take 6 or 7 pounds of beef, a calf’s foot, a shank of ham, on onion, 2 carrots, a turnip a head of celery, some cloves and whole pepper, a bunch of sweet herbs, a little lemon-peel, and a few truffles. Put these into 8 quarts of water, and stew them gently till the liquid is reduced one-half then strain it off, and put into the stewpan with the horny parts of the calf’s head. Add some knotted marjoram, savory, thyme, parsley chopped small, with some cloves and mace pounded, a little Cayenne pepper, some green onions, an eschalot cut fine,, a few chopped mushrooms, and 1/2 pint Madeira wine. Stew these gently till the soup is reduced to 2 quarts then heat a little broth. Mix some flour, smoothing it with the yolks of 2 eggs, and stir it over a gentle fire till it is near boiling. Add this to the soup; keep stirring as you pour it in, and continue stewing for another hour. When done, squeeze in the juice of half a lemon, half an orange, and throw in some boiled force-meat balls. Serve it up in a tureen hot. This soup is deliciosly gratifying and nutritive.
Procure 2 fresh ox-tails, cut each joint after dividing them into inch lengths with a small meat-saw, steep them in water for two hours and then place them in a stewpan with 3 carrots, 8 turnips 3 onions, 2 heads of celery, 4 cloves, and a blade of mace. Fill up the stewpan with broth from the boiling stockpot, boil this by the side of the stove fire till done, drain the pieces of ox-tail on a large sieve, allow them to cool,, trim them neatly, and place them in a soup pot. Clarify the broth the ox-tails were boiled in strain it through a napkin into a basin, and then pour it into the soup pot containing the trimmed pieces of oxtails, and also some small oliveshaped pieces of carrot and turnip that have been boiled in a little of the broth, and a small lump of sugar, add a pinch of pepper, and previously to sending the soup to table let it boil gently by the side of the stove fire for a few minutes. This soup may be served also in various other ways, by adding thereto a puree of any sort of vegetables, such for instance as a puree of peas, carrots, turnips, celery, lentils.
Procure a fresh ox-cheek and put it to braize in a small stockpot with a knuckle of veal and some roast-beef bones, fill the pot up from the boiling stockpot or with water, garnish with the same complement of stock vegetables used for ox-tail soup, adding 6 cloves, a blade of mace, and a few peppercorns. As soon as the ox-cheek is done take the meat off the cheek-bone and put it in press between 2 dishes. Strain off the broth, adding to it a ladleful of gravy to color it, and proceed to clarify it with a couple of whites of eggs while the consomme is clarifying; trim the ox-cheek and cut it into neat scallops 1 inch square and 1/2 an inch thick; put these into a small soup pot and add to them some small carrots and turnips cut in fancy shapes and boiled in a little broth, a lump of sugar, and also 1 1/2 dozen of very small white button onions. Strain the clarified consomme thus prepared into the soup pot, and having allowed the soup to boil a few minutes by the side of the store fire, just before serving add 2 dozen blanched Brussels sprouts and a pinch of pepper, and send to table.
Bread Panada for Quenelles.
Take the crumb of 2 new French rolls, and steep it in tepid water for ten minutes; then put it into a napkin and wring it tightly, in order to remove the water from the bread. Put the crumb into a stewpan, with 2 ounces of fresh butter, a little salt, and 2 spoonfuls of white broth; put these on the stove fire, continuing to stir the panada the whole time with a wooden spoon, until it assumes the appearance of paste, and no longer adheres to the bottom of the stewpan, then add 3 yolks of eggs, and turn it out on a plate. Smoothe it over the surface with the blade of a knife, and, having covered it with a round piece of buttered paper, place it in the larder until required for use.
Pate a Choux Panada.
To 1/2 pint of white chicken-broth add 4 ounces of fresh butter and a little salt, put the stewpan containing these on the fire. As soon as it begins to simmer mix in with the aforementioned ingredients 5 ounces of sifted dour; and, by continuing to stir this batter on the fire for five minutes, it will become a delicately firm paste, which must De worked over the fire until it freely leaves the side of the pan; then take 3 yolks of eggs and quickly mix them in the batter, put it on a plate, cover it with a buttered paper, and keep it in the cool till wanted for use. This kind of panada is preferred by some cooks to bread panada, being considered by them more delicate, and less liable to produce fermentation in warm weather. However, bread panada has the advantage of not collapsing, as is the case with the pate a choux panada, if prepared some time before the querelle in which it is used be eaten.
Roast off a young fowl, take all the white parts and pound them with the crumb of a French roll soaked in broth, dilute these with a little chicken broth (made from the remains of the roasted fowl) to the consistency of a soft batter or creamy substance, pass it through a tammy as in preparing any other puree.
Previous to serving this panada it should be moderately warmed and put into custard cups. In the composition of dietetic preperations for infants and invalids, it is necessary to avoid the use of herbs and spices.
Take 6 ears of boiled corn, 4 eggs, 2 tablespoonful of flour. Cut the corn off the cob, season it with pepper and salt, mix it with the yolks of the eggs beaten thoroughly, and add the flour. Whisk the whites to a stiff froth and stir them in, put a tablespoonful at a time in a pan of hot lard or butter and fry until they are a light brown color on both sides.
After paring cut them in slices as thin as possible, let them lie an hour in salt water; then season with pepper and salt, dredge fine powdered cracker or stale breadcrumbs over each piece, beat up an egg as for veal cutlet and dip in each alternately and put in a pan with some hot butter or beef drippings. Fry slowly until quite soft and a dark brown on both sides. Serve them up hot, Potatoes, a la Maitre d’Hotel.
The small French kidney potatoes are best adapted for this purpose. Boil or steam them in the ordinary way and when done cut them into slices about the eighth of an inch thick, put them into a stewpan with a tablespoonful of white sauce or broth, 4 ounces of butter, some pepper and salt, chopped parsely and a little lemon-juice; toss them over the stove fire until the butter, etc., is mixed in with the potatoes, then dish them up, either with or without croutons round them’ and serve.
New Potatoes a la Creme.
Cut some recently boiled new potatoes in slices, put them into a stewpan with a gill of cream, 4 ounces of fresh butter a very little nutmeg, pepper and salt, and the juice of hale a lemon; set them to boil on the stove fire, toss them well together, snd dish them up with croutons. Green Peas, Plain.
Put the peas into boiling water, some salt, and a bunch of green mint; keep them boiling briskly for about twenty minutes, and when done, drain them in a colander dish them up with ohopped boiled mint on the top, and send some small pats of very fresh butter separately on a plate.
Put 1 quart of young peas into a pan, with 4 ounces of butter, and plenty of cold water; rub the peas and butter together with the fingers until well mixed, then pour off the water, and put the peas into a stewpan, with a couple of cabbage lettuces. shred small, a bunch of green onions and parsley, a dessertspoonful of pounded sugar, and a little salt, put the lid on, and set the peas to stew very gently over a slow fire for about half an hour; when done, if there appears to be much liquor, boil it down quickly over the fire. Next put about 2 ounces of fresh butter on a plate, with a dessertspoonful of flour, and knead them together; put this into the peas, and toss the whole together over the stove fire until well mixed; dish the peas up, garnished round with pastry, and serve. Asparagus with White Sauce.
Pick the loose leaves from the heads, and scrape the stalks clean, wash them in a pan of cold water tic them up in bundles of about 20 in each, keeping all the heads turned the same way; cut the stalks even, leaving them about 8 inches long. Put the asparagus in hot water with a small handful of salt in it, to boil for about twenty minutes, and when done, drain them carefully upon a napkin to avoid breaking off the heads; dish them up on a square thick piece of toasted bread dipped in the water they have been boiled in, and send to table with some white sauce, separately in a sauce-boat.
Spinach with Butter.
Pick all the stalks from the spinach, wash it in several waters, and drain it upon a sieve, throw it into a stewpan of hot water with a handful of salt, and keep it boiling until it becomes thoroughly tender and soft to the touch; then drain it in a colander immerse it in cold water, and afterwards squeeze all the water from it. The spinach must next be carefully turned over with the point of a knife, to remove any straws or stalks that may have been overlooked; it should then be chopped or pounded in a mortar, rubbed through a coarse wire sieve, and placed in a stewpan with about 2 ounces of butter, a little salt, and grated nutmeg; stir the spinach over a stove fire with a wooden spoon until it becomes quite warm, then add a gravyspoonful of good sauce, a small piece of glaze and about 4 ounces of fresh butter. Work the whole together, with a wooden spoon, until well mixed, then pile the spinach up in the centre of the dish, garnish it round with croutons and serve.
Macaroni a l’Italienne.
Break up the macaroni in 3-inch lengths, and put it on to boil in hot water, with a pat of butter, a little pepper and salt; when done, drain it on a napkin, and as soon as the moisture is absorbed, dish it up in the following manner: First, put 2 large tablespoonfuls of good tomato sauce, into a stewpan, and boil it over the stove fire; then add 2 pats of fresh butter with as much glaze, and work the whole well together; next, strew a Iayer of the macaroni on the bottom of the dish, then pour some of the sauce over it, and strew some grated Parmesan cheese over this; and so on, repeating the same until the dish is full enough; strew some grated cheese over the top, put the macaroni in the oven for five minutes, and then serve while it is quite hot.
Macaroni with Cream.
Boil 1 pound of macaroni, and when done, cut it up in three-inch lengths, and put it into a stewpan with 4 ounces of fresh butter, 4 ounces of grated Parmesan cheese, and a similar quantity of Gruyere cheese also grated, and 1 gill of good cream; season with pepper and salt, and toss the whole well together over the stove fire, until well mixed and quite hot, then shake it up for a few minutes to make the cheese spin, so as to give it a fibrous appearance, when drawn up with a fork. The macaroni when dished up, may be garnished round the base with pastry, and then served.
Macaroni au Gratin.
Cut the macaroni up as above, put it into a stewpan with 3/4 of a pound of grated cheese (parmesan and Gruyere in equal quantities), 4 ounces of fresh butter, and 1 tablespoonful of good Bechamel sauce; season with pepper and salt’ toss the whole together over the fire until well mixed, then pile it up in the centre of a border of a fried croutons of bread (previously stuck round the bottom of the dish); strew the surface with fine bread-crumbs and grated Parmesan cheese, in equal proportions; run a little melted butter through the holes of a spoon, over the top of the macaroni, and then put it into the oven to be baked of a bright yellow color; it should then be served quite hot.
Cut the breast of a roast fowl or pheasant in very small, square, dice-like pieces, and place these on a plate, take about 4 ounces of red tongue or lean ham, and 4 anchovies (previously washed and filleted), cut these also in small dice and place them with the chicken. Next, put 2 spoonsful of sauce, and a dessertspoonful of curry paste into a stewpan, boil them over the stove, stirring it meanwhile, until reduced to the consistency of a thick sauce; then add the chicken, etc., and the juice of 1/2 a lemon, mix the whole well together, and use this preparation in the following manner: Cut some thin slices of the crumb of a sandwich-loaf, and with a circular tin cutter, about an inch and a half in diameter, stamp out 24 croutons; fry these in clarified butter to a bright yellow color, drain them on a napkin, and place one-half on a bakingsheet covered with clean paper; spread a thick layer of the above preparation on each of these, and then cover them with the remaining 12 croutons. Next, grate 4 ounces of fresh Parmesan, and mix these with a pat of butter into a paste, divide it in 12 parts, roll each into a round ball and place 1 of these on the top of each sandwich; about ten minutes before sending to table, put them in the oven to be warmed thoroughly, pass the redhot salamander over them, to color them of a bright yellow; dish them up on a napkin, and serve.
Boil 2 heads of fine white cauliflower, a similar portion of asparagus-points, French beans, cut in diamonds, a few new potatoes (which after being boiled must be stamped out with a small vegetable cutter), 1/2 a pint of green peas and 3 artichoke-hearts, also cut up in small fancy shapes when boiled. All these vegetables must be prepared with great attention, in order that they may retain their original color, the cauliflowers should be cut up in small buds or flowerets, and the whole, when done, put into a convenient-sized basin. Next, boil 2 large red beet-roots, 6 large new potatoes, and 20 largesized heads of very green asparagus, or a similar quantity of French beans, cat the beet-roots and potatoes in two-inch lengths, and with a tin vegetable cutter, a quarter of an inch in diameter, punch out about two dozen small pillarshaped pieces of each’ and put these on a dish, with an equal quantity of asparagus-heads or French beans, cut to the same length. Then take a plain border-mould and place the green vegetables in neat and close order all round the bottom of the mould; observing that a small quantity of jelly must be poured in the mould for the purpose of causing the pieces of French beans to hold together. Next, line the sides of the mould, by placing the pieces of beetroot and potatoes alternately, each of which must be first dipped in some bright jelly, previously to its being placed in the mould; when the whole is complete, fill the border up with jelly. Before placing the vegetables, the mould must be partially immersed in some pounded rough ice, contained in a basin or pan. When about to send this entrement to table, turn the vegetable border out of the mould on to its dish; after the vegetables, before alluded to, have been seasoned, by adding to them a tablespoonful of jelly, 3 tablespoonfuls of oil, 1 of tarragon-vinegar, some pepper and salt, and when the whole have been gently tossed together, they should be neatly placed in the centre of the border, in a pyramidal form. Ornament the base of the entrements with bold croutons of bright jelly, and serve.
Sidney Smith’s Recipe for Salad.
Two large potatoes passed through kitchen sieve, Unwonted softness to the salad give; Of mordant mustard add a single spoon -Distrust the condiment which bites so soon But deem it not, thou man of herbs, a fault To add a double quantity of salt. Three times the spoon with oil of Lucca crown And once with vinegar procured from town True flavor needs it, and your poet begs The pounded yellow of two well-boiled eggs. Let onion atoms lurk within the bowl, And, scarce suspected, animate the whole; And, lastly, on the flavored compound toss A magic teaspoon of anchovy sauce. Then though green turtle fail, though venison’s tough, And ham and turkeys are not boiled enough Serenely full, the epicure may say -Fate cannot harm me, I have dined to-day!
Prepare the chickens as directed for a Mayonnaise. Pile the pieces of chicken up in the dish upon a bed of seasoned shred lettuces, in a conical form; pour some white Mayonnaise sauce over the pieces, place a border of hard eggs cut in quarters, and hearts of cabbage-lettuce round the base; stick a white heart of a lettuce on the top, and serve.
Note. - Chicken-salad may also be ornamented and garnished with plover’s eggs, decorated with truffles, and with eggs boiled hard cut in quarters, and ornamented either with their fillets of anchovies and capers, or colored butter, either lobster coral or green Ravigotte, or with tarragon, or chervil-leaves, laid flat on the eggs, or else stuck in the point.
Procure some lobster spawn or oval, and pound it with twice as much butter, 1 anchovy and a little Cayenne pepper; rub it through a hair-seive, collect it into a small basin, and keep it in a cool place till wanted for use.
Break the shells, and remove the meat whole from the tails and claws of the lobsters; put this into a basin, with a little oil, vinegar, pepper and salt, and reserve the pith and coral to make some lobster-butter, which is to be thus used: First, spread a circular foundation of the lobsterbutter upon the bottom of the dish, about seven inches in diameter, and the fourth part of an inch thick, then scoop out the centre, leaving a circular band: Drain the lobster on a cloth, out the pieces in oval scallops, and with some of the butter (to stick the pieces firmly together), pile the lobster up in three successive rows, the centre being left hollow; fill this with shred lettuce, or salad of any kind, seasoned with oil, vinegar, pepper and salt; pour some scarlet Mayonnaise sauce over the salad, without mashing the pieces of lobster, garnish the base with a border of hearts of lettuces, divided in halves, and around these place a border of plover’s eggs, having a small sprig of green tarragon stuck into the pointed end of each; place a whiteheart of lettuce on the top’ and serve.
Lobsters for potting must be quite fresh. Take the meat, pith, and coral out of the shells, cut this up in slices, and put the whole into a stewpan with one-third part of clarified fresh butter, and to every pound of lobster add 4 whole anchovies (washed and wiped dry); season with mace, peppercorns, and a little salt, then put the lid on the stewpan, and set the lobster to simmer very gently over a slow fire for about a quarter of an hour. After this it must be thoroughly pounded in a mortar, rubbed through a sieve, put into small pots, steamed, and when cold should be pressed down with the bowl of a spoon, and the surface covered with a little clarified butter.
Four pounds of beef and tongue mixed. 3 pounds of suet; 8 pounds of chopped apples; 3 pounds of currants (washed, dried, and picked); 3 pounds of seeded raisins; 6 pounds of light brown sugar; 2 pounds of citron cut into small thin pieces; the rind of 1 orange grated; 1 ounce of cinnamon; 1/4 of an ounce of cloves; 1/4 of an ounce of mace; 1/4 of an ounce of allspice. 3 nutmegs grated; 1 quart of Madeira wine; 1 pint of Brandy. Boil the meat in salted water until tender, when cold chop it very fine. After freeing the suet from every particle of skin and chopping it fine, mix it through the meat with salt just sufficient to remove the fresh taste; to this add the apples, after which the sugar, fruit, spice, and other ingredients. Mix all well together and cover close. If too dry (before using) the quantity required may be moistened with a little sweet cider.
Note. - Mince- meat may be made much richer by using uncooked instead of cooked meat.
Thoroughly cleanse 4 pounds of currants, and remove the stones from 4 pounds of raisins; cut up 2 pounds of candied citron, 1 pound of candied lemon, and 1 pound of orange-peel into shreds or very small dice; remove the skin, and then chop 4 pounds of fresh beef-suet and place this with the currants and the candied peel in an earthen pan; next chop the raisins with 4 pounds of peeled apples, and add them to the other ingredients. Trim away all the sinewy parts from 8 pounds of roasted sirloin of beef, and chop all the lean of the meat quite fine; this will produce about 4 pounds, which must also be placed in the pan. To the foregoing must now be added 4 pounds of moist sugar, 4 ounces of ground spice consisting of nutmegs, cloves, and cinnamon in equal proportions, with the grated rind of 12 oranges, and of the same number of lemons; the whole must then be thoroughly mixed together and pressed down to a level in the pan. Two bottles of brandy, and a like quantity of Madeira, sherry or port, should be poured into the mince-meat. Put the lid on the pan, place a cloth over it, and tie it down close, so as to exclude the air as much as possible, and also to prevent the evaporation of the brandy, etc. The mince-meat should be kept in a cool place, and will be fit for use a fortnight after it is made.
Coconut Cake, or Pudding.
A quarter of a pound of butter, 1 pound of sugar 4 eggs, 1 cocoanut, 6 tablespoonfuls of flour. Cream the butter and sugar, and add to it the grated cocoanut, flour, and eggs. Bake forty minutes.
Take 3 tablespoonfuls of melted butter, with 1 cup of white sugar, 2 eggs beaten light, 1 pint of flour, 2 teaspoonfuls of cream of tartar sifted with the flour, and 1 teacup of milk with 2 teaspoonfuls of soda dissolved in it. This pudding may be either baked or boiled. Serve with wine sauce.
Made at a celebrated inn in England. Three eggs and their weight in sugar, flour, and butter. Bake in small pans and eat with sauce.
One cup of molasses, 1/2 cup of butter, 1 cup of sweet milk, 1 teaspoonful soda, 2 teaspoonfuls salt 4 cups of flour, and 1 cup of raisins. Steam three hours in a bowl.
Sauce for the above.
One cup of powdered sugar, 1/2 cup of butter beaten together to a cream; add 1 egg well beaten 1 glass of wine, and 1 glass of boiling water. Steam five minutes.
A quarter of a pound of grated cocoanut, the same quantity of powdered loaf sager, 3 1/2 ounces of good butter, the whites of 6 eggs, and 1/2 a glass of wine and brandy mixed, a teaspoonful of orange dower and rose-water -pour into your paste, and bake as above.
Mrs. Goodfellow’s Lemon Pudding.
Take of butter (the very best) and loaf sugar, each 1/2 a pound, beat them to a froth as for poundcake, add 5 eggs, the juice of 1/2 of a large or the whole of a small lemon. Grate into it the outside yellow rind, but not an atom of the white - 1/2 a glass of Madeira, 1/2 a glass of brandy, a teaspoonful of orange-flower water, pour it into your paste, and bake with a moderate oven.
Boil very tender the rind of half a Seville orange and beat it in a mortar until it is very fine, put to it a teaspoonful of the best brandy, the juice of a Seville orange, 4 ounces of loaf sugar, and the yolk of 4 eggs. Beat them all together for ten minutes, and then pour in by degrees a pint of boiling cream; beat them until cold, then put them in custard cups, in a dish of hot water, let them stand till they are set, then take them out and stick preserved orangepeel on the top. This forms a fine flavored dish, and may be served up hot or cold.
Boil a pint of cream with some mace and cinnamon, and when it is cold, take 4 yolks of egg, a little rose-water, red wine, nutmeg, and sugar, to taste; mix them well and bake them.
Put a blade of mace and a quartered nutmeg into a quart of cream; boil and strain it, and add to it some boiled rice and a little brandy. Sweeten it to taste, stir it till it thickens, and serve it up in cups or in a dish; it may be used either hot or cold.
Blanch 1/4 of a pound of almonds, beat them very fine, and then put them into a pint of cream, with 2 spoonfuls of rose-water; sweeten it, and put in the yolks of 4 eggs; stir them well together till the mixture becomes thick’ and then pour it into cups.
Take 1/2 a pound of double refined sugar, the juice of 2 lemons, the rind of 1 pared very thin the inner rind of 1 boiled tender and rubbed through a sieve, and a pint of white wine, boil them for some time, then take out the peel and a little of the liquor; strain them into the dish, stir them well together and set them to cool.
Half pint of cream, 1 pint of milk, flavor with vanilla and white sugar to taste, and boil together for a quarter of an hour; add the yolks of 8 eggs well beaten. Then place over the mass a piece of thin paper, and boil the pudding one hour. Serve it up with sauce made of 2 glasses of sherry, 1 pot of red-currant jelly, and white sugar mixed together, heated, and poured round the dish with the pudding.
Take 1/2 a pound of very finely grated bread-crumbs, 1/2 a pound of finely-chopped apples, pound of currants, 1/2 a pound of very fine suet 6 ounces of sugar, 4 eggs, a little nutmeg, 2 ounces of citron and lemon-peel, better the mould well and boil 3 hours.
One pint of milk, 3 eggs, 1 pint of flour.. Beat the eggs light, and mix with the milk and stir into the flour gradually. Beat it well with 1 saltspoonful of salt; then butter small cups, fill them half full of the mixture and bake in a quick oven. When done turn them out of the cups, place them on a dish and send to table hot. Eat with wine sauce, or nun’s butter.
Half a pound of butter, 1/2 a pound of sugar 2 ounces of flour, 5 eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls of brandy, the gratings and juice of 1 lemon. Beat the butter and sugar very light, then add the flour; whisk the eggs until very thick. which stir in by degrees; lastly the lemon and brandy, alternately. Mix well without beating too much. This will make two puddings, soup-plate size. Line your plates with a rich paste and bake in a quick oven. When done and cool, sift white sugar over.
White Potato Pudding.
A quarter of a pound of butter, 1/2 a pound of sugar, 4 or 5 eggs, 1 pound of potatoes mashed exceedingly fine, with a little cream and salt through a colander; 2 tablespoonfuls of brandy, 1 grated nutmeg with 1/2 a teaspoonful of cinnamon. Beat the butter and sugar to a cream, then add the potato, eggs, brandy and spice. Line your plates with paste and bake in a quick oven. When done and cool, slip into plates suitable for the table, and sift white sugar over them.
A quarter of a pound of butter, 1/2 a pound of sugar, 3 eggs, 4 large-sized tart apples, 2 ounces of currants, 2 tablespoonfuls of brandy, 1 teaspoonful of cinnamon and nutmeg mixed. Beat the butter and sugar to a cream, then whisk the eggs until thick and add to it. Pare the apples grate and stir them into the mixture of eggs and sugar; then add the brandy, currants and spice. Stir the whole well together. This will be sufficient for two largesized puddings. Line your plates with paste’ put in the mixture and bake in a quick oven.
One quart of milk, 3 tablespoonfuls of rice boiled and stood to cool, 2 ounces of butter. Put on your milk to boil, mix the rice very smooth with some cold milk. As soon us the former begins to boil stir in the batter and let the whole boil twenty minutes. Whilst the milk is warm add the butter and a little salt. Rinse your custard cups with cold water; half fill them with the mixture, when it becomes cold they turn out of the cups and retain their forms. They are very ornamental to the table. To be eaten with cream and a little grated nutmeg.
Eight ounces of ground rice, 4 ounces of sugar, a quart of milk, 2 ounces of butter, a teaspoonful of essence of ginger, 6 eggs, 1 pound of preserved ginger. Mix the rice, sugar, milk and butter together in a stewpan and stir the produce over a stove fire until it thickens; it must then be removed from the fire, and after being worked quite smooth and the lid being put on the stewpan, set it either in the oven or over a slow ash fire to finish doing, this will be effected in about half an hour. The rice must now be removed from the fire and the preserved ginger and the 6 yolks of eggs being added thereto, stir the whole over a quick fire until the eggs are set firm in the rice, and then turn out upon a clean dish or bakingsheet and spread equally to about a quarter of an inch in thickness, and when this has become cold it must be cut out in oblong shapes, which, after being first dipped in light frying batter, are to be fried crisp, then glaze with plain sugar and dish up on a napkin.
Get ready the following ingredients: Twelve ounces of brown bread-crumbs, 6 ounces of pounded sugar, 6 eggs, 1/2 a pint of whipped cream, some grated lemon-rind a little cinnamon-powder 1 pound of morelle cherries and a little salt. Mix the bread-crumbs sugar, the yolks of eggs and whipped cream, the lemon, the cinnamon and the raft together in a large basin, then add the whipped whites of 6 eggs and set this aside. Next spread a plain mould with butter and strew it with brown breadcrumbs; then spread a large spoonful of the preparation at the bottom of’ the mould and arrange a layer of cherries (with the stones left in) upon it; cover this with some of the preperation and upon it place more cherries, and so on until the mould is filled; the pudding must now be placed on a baking-sheet and put in the oven (moderately heated) to be baked for about an hour; when done turn it out of the mould on its dish, pour a puree of cherry-sauce round the base and serve. In Saxony it is customary to eat this kind of pudding as a cake when cold; in this case it should be entirely covered with sifted sugar, mixed with one-fourth part of cinnamon-powder.
The juice and grated rind (rubbed on sugar) of 6 lemons, 1 pint of cream 6 ounces of bruised ratafies,, 12 yolks and the whites of 4 eggs whipped, 1/2 a nutmeg grated, a little cinnamon-powder, 12 ounces of pounded sugar and a very little salt. Mix the above together in a large basin and work them with a whisk for about ten minutes. Next put a border of puff-paste round the edge of a tart dish, spread the dish with butter, pour the batter into it, strew some shred pistachio kernels on the top and bake it for about half an hour (at moderate heat). When done shake some sifted sugar over it, and serve.
Bread Pudding, Plain.
Twelve ounces of bread-crumbs, 8 ounces of sugar, 2 ounces of butter, a pint of milk, the rind of a lemon rubbed on a piece of sugar, 6 yolks of eggs and 2 whites whipped and a little salt. Put the bread-crumbs into a basin with the sugar, butter, lemon-sugar and salt then pour in the milk boiling, cover up the whole and leave it to steep for about ten minutes; the eggs may then be added, and after the whole has been well mixed together pour the preperation into a mould or pudding basin previously spread with butter. Steam the pudding for about an hour, and when done dish it up with some arrow-root sauce made as follows: Mix a dessertspoonful of arrowroot with twice that quantity of sugar, half the juice of a lemon, a little nutmeg, and a gill of water, and stir this over the fire until it boils.
Three-quarters of a pound of raisins, 3/4 of a pound of currants, 1/2 a pound of candied orange, lemon and citron, 1 1/4 pound of chopped beef suet, 1 pound of flour,, 3/4 of a pound of moist sugar, 4 eggs, about 3 gills of milk, the grated rind of 2 lemons, 1/2 an ounce of nutmeg, cinnamon and cloves (in powder), a glass of brandy and a very little salt. Mix the above ingredients thoroughly together in a large basin several hours before the pudding is to be boiled; pour them into a mould spread with butter, which should be tied up in a cloth. The pudding must then be bulled for four hours and a half, when done dish it up with sauce spread over it.
Ten ounces of tapioca, 1 quart of milk, 6 ounces of sugar, 6 yolks of eggs and 2 whipped whites, the grated rind of a lemon, 2 ounces of butter, and a little salt. Put the tapioca, sugar, butter, salt, grated lemon, and the milk into a stewpan. Stir this over the fire until it boils; then cover the stewpan with its lid, and put it on a very slow stove-fire (partially smothered with ashes), to continue gently simmering for a a quarter of an hour. The tapioca should then be withdrawn from the fire, and after the 6 yolks and the 2 whipped whites of eggs have been thoroughly incorporated in it, pour the preparation in to a mould or pudding-basin previously spread with butter; steam the pudding for about an hour and a half; and when done dish it up with either a plain arrow-root or custard sauce over it.
Rice that is ground coarse, in a hand-mill, is much better for making flummery than the flour you buy. Put 1 quart 364 CHAPTER 6. CULINARY ARTS of milk to boil; mix with water 5 tablespoonful of ground rice, and stir it in the milk when it boils; while the milk is cold put in vanilla or lemon; wet your moulds with cold cream or water; keep stirring the rice till it is thick, when pour it out in the moulds; just before dinner turn them out on dishes. Have cream, sugar, and nutmeg mixed, to eat with it.
Take 2 teacupfuls of boiled rice, cooled and mashed, 1 pint of milk,, a handful of flour; season with a little salt. Have a pan of lard boiling hot; put them in and fry quickly.
Whisk 10 eggs till light, add to them 1 pound of dried flour and 1 of powdered sugar; beat all together till perfectly light; put in some rosewater and nutmeg, and bake in small shallow pans, in a moderately-heated oven.
One pound of butter, 1/2 a pound of sugar, 10 eggs, 1 teaspoonful of cinnamon, 2 tablespoonfuls of ginger, 3 half pints of molasses, 1 gill of milk, 2 pounds of flour, 2 tablespoonfuls of saleratus. Beat the butter, sugar, ginger, and cinnamon together until light, then stir in onefourth of the flour; whisk the eggs very thick, and add by degrees. Mix the milk and molasses together, which stir in gradually; then the remainder of the flour, half at a time. Beat all well together, then add the saleratus, mix, and bake.
French Loaf Cake.
One pound of sugar, 1/2 pound of butter, 1 pound of flour, 7 eggs, 1 cup of cream, the grating and juice of 1 lemon, 1/2 wineglass of brandy or Madeira, 1 teaspoonful of saleratus. Beat the butter and sugar very light, then stir in the cream; after which beat in one-fourth of the flour; whisk the eggs until very thick, which add by degrees, then the remainder of the flour, half at a time, alternately with the grating and juice of the lemon. After beating all well together, add the saleratus after which beat but a few minutes. Line your pans (either square or round) with white paper, snd bake in a moderate oven.
Half a pound of butter, 3/4 of a pound of sugar, 1 pound of flour, 8 eggs, 1 gill of cream, 1 nutmeg, 1 pound of raisins chopped, 3/4 of a pound of currants. Beat the butter and sugar until very light, to which add the cream, whisk the eggs until very thick, and stir in alternately with the flour. Beat all well together then add the spice and fruit. Butter and paper your pans, put in the batter, spread it over smooth with a knife, and bake in a moderate oven.
One pound of butter, 1 pound of sugar, 1 pound of flour, 10 eggs, 2 pounds of raisins (seeded and ohopped), 2 pounds of currants (washed dried and picked), 1 pound of citron (cut thin and small), 1 wineglass of Madeira wine, 2 wineglasses of brandy, the grating of I large nutmeg, 2 teaspoonfuls of cinnamon, 1 teaspoonful of mace and cloves mixed. Beat the butter and sugar to a cream; then stir in onefourth of the flour, whisk the eggs very thick, which add gradually; then the remainder of the flour, half at a time; after beating well, add the wine brandy, and spice. Then mix all the fruit together, and add one-third at a time. Beat well. Then butter and line your pan with white paper, put in the mixture, smooth it with a knife, and bake in a moderate oven about four hours.
Twelve eggs and their weight in sugar, and the weight of 7 eggs in flour, and the peel and juice of 1 large lemon. Separate the eggs, beat the yolks, and then add sugar until thick and light. Whisk the whites until stiff and dry, and add with the Hour. Stir sufficiently to mix the flour and whites through, but avoid beating as that will destroy the lightness. Grease your pan (either square or round) with fresh butter, and bake in a very moderate oven.
One pound of pulverized sugar, the whites of 5 eggs, 1/2 a pound of sweet almonds, 1 ounce of bitter almonds. Mix the almonds, blanch and pound them quite fine; beat the eggs very dry, and add the sugar very gradually, then stir in the almonds lightly, put them on white paper with a teaspoon, about an inch apart. Bake them in a slack oven.
To make a rich Plum Cake.
Take l pound of fresh butter, 1 pound of sugar’ 1 1/2 pounds of flour, 2 pounds of currants, a glass of brandy, 1 pound of sweetmeats, 2 ounces of sweet almonds, 10 eggs, 1/4 of an ounce of allspice, and 1/4 of an ounce of cinnamon.
Melt the butter to a cream and put in the sugar. Stir it till quite light, adding the allspice, and pounded cinnamon, in a quarter of an hour take the yolks of the eggs, and work them in, two or three at a time; and the whites of the same must by this time be beaten into a strong snow quite ready to work in, as the paste must not stand to chill the butter, or it will be heavy, work in the whites gradually; then arid the orange peel, lemon, and citron, cut in fine strips, and the currants, which must be mixed in well with the sweet almonds. Then add the sifted flour and glass of brandy. Bake this cake in a tin hoop in a hot oven for three hours, and put sheets of paper under it to keep it from burning.
To make a good Plain Cake.
The following is a receipt for making a good plain cake: Take as much dough as will make a quartern loaf (either made at home or procured at the baker’s), work into this a quarter of a pound of butter, a quarter of a pound of moist sugar, and a handful of caraway seeds. When well worked together, pall into pieces the size of a golden pippin, and work it together again. This must be done three times, or it will be in lumps, and heavy when baked.
Rich Pudding Pound Cake.
Boil a teacup of rice in a pint and a half of water, pour over 1 quart of milk, beat the yolks of 5 eggs, add 5 tablespoonfuls of sugar, let it come to a simmer, then pour into a pudding dish and flavor; beat the whites of 5 eggs, 5 tablespoonfuls of sugar to an icing, spread it over the top of the pudding and brown it.
A Rich Seed Cake.
Take 1 1/4 pounds of flour well dried, 1 pound of butter, 1 pound of loaf sugar, beat and sifted, 8 eggs, and 2 ounces of caraway seeds, 1 grated nutmeg, and its weight in cinnamon. Beat the butter into a cream, put in the sugar, beat the whites of the eggs and the yolks sepperately, then mix them with the butter and sugar. Beat in the flour, spices, and seed, a little before sending it away. Bake it two hours in a quick oven.
Beat a pound each of sweet and bitter almonds in fine orange, rose, or ratafia water, mix 1/2 a pound of fine pounded and sifted sugar with the same, add the whites of 4 eggs well beaten to it, set it over a moderate fire in a preserving-pan. Stir it one way until it is pretty hot, and when a little cool form it into small rolls, and cut it into thin cakes. Shake some flour lightly on them, give each a light tap, and put them on sugar papers, sift a little sugar on them, and pat them into a thorough slack oven.
Take a pound of sugar, beat and sift it, a pound of well dried flour, a pound of butter, 8 eggs, and 1/2 a pound of currants washed and picked: grate a nutmeg and an equal quantity of mace and cinnamon, work the butter to a cream, put in the sugar, beat the whites of the eggs twenty minutes, and mix them with the butter and sugar. Then beat the yolks for half an hour and put them to the butter. Beat the whole together and when it is ready for the oven, put in the flour, spices, and currants; sift a little sugar over them, and bake them in tins.
Take 1 pound of sugar, 3/4 of a pound of flour, 14 eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls of rose-water, the raspings and juice of 4 lemons; when the yolks are well beat up and separated, add the powdered sugar, the lemon raspings, the juice, and the rose-water. Beat them well together in a pan with a round bottom, till it becomes quite light, for half an hour. Put the paste to the whites previously well whisked about, and mix it very light. When well mixed sift in the flour and knead it in with the paste, as light as possible; form the biscuits and bake them in small oval tins, with six sheets of paper under them, in a moderate heat. Butter the tins well or it will prove difficult to take out the biscuits, which will be exceedingly nice if well made. Ice them previous to baking, but very lightly and oven.
Take 6 ounces of sweet almonds, 1/2 a pound of powdered sugar, 7 eggs, 6 ounces of flour, and the raspings of 4 lemons. Pound the almonds very fine, with whole eggs, add the sugar and lemon raspings, and mix them well together in the mortar. Take it out, put it in a basin, and stir it with the yolks of eggs, till it is white as a sponge-paste; beat up the whites of the eggs to a strong snow, mix them very light with the paste, then take the flour and mix it as light as possible, on this the goodness of the cakes principally depends, as it is impossible to make a good cake with a a heavy paste, butter the mould, and bake in a slack oven for an hour, with ten sheets of paper under it and one on the top.
Take l pound of almonds, 1 pound of sugar, and some orange flower water. Pound the almonds very fine, and sprinkle them with orange-flower water: when they are perfectly smooth to the touch, put them in a small pan, with flour sifted through a silk sieve put the pan on a slow fire, and dry the paste till it does not stick to the fingers; move it well from the bottom, to prevent its burning: then take it off, and roll it into small round fillets, to make knots, rings, etc., and cut it into various shapes; make an icing of different colors, dip one side of them in it, and set them on wire gratings to drain. They may be varied by strewing over them colored pistachios, or colored almonds, according to fancy.
Put a pint of warm cream into a saucepan over the fire, and when it is warm, add to it 5 quarts of new milk. Then put in some rennet, stir it, and when it is turned, put the curd into a linen cloth or bag. Let the whey drain from it, but do not squeeze it too much. Put it into a mortar and pound it as fine as butter. Add 1/2 a pound of smeet almonds blanched, 1/2 a pound of macaroons, or Naples biscuits. Then add 9 well beaten yolks of eggs, a grated nutmeg, a little rose or orange water, and 1/2 a pound of fine sugar. Mix all well together.
Put 4 ounces of blanched sweet almonds into cold water, and beat them in a marble mortar or wooden bowl, with some rose-water. Put to it 4 ounces of sugar, and the yolks of 4 eggs beat fine. Work it till it becomes white and frothy, and then make a rich puff-paste as follows: Take 1/2 a pound of flour, and l of a pound of butter; rub a little of the butter into the flour, mix it stiff with a little cold water, and then roll out the paste. Strew on a little flour, and lay over it in thin bits one-third of the butter; throw a little more flour over the bottom, and do the like three different times. Put the paste into the tins, grate sugar over them, and bake them gently.
One pound of flour, 10 ounces of butter, 1/2 an ounce of German yeast, a teaspoonful each of salt and sugar, about 7 eggs. Put 1/4 part of the flour on a slab, spread it out to form a well, then place the yeast in the centre, and proceed to dissolve it with a little tepid water; when this is effected add sufficient water to mix the whole into a rather soft paste, knead this into the form of a round ball, put it into a stewpan capable of containing 3 times its quantity, score it round the sides with a knife, put the lid on and set it to rise in a rather warm place. In winter it may be put in the screen, but in hot weather the fermentation will proceed more satisfactorily if it is merely placed on the kitchen table or in some such place of moderate warmth. This part of the operation is termed setting the sponge. Next put the remainder of the flour on the slab and spread it out in the centre to form the well, then place the salt and sugar and a teaspoonful of water to dissolve these, after which the butter must be added; break in 6 eggs and work the whole together with the hands until well mixed, first working it between the hands and then rubbing it with both fists held flat on the slab and moving them to and fro, so as thoroughly to reduce any remaining lumps in the paste. By the time the paste is mixed the sponge will probably have risen sufficiently; to be perfect it must rise to 3 times its original size. When spread out on the paste prepared to receive it it should present the appearance of a sponge, from which it takes its name. Both the above should be then gently, but thoroughly mixed. A napkin must be spread in a wooden bowl or a basin, some flour shaken over it, and the brioche paste lifted into it; then shake a little flour over the paste, and after throwing the ends of the napkin over all, set the bowl containing the paste in a cool place free from any-current of air. It is usual to make this kind of paste late in the evening previously to the day on which it is required for use. The first thing on the following morning, the brioche paste must be turned off the napkin on to the slab, then shake some flour under and over it and fold the paste over half a dozen times, pressing it down with the knuckles each time; put the paste back again into the bowl in the same way as before, and about three hours afterwards knead it again in a similar manner previously to its being baked. If the paste when finished appears to be full of small globules of air, and is perfectly elsatic to the touch it is certain to be well made, and when baked will be both light and of a bright clear color.
If the paste is intended to be made into one brioche only, take five-sixths of it; mould this into the form of a round ball or cushion and place it in a plain mould or paper case (previously spread with butter) the smooth surface uppermost press it down in the case with the knuckles, and after moulding the remaining piece of paste in a similar manner, first wet the surface of the other part over with the paste-brush dipped in water, and then after inserting the pointed end of this into the centre of that portion of the brioche which has been already placed in the case, press the head down upon it with the back of the hand; egg the brioche over with a paste-brush, score the sides slightly in a slanting direction, place it on a bakingsheet and put it in the oven (at moderate heat). As soon as the brioche begins to rise and has acquired a slight degree of color, let it be covered over with a sheet of paper. About two hours will suffice to bake a large vrioche of double the quantity of paste described in this article.
Note. - Brioches may be varied in their form when intended to be served as fancy bread for breakfast, etc.; in which case they should be moulded in the shape of twists, fingers, rings, etc. When served on the refreshment table at routs, public breakfasts, balls, etc., dried cherries, citron candied orange or lemon-peel, pineapple or angelica steeped in some kind of liqueur may be introduced. In either of these cases, previously to mixing in, the fruit part of the paste must be reserved, which after being rolled out must be used to inclose the other part of the brioche. This precaution is necessary to prevent the fruit from protruding through the posse, as it becomes calcined by the heat of the oven and gives an unsightly appearance to the sponge. When fruit has been mixed in a brioche it should be (when baked) glazed with fine sugar by the salamander.
Gruyere and Parmesan cheese in equal proportions, are sometimes introduced into a brioche for a second course remove the first should be cut up in dice, the latter grated. As in the above cases this kind of brioche must be enclosed in a portion of the paste reserved for that purpose.
One pound of flour, 1 pound of sugar, ] pound of butter, 8 eggs, 1/2 a pound of candied lemon orange and citronpeel in equal proportions, a gill of Cognac brandy, a very little salt, and 4 ounces of white comfits.. Put the butter in a basin work it with a wooden spoon until it presents the appearance of thick cream; then add the flour, sugar, eggs and salt, gradually throwing in a handful of each and two eggs at a time; when the whole is thoroughly mixed the candied peel (cut in shreds) also the brandy and the rind of two oranges or lemons (rubbed on sugar) must next be added. This paste should now be poured into tins of an oblong shape about 2 inches deep, spread with butter, and after the comfits have been strewn over the surface a little fine sugar should be shaken over the top previously to placing them in the oven on bakingsheets; they must be baked of a very light color. Note - This kind of cake is a general favorite in Scotland, being served on most occasions at breakfast, luncheon, or for casual refreshment, and also with the dessert.
One quarter of dough, 6 eggs, 8 ounces of sugar, 8 ounces of butter, 1/2 an ounce of caraway-seeds and a teaspoonful of salt. Spread the dough out on the pastry-slab, then add the whole of the above-named ingredients, work them well together with the hands so as thoroughly to incorporate them with the dough; the eggs should be added 2 at a time. When the paste is ready put it into a plain mould (previously spread with butter), and set it to rise in a warm place. As soon as the fermentation has taken place in a satisfactory manner, the cake should be immediately put into the oven and baked of a light color. When done serve it cold for luncheon or otherwise. This kind of cake may be varied by introducing raisins, currants, or candied orange or lemon-peel. Brussels Buiscuits, or Rusks. One pound of flour 10 ounces of butter, 1/2 an ounce of German yeast, 4 ounces of sugar, 4 whole eggs, 4 yolks, a teaspoonful of salt and a gill of cream. Set the sponge with one-fourth part of the flour and yeast in the usual way (as for brioche), and while it is rising prepare the paste as follows: Place the remainder of the flour on the slab, spread it out in the centre to form the well, place in this the salt and sugar (with a very little water to dissolve the salt), the butter and eggs; this must then be beaten with the hand on the slab until it presents an appearance of elasticity, then add the whipped cream and sponge after the whole has well worked once more; the paste must be placed in long narrow tins about 2 inches deep and of about the same width, preparatory to placing the paste in the moulds; these should be first well floured inside (to prevent the paste from sticking) then the paste rolled out to their own length and about one and a half inches thick dropped into them and set in a warm place to rise. When the paste has sufficiently risen it must be gently turned out on a baking-sheet previously spread with better then egged all over with a soft paste-brush and baked of a bright deep yellow color. When done out them up in slices about one-quarter of an inch thick, place them flat on a baking-sheet and put them again in the oven to acquire a light yellow color on both sides. These form a superior kind of rusks, and are well adapted for the refreshment table at evening parties or for the breakfast table.
Note - Rusks may also be made with brioche paste or pound cake.
One pound of butter, 1 pound of sugar, 8 eggs, 1 wineglass of wine and peach-water mixed, 1 1/4 pounds of flour, 1 nutmeg 1 teaspoonful of cinnamon, 1 pound of dried currants. Carefully wash, dry and pick the currants. Beat the butter and sugar very light; then by degrees add the wine, spice, fruit and one-fourth of the flour. Whisk the eggs until very thick, which stir in the butter and sugar gradually, then add the remaining flour, one-third at a time. Beat all well together; line your pan with white paper, put in the batter, smooth the top with a knife and bake in a moderate oven about two hours and a half.
Half a pint of milk or water, 4 ounces of butter, 2 ounces of sugar, 5 ounces of flour 3 eggs a few drops of essence of orange and a very little salt. Put the water, butter sugar and the salt into a stewpan on the fire, and as soon as these begin to boil withdraw the stewpan from the fire and add the flour; stir the whole well together with a wooden spoon over the stove fire for about three minutes by which time the ingredients should present the appearance of a soft, compact paste. The essence of orange (or any other kind of flavor) should now be added, and also 1 egg; incorporate these with the paste, then mix in the other two eggs, and if the paste should be stiff another egg or a yolk only may be added. This must be laid on the pastry-slab in small pieces about the size of a pigeon’s egg, then rolled out with a little flour in the form of a finger and placed in order upon a baking-sheet spread with butter; they should now be egged over and baked of a bright light color. Just before they are quite done shake some fine sifted sugar over them, set them back again in the oven until the sugar is nearly melted, and then pass the red-hot salamander over them to give them a bright, glossy appearance; the loaves must now be immediately withdrawn from the oven and allowed to cool. Just before sending this kind of pastry to table make an incision down the sides and fill the small loaves with apricot-jam; then dish them up in a pyramidal form on a napkin, and serve.
Six ounces of flour, 8 ounces of sugar 2 ounces of ground or finely-powdered almonds (with a few bitter almonds), 6 yolks of eggs, 2 whole eggs, 4 whites whipped, a glass of brandy, a little salt, 4 ounces of chopped almonds mixed with 2 ounces of sugar and half the white of an egg. First work the butter in a basin with a spoon until it presents a creamy appearance; next add the flour, sugar, almonds, brandy, eggs and salt gradually; then mix in the whipped whites of eggs lightly; pour this paste on a bakingsheet about an inch and a half deep (previously buttered), bake it of a light color. When the cake is nearly done spread the prepared chopped almonds over the top, and then put it back again into the oven to finish baking, when done the almonds should be of a light fawn color. Turn the cake out carefully, and when cold cut it up into bands about an inch and a half wide; then again divide them into diamond-shaped cakes and dish them up pyramidally. Some whipped cream may be placed in the centre of the dish and the cakes neatly dished up round it. Dried cherries, Sultana raisins, currants, any kind of candied peel, pistachios, or Spanish eats, may be added. The cakes may also be flavored with any kind of essenoe or liqueur.
One pound of sifted sugar and 12 whites of eggs. Whisk the whites in an egg-bowl until they present the appearance of a perfectly white, smooth substantial froth, resembling snow, then substitute a spoon for the whisk and proceed -to mix in the whole of the sugar lightly; carefully avoid working the batter too much, for fear of rendering it soft, as in that case it becomes difficult to mould the meringues, they can never be so gracefully shaped as when it is kept firm. Next cut some stiff foolscap paper into bands about two inches wide; then take a tablespoon and gather it nearly full of the batter by working it up at the side of the bowl in the form of an egg, and drop this slopingly upon one of the bands of paper, at the same time drawing the edge of the spoon sharply round the outer base of the meringue, so as to give to it a smooth and rounded appearance, in order that it may exactly resemble an egg. Proceed in this manner until the hand is full, keeping the meringues about two inches and a half apart from each other on the paper; as each band is filled, place them close beside each other on the slab or table, and when all the batter is used up, shake some rather coarse sifted sugar all over them and allow them to remain for about three minutes; then take hold of one of the bands at each and, shake off the loose sugar and place the band of meringues on the board, and so on with the other bands, which, when placed carefully on the boards closely side by side must be put in the oven (at very moderate heat) and bakes of a light fawn color. When done, each piece of meringue must be carefully removed from off the paper, the white part of the inside scooped out with a dessert spoon and then nicely smoothed over; after this they must be placed in neat order on a baking sheet and put back again in the oven to dry, taking particular care that they do not acquire any more color. When about to send the meringues to table, whip some double cream, season it with a little powdered sugar and either a glass of any kind of liqueur, a few drops of orangeflower water, or some pounded vanilla, garnish each piece with a spoonful of this cream, join two together, dish them up in a pyramidal form on a napkin, and serve.
Note. - Meringues may be made of all sizes and may also be shaped in the form of small bunches of grapes; for this purpose it is necessary to use a ”cornet” or biscuitforcer of paper to mould the berries. In order to vary their appearance, previously to shaking the sugar over them, some finely-shred pistachios or almonds, rough granite sugar, and small currants may be strewn over them. They may also be garnished with preserves) or any kind of iced creams.
One pound of pounded sugar, 12 ounces of finely-shred almonds, 4 ounces of flour, a stick of vanilla (pounded and sifted), and 1 whole egg and the white of another. Let the whole of the fore-named ingredients be well mixed together in a basin, and then with a tablespoon proceed to mould the preparation into round balls the size of a large walnut, which are to be placed on pieces of sheet-wafer previously cut to the size of half-crown pieces; these must now be placed on baking-sheets and, after slightly shaking some fine sugar over them, are to be baked of a light color in a slack oven.
Put over the fire 1 quart of milk; when it comes to a boil add 3 tablespoonfuls of chocolate. Thicken with cornstarch, sweeten to the taste, and flavor with lemon or vanilla. Serve it up cold with cream.
The foundation for these may be made either of poundcake, Genoese, or sponge-cake; the batter for making either of the foregoing may be first baked in a bakingsheet, and afterward out out in shapes and sizes to suit taste or convenience, or otherwise may be baked in appropriate moulds or cases for the purpose, they mast then be dipped in the following preperations:- First boil the sugar as directed inthe foregoing article, and when it has reached its proper degree, add 6 ounces of chocolate dissolved with a wineglassful of water; work the whole well together, and use it while hot; but if it should become cold and set before the operation is terminated, the preperation may be easily liquified by stirring it over the fire.
Cakes, both large and small, may be glaces or glazed in this manner in almost infinite variety, by using any kind of liquor, or a very strong infusion of tea or coffee instead of the chocolate here recommended.
Ten ounces of pounded sugar, 8 ounces of finelychopped almonds, 13 ounces of flour, 12 yolks and 14 whites of eggs, 2 ounces of candied orange-peel shred fine, a teaspoonful of cinnamon-powder, half that quantity of ground cloves, and a little grated lemon-rind. Work the sugar and the almonds with the yolks and 2 whites of eggs for twenty minutes, then incorporate the remaining 12 whites firmly whisked together with the flour, candied peel and spices. Next pour the batter into a convenient-sized paper case, and bake it in a moderate oven; and when done and sufficiently cold, let it be cut up into thin slices for dishing up.
This preparation may also be baked in small moulds, or forced out upon paper or baking-sheets previously buttered and floured for the purpose,
Charlotte de Russe.
Two quarts of cream, 2 ounces of isinglass, 1 pint of milk, 3 vanilla beans, the yolks of 4 eggs, 2 ounces of sugar. Put the isinglass in a sauce pan, and pour over it one teacupful of boiling water, place it on the fire, and let it remain for one hour without boiling. Let the milk and vanilla boil together slowly until it is reduced to 1 gill; beat the eggs and stir them in the milk whilst it is on the fire, then add the isinglass and sugar, and keep stirring it until it is cooked about as much as custard; strain it through a fine sieve and set it in a cool place; when nearly cold add the cream and stir them well together put the mixture in a dish or bowl, lined with sponge-cake.
Put into 1 quart of water an oUnGc of isinglass and let it boil till it is reduced to a pint; then put in the whites of 4 eggs, with 2 tablespoonfuls of rice water, and sweeten it to taste. Run it through a jelly-bag, and then put to it 2 ounces of sweet and 1 ounce of bitter almonds. Scald them in the jelly, and then run them through a hair sieve. Put it into a China bowl, and the next day turn it out. Garnish with flowers or green leaves, and stick all over the top blanched almonds cut lengthways.
Skim off the fat, and strain a quart of strong calves’foot jelly, add to the same the whites of 4 eggs well beaten; set it over the fire and stir it till it boils. Then pour it into a jelly-bag, and run it through several times till it is clear. Beat an ounce each of sweet and bitter almonds, to a paste with a spoonful of rose-water strained through a cloth. Then mix it with the jelly, and add to it 3 spoonfuls of very good cream. Set it again over the fire, and stir it till it almost boils. Pour it into a bowl, then stir it often till almost cold, and then fill the moulds.
Parboil 12 ounces of Jordan and 2 ounces of bitter almonds in a quart of water for about two minutes; drain them on a sieve, remove the skins, and wash them in cold water; after they have been soaked in cold water for half an hour, pound them in a mortar with 4 ounces of sugar, until the whole presents the appearance of a soft paste. This must then be placed in a large basin, with 12 ounces of loaf sugar, and mixed with rather more than a pint of spring-water; cover the basin with a sheet of paper, twisted round the edges, and allow the preperation to stand in a cool place for about an hour, in order to extract the flavor of the almonds more effectually. The milk should then be strained off from the almonds through a napkin, with pressure, by wringing it at both ends. Add 2 ounces of clarified isinglass to the milk of almonds, pour the blanc-mange into a mould imbedded in rough ice, and when set quite firm turn it out on its dish with caution after having first dipped the mould in warm water.
Original Receipts In Cookery And Pastry, Etc.
1. Shrewsbury Cake.
Sift 1 pound of sugar, some pounded cinnamon and a nutmeg grated, into 3 pounds of flour. Add a little rosewater to 3 eggs well beaten, mix them with the Dour, then pour in as much butter melted as will make it a good thickness to roll out.
2. Another. - Take 2 pounds of flour, 1 pound of sugar finely pounded mix them together; take out 1/4 of a pound to roll them in; 1/2 pound of butter, 4 eggs, 4 spoonsful of cream, and 2 of rose- water. Beat them well together, and mix them with the flour into a paste: roll them into thin cakes and bake them in a quick oven.
Blanch 4 ounces of almonds, and pound them with 4 tablespoonfuls of orange-flower water, beat the whites of 4 eggs to a froth, mix it with a pound of sugar, sift the almonds into a paste, and lay it in different cakes on paper to bake.
4. Another. - Take 1 pound of almonds, blanch them and throw them into cold water, then rub them dry with a cloth, and pound them in a mortar, moisten them with orange-flower or rosewater, lest they turn to oil: then take 1 pound of fine loaf sugar, whisk the whites of 4 eggs; beat all well together, and shape them round with a spoon, on paper previously buttered and sugared, to prevent their burning; bake them in a gentle oven on tin plates.
5. Savoy Biscuit.
Take of sugar the weight of 12 eggs, of flour the weight of 7 eggs; beat the yellows and whites of 12 eggs separate; grate in the rind of 1 lemon. After being in the oven a few minutes, grate on some sugar. You may add peachwater or lemonjuice.
Take 1 1/2 pounds of flour, 1 pound of sugar, 3/4 pound of butter, 4 yolks and 2 whites of eggs with a wineglass of rose-water, roll them thick with fine powdered sugar, and bake on tins.
7. Almond Cake.
Take 1 pound of almonds blanched and beaten, 10 eggs well beaten, 1 pound of sugar, and 3/4 pound of flour.
8. French Rolls.
Take 1 spoonful of lard or batter, 3 pints of flour, 1 cup of yeast, and as much milk as will work it up to the stiffness of bread, just before you take them from the oven, take a clean towel and wipe them over with milk.
To 1 quart of milk add 5 eggs, 1 1/4 pounds of flour, 1/2 pound of butter; beat them well together when baked, sift sugar and cinnamon on them. If you make the waf-fles before it is time to bake them, add 1 spoonful of yeast.
10. Poundcake Gingerbread.
Six eggs. 1 pound of sugar, 1 pint of molasses, 1 teacupful of ginger, 1 teaspoonful of saleratus dissolved, a little mace, nutmeg, 1 pound of fresh butter creamed; after these ingredients are well mixed, beat in 2 pounds of flour. Fruit is an improvement.
Three pounds of flour, 1 pound of sugar, 1 pound of butter rubbed in very fine, 2 ounces of ginger, a little nutmeg, 1 pint of molasses, 1 gill of cream; make them warm together, and bake them in a slack oven. 12. Gingerbread.
One pound and a half of flour, 1/4 pound of sugar, and 1/2 a pound of butter, well rubbed together; 1 ounce of ginger, a few caraway seeds, 24 allspice, 12 cloves, a little cinnamon, 1 pint of molasses. Knead well.
13. Short Gingerbread.
One pound of sugar, 3/4 pound of butter, 6 eggs, a little cream and saleratus, 1 3/4 pounds of flour, rolled hard. To be baked on tin sheets, marked ready to cut.
14. Calves-foot Jelly.
Four calves’-feet well boiled, 1/2 pound of sugar, 1 pint of wine, 2 lemons, the whites of 4 eggs, and shells; boil all together about five minutes, then pour through a flannel bag to strain.
15. Apple Pudding.
Half the whites and all the yolks of 10 eggs, beat them very light, add 1 pint of apples, after they are stewed and put through a sifter, stir in 1/4 pound of butter, the grated peel of 2 large lemons, and juice of one; sugar to taste. Mace and nutmeg are very good substitutes for lemonjuice.
16. Baked Apple Pudding.
Pare and quarter 4 large apples, boil them tender with the rind of a lemon in so little water that when done no water may remain, beat them quite fine in a mortar, add the crumb of a small roll, 1/4 pound of butter melted, the yolks of 5 and whites of 3 eggs, juice of 1/2 a lemon, sugar to your taste; beat all well together, and bake it in a paste.
17. Lemon Blanc-Mange.
Pour 1 pint of hot water upon 1 ounce of isinglass; when it is dissolved add the juice of 3 lemons, the peel of one grated, 6 yolks of eggs beaten, 1/2 a pint of Lisbon wine, sweeten it to your taste; let it boil, then strain it, and put it in your moulds.
18. Mrs. Hoffmann’s Blanc-Mange.
Take 2 ounces of isinglass, 1 quart of new milk, strain it and sweeten to your taste, add rose or peachwater, let it be only milk warm when you put it in the moulds; if you wish it particularly nice, blanch 1/2 pound almonds, beat them very fine in a mortar and stir in before you boil or strain.
19. Orange Pudding.
Take 1 pound of butter creamed, 1 pound of sugar, 10 eggs, the juice of 2 oranges, boil the peel, then pound it fine, and mix it with the juice; add the juice of one lemon, a wineglass of brandy, wine, and rose-water.
20. Hominy Pudding
Take the hominy, warm it, and mash through a sifter until you get a pint, add 1/4 of a pound of butter, melted, stir a teacup of cream into it, and let it cool; then add half the whites of 6 eggs, sugar, nutmeg, mace, and wine to your taste. Bake it.
21. Cocoanut Pudding.
To 1 large cocoanut, grated, add the whites of 8 eggs, 1/4 pound of sugar, 1/4 pound of butter, 2 tablespoonfuls of rose-water. Bake it in a paste.
22. Rice Pudding.
Take 1/2 pound of rice, tied in a cloth, boiled well, and then put through a sieve; add 1 quart of milk, and keep stirring until it thickens; then add 6 ounces of butter stirred into the rice, 12 yolks and 6 whites of eggs well beaten; mace, nutmeg, wine and sugar, to your taste.
This quantity will make 2 large puddings. If you choose you may add currants or any other fruit.
23. Another. - Boil the rice very soft, dry from water, stir in a little butter, 1 pint of milk, and 3 eggs well beaten, sweeten to your taste, pour it in your dish, sprinkle flour on the top, put little bits of butter here and there on the top. Bake slowly.
24. Another. highly approved. - Take 2 table spoonfuls of raw rice, 1 quart of new milk, a bit of butter the size of an egg, a little cinnamon, sweeten to your taste, put the pan in a slack oven after the bread is taken out; eat when cold.
25. Another. - Put in a deep pan 1/2 pound of rice washed and picked, 2 ounces of butter, 4 ounces of sugar, a few allspice pounced, and 2 quarts of milk. Bake in a slow oven.
26. Another. - Sweeten rice in milk, strain it off, and having pared and cored apples, put the rice around them, tying each in a cloth with a bit of lemon-peel, a clove, or cinnamon. Boil them well.
27. Ground Rice or Sago Pudding.
Boil a tablespoonful of it heaped, in a pint of new milk, with lemon-peel and cinnamon; when cold, add sugar, nutmeg, and 2 eggs, well beaten.
28. Sweet Potato Pudding.
Take 5 eggs, 1/2 a pound of butter, 1/4 of a pound of sugar, add as much sweet potato as will thicken it, the juice and grated peel of 1 lemon, beat it very light.
29. Potato Pudding.
Take 1/2 a pound of boiled potatoes, beat well in a mortar with 1/2 a pound each of sugar and butter, the yolks of 10 eggs, the whites of 4, well beaten, 2 Naples biscuit grated, and 1/2 a pint of cream; mix them well with the other ingredients and pour it on a thin paste. Bake for half an hour.
30. Another. - Take 8 ounces of boiled potatoes, 2 ounces of butter, 2 eggs, 1/4 of a pint of cream, 1 spoonful of white wine, a little salt, the juice and rind of a lemon, beat the whole to a froth, sugar to taste - a paste or not as you like. If you want it richer, put more butter, sweetmeats, and almonds, with another egg.
31. Citron Pudding.
Half a pound of sugar, 1/2 a pound of butter creamed, the yolks of 9 eggs, a wineglass of brandy, 1/2 a pound of citron chopped very fine.
32. Cream Pudding.
To 3 eggs beaten very light, stir in 1 1/2 pints of flour, salt to your taste, mix a little milk, then put in 6 ounces of sugar, just before you put it in the oven add 1 pint of thick cream. Bake for three-quarters of an hour.
33. Custard Pudding.
One pint of milk, 3 spoonfuls of flour, 6 eggs, and salt to your taste. Sugar.
34. Wedding Cake.
Three pounds of flour, 3 pounds of butter, 8 pounds of sugar, 2 dozen of eggs, 3 pounds of raisins, 6 pounds of currants, 1 pound of citron, 1 ounce of mace, 1 ounce of cinnamon, 1 ounce of nutmegs, 1/2 an ounce of cloves, 1/2 a pint of brandy. Beat the butter with your hand to cream, then beat the sugar into the butter, add the froth of the yolks of the eggs after being well beaten, then the froth of the whites; mix fruit, spice, and flour together; then add them in with beating. Five or six hours’ baking will answer for a large loaf.
35. Election Cake.
Five pounds of flour, 2 pounds of sugar, 3/4 pound of butter, 5 eggs, yeast, 1 pint of milk, and spice as you please.
36. Indian Pudding.
Boil 1 spoonful of fine Indian flour well, then add 1 pint of milk, and let it all boil; when cool, beat in 2 eggs. Sweeten and season.
37. Baked Indian Pudding.
Eight ounces of mush, 6 ounces of butter, 6 ounces of sugar, the yolks of 6 eggs, and the white of 1; mix the butter in the mush when hot, beat the eggs and sugar together; add to the mush when cool, nutmeg,mace, and wine to your taste; bake.
38. Friend Wilson’s Plum Pudding.
Mix well together 1 pound of raisins, 1 pound of currants, the crumbs of 1/2 a loaf of bread, 1/4 of a pound of flour, 1 pound of suet; stir in 6 eggs and 1 tumbler of porter; put in 1/2 of a nutmeg, 1/2 pound of citron and cinnamon, to give taste add 2 ounces of fine sugar. You may use, instead of porter, a small tea-cup of yeast. Before taking it out of the bag dip into cold water.
39. Apple Custard.
Take apples pared, cored, and slightly stewed, sufficient to cover the dish, 6 eggs, 1 quart of milk; spice to your taste. Bake it one-third of an hour,
40. Black Cake.
One pound and three-quarters of flour, 1 1/4 pounds of brown sugar, 1 pound of butter, 1 1/2 pounds of raisins 1 1/2 pounds of currants, 1/2 pound of lard, 4 eggs, 1 pint of milk, 1 nutmeg, and mace, 1 teaspoonful of baking powder. Wine and brandy.
41. Tomato Catsup.
Cut up the tomatoes, and between every layer sprinkle a layer of salt, let them stand a few hours before you boil them, which do very well; then strain them through a colander on some horse-radish, onions or garlic, mustard-seed, beaten ginger, pepper and mace; cover it close; let it stand a day or two, then bottle and seal it for use.
42. Green Tomato Soy.
To 1 peck of green tomatoes, sliced thin, add 1 pint of salt; stand twenty-four hours, then strain and. put them on the fire, with 12 raw onions, 1 ounce of black pepper, 1 ounce of allspice, 1/4 pound of ground mustard. 1/2 pound of white mustard-seed, and a little Cayenne pepper. Cover with vinegar, and boil until as thick as jam, stirring constantly to prevent burning.
43. Puff- Paste.
One pound and a quarter of flour, and 1 pound of butter; divide the butter into 4 equal parts; mix one-fourth part of the butter with three-fourths of the flour; and work the remainder of the flour and butter in.
44. Good Receipt for Paste (for Pies).
To 1 1/4 pounds of sifted flour allow 1 pound of butter or half butter and half lard. Rub the lard and flour through your hands until thoroughly mixed having first put aside 2 tablespoonfuls of flour to make out the paste with; then break up the butter in small pieces with your fingers with the flour and lard moisten with cold water, and press it together lightly until it forms a mass, then flour the paste-board, lay the dough on it, and with the rolling-pin roll it lightly into a thick sheet. Sprinkle some of the flour on, cut it into four pieces, and again proceed to roll as before; do this three times, then make the pies. For plain home-made pies, to 2 pounds of flour, pound butter and 1/2 pound of lard, or all lard.
45. Biddle Pudding.
One pint of milk, 4 large tablespoonfuls of flour 4 eggs. Butter the bake-dish. Put it in the oven when you are about to dish the dinner allowing twenty-five minutes for baking, bring it directly from the oven to the table, or it falls.
Sauce for the above. - 1 cup of brown sugar, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream, 1 ounce of butter. Stir the butter and sugar thoroughly, then add a little of the cream at a time, to keep from separating; add wine to the taste in the same manner (not quite a wineglass). Let the mixture melt; it will be a white froth when done. Enough for five persons.
46. Meringue Pudding.
One quart milk, 1 pint grated bread, the yolks of 4 eggs, the rind of 1 lemon grated; sweeten to taste. Bake to a custard, which will be in about half an hour, then take it from the oven. Beat the whites of the 4 eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls of sugar and the juice of the lemon, and put it on the top of the pudding. Set it in the oven again and let it brown lightly.
47. Sponge Cake.
Fourteen eggs, with their weight in sugar and half their weight in flour, the juice and peel of a lemon, and one nutmeg; beat the yolks and whites separately until stiff, add the sugar to the yolks, then add the whites; one minute before the oven is ready dredge in the flour. Bake in a quick oven half an hour.
48. Lemon Cake.
Twelve eggs, 1 1/2 pounds sugar, 3/4 pound flour; grate the outside of 2 lemons, with the inside of 1; or add 1 glass of wine, with 3 teaspoonsful of the essence of lemon.
49. Sugar Cake.
One pound flour, 3/4 pound sugar, 1/2 pound butter, 5 eggs. Mix and drop them on tin, and put sugar sanded on them, just as you put them into the oven, or frost them.
50. Cup Cake.
Three cups of sugar, 1 cup of butter, 2 teaspoonfuls of saleratus, 3 eggs, 6 cups of flour, all beaten together with as much spice as you please.
51. Cider Cake.
Take 2 pounds flour, 1 pound sugar, 1/2 pound butter, 1 pint eider, gloves, and cinnamon, with or without fruit, 2 teaspoonfuls of saleratus.
Two cups of cream, 1 of white wine, grate in the skin of a lemon, sweeten to your taste, the whites of 3 eggs; then whip it with a whisk; take off the froth; as it rises pour the froth into your jelly glasses.
53. To make Venison Pasty.
You must bone your venison and season it with 2 ounces of pepper, 1 nutmeg, mixed with salt; then mince 3 pounds of beef suet. Put it in the pan; it will take six hours’ baking.
54. To Dress a Turtle.
Take a turtle of 8 pounds, cut off its head, cut it open, scald the fins and calipee or under-shell skin them then take out the guts, cut them open and cleanse them well; take great care not to break the gall. Then take for the soup the guts and the fins with a knuckle of veal, some sweet herbs, onions, and Cayenne pepper. Season the rest of the meat with the same seasoning which put in the calipash, or upper-shell, and calipee, with some forcemeat balls, and bake it. When it is baked, take the yolks of 3 eggs to a turtle of 8 pounds, beat them well, pour in a little wine take some of the soup’ and brew it together very well, throw in a lump of butter rolled in flour, and put it into the calipash and calipee.
55. To make Waffles the Dutch way.
One quart of new milk, 1 penny loaf grated very fine, 10 eggs beaten with 1/4 pound of sweet butter melted a few cloves beaten, a little salt, fine flour enough to make a batter like a pancake, and 4 spoonsful of yeast. Mix them together and put them in an earthen pot covered, before the fire, to rise, for an hour, having your waffleiron ready heated and buttered on both sides, put in the batter to bake. When done serve them hot, with sugar grated over them and cinnamon.
56. A good Gravy, to be kept for any use.
Burn 1 ounce of butter in the frying-pan, but take care to do it at such a distance from the fire that, as you strew in the flour to the butter, it may brown but not blacken; put to it 2 pounds coarse lean beef, 1 quart water, 1/2 pint wine (red or white), 3 anchovies, 2 shallots, some whole pepper, cloves, and mace, 3 or 4 mushrooms or as many pickled walnuts. Let it stew gently one hour, then strain it. It will keep some time, and is proper fur any savory dish.
57. Federal Cake, or Bachelors Loaf.
Into a plateful of flour put a piece of butter not larger than a walnut, 2 eggs, 1 spoonful yeast; mix it either with milk or water, as you please; make it into a very stiff batter’ so stiff you can scarce stir it with a spoon. Put it to rise in the same dish you wish to bake it in. It will take several hours to rise.
58. Albany Cake.
Take 1 1/2 pounds of flour, 1 pound of sugar, pound of butter, 1 tablespoonful of lard, 2 tablespoonfuls of rosewater, a little cinnamon, 1 egg, 1 teaspoonful of saleratus dissolved in a teacup of cream. Cut them out and bake them on tins.
59. Black Cake that will keep for a year.
One pound of sugar, the same of butter and flour, 10 eggs; heat them well together, and when light add 2 wineglasses of brandy, nutmeg, mace, and cloves, 2 pounds of raisins, and the same quantity of currants. It will take some hours to bake. A good deal of spice is necessary.
60. To dress Calf’s Head in imitation of Turtle.
Take the calf’s head when well soaked and washed, open it and boil it with the entrails until it is quite done; take part of the liver out when about half done for forcemeat balls. When it is all done strain the liquor, then cut off small pieces of the head in imitation of turtle; the small indifferent remainder chop up with the entrails; put in spice to your taste, a little savory herbs rubbed very fine, and a few little onions, some very small dumplings, season the forcemeat balls with spice and herbs to your taste, put a little parsley in them, and fry them in lard, and put them in your soup when you send it to table.
61. Mock Turtle.
Take a fine calf’s head, cut the meat clean from the bones then boil the bones in a quart of water until the liquor is reduced to a pint; then season it with Cayenne, nutmeg, and mace; pour into the gravy a pint of Madeira wine, a little parsley; thyme.
62. Dr. Green’s Bean Soup.
Take a shin of beef, well cracked, and to every pound of beef add 1 quart of cold water boil slowly until the meat is in shreds, only removing the lid to take off the scum. Having prepared your beans (one quart) the evening before, by washing well and soaking all night, boil them until soft enough to pass easily through a sieve; strain the soup, add the beans, give a boil-up together, season to the taste with pepper and salt, and just before serving add half a lemon cut in small pieces, a quarter of a grated nutmeg, and a teaspoonful of white sugar.
63. Beef a la Mode.
Choose a thick piece of flank of beef; cut some fat bacon in long slices; let each slice be near an inch thick, dip them in vinegar; then take seasoning of salt and pepper and cloves, mixed with parsley, thyme, and marjoram. Make holes in the meat to put in the larding; when you have put it in rub it over with the seasoning and bind it up with tape and set it in a pot over the fire. Three or four onions must be fried brown and put to the beef, with two or three carrots and a head of celery. Add a small quantity of water, and let it simmer ten or twelve hours, or until it is extremely tender, turning the meat twice; put the gravy into a pan, remove from it the fat; keep the beef covered, then put them together, add a’ glass of wine, remove the tape, and send it to table.
64. Oyster Pie.
Take 100 oysters and clean them well from the shell, put them into a kettle with their own liquor to plump them, then put them in a dish, and season them with 12 cloves and 3 blades of mace pounded fine, pepper to your taste, then lay crust around the edge of your dish. Take the yolks of 4 eggs boiled hard, with a handful of grated bread; sprinkle this over the top with a few pieces of butter; fill the dish nearly full; cover the pie over with a puff-paste.
65. Damson Sauce.
To 1 peck plums put 3 pounds brown sugar, pint of vinegar, 2 ounces cloves, 1 ounce cinnamon, 1/2 ounce mace. Put it on the fire and boil until the fruit is soft and pulpy.
66. Pickled Damson Plums.
To 1 peck or 5 pounds of fruit, put 3 pounds brown sugar, 1 quart vinegar, 2 ounces cloves, 1 ounce cinnamon, 1/2 ounce mace. Boil sugar and spices in the vinegar and pour it boiling on the fruit; when cold pour it off. Repeat for four or five mornings.
67, Chicken Salad.
Two large cold fowls either boiled or roasted, the yolks of 9 hard-boiled eggs, 1/2 pint of sweet oil, 1/2 pint of vinegar, 1 gill of mixed mustard, 1 small teaspoonful of Cayenne pepper, 1 small teaspoonful of salt, 2 large heads, or 4 small ones, of fine celery. Cut the meat of the fowls from the bones, in small pieces. Cut the white part of the celery into pieces about an inch long. Mix the chicken and celery well together, cover them and set them away. With the back of a wooden spoon mash the yolks of eggs till they are a perfectly smooth paste. Mix them with the oil, vinegar, mustard, Cayenne, and salt. Stir them for a long time, till they are thoroughly mixed and quite smooth; the longer they are stirred the better. When this dressing is sufficiently mixed, cover it and set it away. Five minutes before the salad is to be eaten pour the dressing over the chicken and celery, and mix all well together.
68. New mode of Cooking Egg Plant.
Boil the plant whole. When tender cut it in half, mash the inside fine; mix in a dressing made of bread crumbs with pepper and salt. Put in an oven and bake it.
69. Chicken Soup without Chicken for the Sick.
Take 1 dessertspoonful of flour and rub smooth in 1 gill of milk; put 1 ounce of butter, and pepper and salt to suit the taste; pour in 1/2 pint of boiling water, boil ten minutes, and pour it over a slice of toasted or untoasted bread, as taste may direct. Use thyme or parsley, as is most agreeable.
This receipt has been used in the hospitals, where chickens could not be had.
70. Claret Punch.
Into a large punch-bowl capable of holding 2 gallons, pour 1 dozen bottles of claret; add 18 oranges and 6 lemons, cut into slices, rinds and all; 1 pound of white sugar (or more, to taste); and 1/2 a gallon of water, kept cold with ice.
71. Paris Punch a la Nina.
Equal portions of green tea, brandy, and water. Add cut lemons and sugar.
72. Brandy Peaches.
Pare the peaches, carefully removing all decay. Lay in a shallow dish and cover with white sugar. When a syrup has formed, remove the fruit and put into jars; put the syrup in a new tin pan, and place over the fire; when it comes to a boil, remove and pour into the jars hot, and fill up with the best white brandy. When cold seal up carefully.
73. Orange Marmalade.
One dozen good-sized oranges - those with the bitter skin are considered the best, or Sicily, if preferred, cut them in two, take off the peel, and boil it in water until tender enough to run a straw through; cut it up fine, add the pulp and juice of the oranges (carefully removing all the white skin), and the juice and grated skin of two lemons. Add the weight of the whole in white sugar, and boil for a short time till clear - say from twenty minutes to half an hour.
Eighteen good-sized Sicily oranges make about 4 quarts of marmalade.
74. Mock-Turtle Soup made of Beans.
Take 1 pint of black Mexican beans, wash them and put them to soak in some water over night. In the morning put them, with a bunch of potherbs, and about 3 quarts of water into a pot, and boil till thoroughly done; strain through a colander into the liquor they were boiled in; let them simmer, add pepper and salt, with a lump of butter the size of an egg, 2 tablespoonfuls of walnut catsup; have ready 2 hard-boiled eggs chopped. fine, put them into the tureen, and turn your soup over them if you have some lemon or wine it will improve it.
75. J. R. K.’s Chicken Croquets.
Boil an ordinary-sized chicken, skin it and cut it up fine. Take a dessertspoonful of butter and the same of flour, mix well together and put into a saucepan with the yolk of an egg, add 3 spoonfuls of chicken broth and 3 of cream, and let it thicken to a boil; throw in the chicken, and after boiling a few moments put it away to cool. Roll out the croquets to the required size in egg and then in fine cracker) and fry in very hot lard.
76. Corn’ Bread.
To 1 quart of milk add 5 eggs beaten light, a small teaspoonful of baking soda, and a little salt; stir in sufficient corn meal to make a stiff batter, pour in a deep pan well greased, and bake; when done it should be two inches thick. Eat while hot.
77. Plain Corn Pone.
To a quart of white corn meal add a little salt add suf-ficient milk to make a dough, divide into two pones or loaves, making each an inch and a half thick, and bake in a quick oven.
78. Tapioca Pudding.
Take 1/2 a pound of tapioca, pour on 1 1/2 pints of water, and let it soak over night, pare and core 10 apples, taking care not to break them, and place in a deep pan, sweeten and flavor the tapioca with wine or essence of vanilla and pour it on the apples; if it does not cover them add a little more water; when the apples are cooked sufficiently the pudding is done. Eat with cream.
79. Currant Pudding.
To 3 cups of flour add 1 1/2 cups of sugar, 2 eggs pound of suet cut fine, 1/2 a pound of currants and nutmeg to suit the taste. Make in a stiff batter and boil in a bag two hours. To be eaten with butter sauce.
80. Italian Mode of Cooking Veal Cutlets.
For a cutlet weighing 1 1/2 pounds take 2 onions, slice and parboil, pour off the water, and brown with butter; season and flour the cutlet and place in the pan with the onions, adding sufficient butter to fry nicely; slice 2 tomatoes, and when the cutlet is done place them under it, and let the whole remain over the fire until the tomatoes are well cooked, then remove the cutlet and tomatoes, and add to the gravy the juice of 1/2 a lemon and a little flour; after dishing the whole upon a meat dish, sprinkle a little parsley cut fine. This is a delicious way of cooking cutlets, beef can be done in the same manner.
81. To cook Frogs.
Put the hind legs in salt and water over night; wipe them dry with a cloth, pepper and salt them, then sprinkle a little flour over them, and fry in hot lard to a light brown.
To prepare Sugar for Candying.
The first process is clarifying, which is done thus: Break the white of an egg into a preserving pan; put to it 4 quarts of water and beat it with a whisk to a froth. Then put in 12 pounds of sugar, mix all together and set it over the fire. When it boils put in a little cold water, and proceed as often as necessary till the scum rises thick on the top. Then remove it from the fire, and when it is settled take off the scum and pass it through a straining bag. If the sugar should not appear very fine, boil it again before straining it.
To Candy Sugar.
After having completed the above first process put what quantity is wanted over the fire, and boil it till it is smooth enough. This is known by dipping the skimmer into the sugar and touching it between the fore-finger and thumb, and immediately on opening them a small thread will be observed drawn between, which will crystallize and break, and remain in a drop on the thumb, which will be a sign of its gaining some degree of smoothness. Boil it again and it will draw into a larger string, it is now called bloom sugar, and must be boiled longer than in the former process. To try its forwardness dip again the skimmer shaking off the sugar into the pan; then blow with the mouth strongly through the holes, and if bubbles go through, it has acquired the second degree; to prove if the liquid has arrived at the state called feathered sugar, re-dip the skimmer and shake it over the pan, then give it a sudden flirt behind, and the sugar will fly off like feathers.
It now arrives at the state called crackled sugar, to obtain which the mass must be boiled longer than in the preceding degree; then dip a stick in it and put it directly into a pan of cold water, draw off the sugar which hangs to the stick in the water, and if it turns hard and snaps it has acquired the proper degree of crystallization; if otherwise, boil it again until it acquires that brittleness. The last stage of refining this article is called caramel sugar, to obtain which it must be boiled longer than in any of the preceding methods; prove it by dipping a stick first into the sugar and then into cold water, and the moment it touches the latter it will, if matured, snap like glass. Be careful that the fire is not too fierce, as by flaming up the sides of the pan it will burn, discolor and spoil the sugar.
Put into a pan syrup enough of clarified sugar to fill the mould; boil it until it comes to the state called small feather; skim it well; take the pan from the fire and pour it into a small quantity of spirits sufficient to make it sparkle; let it rest till the skin which is the candy rises on the surface; take it off with a skimmer and pour it directly into the mould, which keep in the stove at 90o heat fire eight days; then strain the candy by a hole, slanting the mould on a basin or pan to receive the drainings; let it drain till it is perfectly dry, then loosen the paper by moistening it with warm water; warm it all round near the fire and turn the candy by striking it hard on the table. Put it on a sieve in the stove to finish drying it, but do not touch it while there, and keep up an equal heat, otherwise there will be only a mush instead of a candy. Spirits of wine will take off grease and not affect the candy) as it soon evaporates.
To Make Barley Sugar.
Take a quantity of clarified sugar in that state that on dipping the finger into the pan the sugar which adheres to it will break with a slight noise; this is called crack. When the sugar is near this put in 2 or 3 drops of lemonjuice, or a little vinegar to prevent its graining. When it has come to the crack take it off instantly and dip the pan in cold water to prevent its burning, let it stand a little, and then pour it on a marble, which must be previously rubbed with oil. Cut the sugar into small pieces, when it will be ready for use. One drop of citron will flavor a considerable quantity.
Provide leaden moulds, which must be of various shapes, and be oiled with oil of sweet almonds. Take a quantity of brown sugar syrup in proportion to their size, in that state called a blow, which may be known by dipping the skimmer into the sugar, shaking it and blowing through the holes, when gleams of light may be seen, add a drop of any esteemed essence. If the bonbons are preferred white, when the sugar has cooled a little, stir it round the pan, till it grains and shines on the surface; then pour it into a funnel and fill the little mould, when it will take a proper form and harden; as soon as it is cold take it from the moulds; dry it in two or three days and put it upon paper. If the bonbons are required to be colored, add the color just as the sugar is ready to be taken off the fire.
To Candy Ginger.
Put 1 ounce of race ginger grated fine, 1 pound of loaf sugar beaten fine, into a preserving pan, with as much water as will dissolve the sugar. Stir them well together over a slow fire till the sugar begins to boil, then stir in another pound of sugar beaten fine, and keep stirring till it grows thick: then take it off the fire and drop it in cakes upon earthen dishes. Set them in a warm place to dry, when they will become hard and brittle and look white.
To Candy Hoarhound.
Boil it in water till the juice is extracted, then boil a suf-ficient quantity of sugar to a great height and add the juice to it; stir it with a spoon against the sides of the sugar pan, till it begins to grow thick; then pour it out into a paper case that is dusted with fine sugar and cut it into squares; dry the hoarhound and put it into the sugar finely powdered and sifted.
To make White Sugar Candy.
Sugar crystallized by the saturated syrup being left in a very warm place, from 90o to 100o Fahrenheit, and the shooting promoted by placing sticks or a net of threads at small distances from each other in the liquor; it is also deposited from compound syrup, and does not retain any of the foreign substances with which the syrup is loaded.
To Clarify Loaf Sugar.
Break the same into a copper pan, which will hold onethird more, put 1/2 a pint of water to each pound of sugar, mix 1 white of an egg to every 6 pounds; when it rises in boiling throw in a little cold water, which must be kept ready in case it should boil over; skim it the fourth time of rising, continue to throw in a little cold water each time till the scum ceases to rise, and strain it through a sieve, cloth or flannel bag. Save the scum, which, when a certain quantity is taken off, may be clarified. The latter skimming will do to add to fermented wines.
To Clarify Coarse Brown Sugar.
Put 50 pounds of coarse brown sugar into a pan which will contain one-third more; pour in 20 pints of water, well mixed with 5 whites of eggs, pound 5 pounds of small charcoal, mix it in the pan while on the fire, and boil it till it looks as black as ink. If it rises too fast, add cold water, strain it through a bag, and though at first it will be black, continue to strain it until it becomes quite clear, which may be seen by putting the syrup in a glass. Put it back until it comes out as fine as clarified loaf sugar.
To Improve and Increase Sugar.
To 5 pounds of coarse brown sugar add 1 pound of flour, and there will be obtained 6 pounds of sugar worth ten per cent. more in color and quality.
Mix 100 parts of starch with 200 of water, and add to it gradually another 200 of water, previously mixed with as much of oil of vitriol, and brought to a boiling heat in a tinned copper vessel; keep the mixture boiling for 36 hours, and occasionally add water to keep up the original quantity; then add some powdered charcoal and also some chalk to get rid of the acid, strain and evaporate it by a gentle heat to the consistence of a syrup, and set by to crystallize.
Wound the trees in the spring of the year by boring a hole under a large arm of the tree quite through the wood as far as the bark of the opposite side; collect the sap which flows from the wound and evaporate it to a proper consistence; these are the native sugars of cold countries, and might be made in England for all the purposes of home consumption.
To make Pear Sugar.
It is obtained by expressing the juice, adding chalk to remove the superabundant acid, and evaporating it to a due consistence, it does not crystallize and is a kind of white treacle. One hundred weight of pears yields about 84 pounds of this juice, which will produce nearly 12 pounds of this substance.
The brown sugar obtained from grapes by the usual process, being previously freed from the acids and sulphate of lime that existed in the original juice, yields by refining 75 per cent. of a white granular sugar, 24 of a kind of treacle with a little gum and some malate of lime.
To Candy Orange-peel.
Soak the peels in cold water, which change frequently till they lose their bitterness; shell put them into syrup till they become soft and transparent. Then they are to be taken out and drained.
This is made by boiling lemon-peel with sugar, and then exposing to the air until the sugar crystallizes.
To Color Candied Sugar.
Red. - Boil an ounce of cochineal in half a pint of water for five minutes, add an ounce of cream of tartar, 1/2 an ounce of pounded alum, and boil them on a slow fire ten minutes; if’ it shows the color clear on white paper, it is sufficient. Add 2 ounces of sugar, and bottle it for use.
Blue - Put a little warm water on a plate, and rub an indigo-stone in it till the color has come to the tint required.
Yellow. - Rub with some water a little gamboge on a plate: or infuse the heart of a yellow lily flower with milkwarm water.
Green. - Boil the leaves of spinach about a minute in a little water, and when strained bottle the liquor for use. In coloring refined sugars, taste and fancy must guide.
To make Devices in Sugar.
Steep gum tragacanth in rose-water, and with double re-fined sugar make it into a paste, and color and mould it to fancy.
Rub a lump of loaf sugar on the outside of a lemon, and put it into a pint of thick cream, and sweeten it to taste. Squeeze in the juice of a lemon, and add a glass of Madeira wine, or French brandy. Mill it to a froth with a chocolate mill take off the froth as it rises, and lay it in a hair sieve. Fill one-half of the glass with red wine then lay the froth as high as possible, but take care that it is well drained in the sieve, otherwise it will mix with the wine, and the syllabub be spoiled.
To a quart of rich cream put a quart of white wine, the juice of 2 lemons, with the rind of 1 grated, and sweeten it to taste. Whip it up well, and take off the froth as it rises. Put it upon a hair sieve, and let it stand in a cool place till the next day. Then half fill the glasses with the scum and heap up the froth as high as possible. The bottom will look clear and it will keep several days.
Pare and take out the cores of 5 large baking apples, and fill the holes with orange or quince marmalade. Then take some good hot paste, roll the apples in it, and make the crust of an equal thickness; put them in a tin dripping-pan, bake them in a moderate oven, and when taken out make icing for them; let the same be a quarter of an inch thick, and set them a good distance from the fire until they become hardened, but be cautious that they are not browned.
Mix 6 eggs well beat up, with 14 pounds of loaf sugar, and 3 pounds of coarse sugar. Put them into 3 quarts of water, boil it twice, skim it well and add a 1/4 of a pint of orange-flower water; strain it through a jelly-bag, and put it into bottles for use. A spoonful or two of this syrup put into a draught of either cold or warm water, makes an exceedingly pleasant drink.
To make Confectionary Drops.
Take double-refined sugar, pound and sift it through a hair sieve, not too fine; and then sift it through a silk sieve, to take out all the fine dust which would destroy the beauty of the drop. Put the sugar into a clean pan, and moisten it with any favorite aromatic: if rose-water, pour it in slowly, stirring it with a paddle, which the sugar will fall from, as soon as it is moist enough, without sticking. Color it with a small quantity of liquid carmine, or any other color ground fine. Take a small pan with a lip, fill it three parts with paste, place it on a small stove, the half hole being of the size of the pan, and stir the sugar with a little ivory or bone handle, until it becomes liquid. When it almost boils, take it from the fire and continue to stir it; if it be too moist take a little of the powdered sugar, and add a spoonful to the paste, and stir it till it is of such a consistency as to run without too much extension. Have a tin plate, very clean and smooth; take the little pan in the left hand, and hold in the right a bit of iron, copper, or silver wire, four inches long, to take off the drop from the lip of the pan, and let it fall regularly on the tin plate; two hours afterwards take off the drops with the blade of a knife.
Scrape the chocolate to powder, and put an ounce to each pound of sugar; moisten the paste with clear water, work it as above, only take care to use all the paste prepared, as, if it be put on the fire a second time, it greases, and the drop is not of the proper thickness.
These are made as the sugar drops, only using orange-flower water; or instead of it, use the essence of neroli, which is the essential oil of that flower.
An ounce of coffee to a pound of sugar will form a strong decoction; when cleared; use it to moisten the sager, and then make the drops as above.
The only requisites to make these are, extreme cleanliness, the finest sugar, and a few drops of the essence of peppermint.
These are made as the peppermint drops, the cloves being pounded, or the essence used. Good gloves should be black, heavy, of a pungent smell, hot to the taste, and full of oil.
Pound and sift through a silk sieve the required quantity of ginger, according to the strength wanted, and add to it the sager with clear water. China ginger is best, being aromatic as well as hot and sharp-tasted.
Take of extract of liquorice, double-refined sugar, each 10 ounces; tragacanth powdered, 3 ounces. Powder them thoroughly, and make them into lozenges with rosewater. These are agreeable pectorals, and may be used at pleasure in tickling coughs. The above receipt is the easiest and best mode of making these lozenges. Refined extract of liquorice should be used, and it is easily powdered in the cold, after it has been laid for some days in a dry and rather warm place.
Extract of Liquorice.
The liquorice root is to be boiled in eight times its weight of water, to one half; the liquor is then to be expressed and after the feces have subsided, to be filtered; it is then to be evaporated, with a heat between 200o and 212o, until it becomes thick-ish, and, lastly, it is to be evaporated with a heat less than 200o, and frequently stirred, until it acquires a consistence proper for forming pills. This is made into little pastils, or flat cakes, often bearing the impression of the places where they are made; and a bit now and then put into the mouth takes off the tickling of a cough. It should be dissolved slowly in the mouth to make it pleasant.
To Prepare Liquorice Juice.
Take up the roots in July; clean them perfectly as soon as out of the earth, than hang them up in the air, till nearly dry; after this cut them into thin slices, and boil them in water till the decoction is extremely strong; then press it hard out to obtain all the juice from the roots. This decoction is left to settle a little, and when it has deposited its coarse parts, pour it off into vessels, evaporate it over a fire, strong first, but mild afterwards, till it becomes of a thick consistence, then let the fire go out, and when the extract is cool take out large parcels of it at a time, and work them well with the hands, forming them into cylindric masses, which cut into such lengths as required, roll them over half-dried bay leaves, which adhere to their surfaces, and leave them exposed to the sun, till perfectly dried. Great nicety is to be observed at the end of the evaporation, to get the extract to a proper consistence without letting it burn.
That description of article which is vended in thin, rounded and glazed pieces about the thickness of a crow’s quill, is chiefly prepared in England. The whole process consists in evaporating the liquorice-ball anew, and purifying it by rest, with the help of isinglass, etc.
To Candy Orange Marmalade,
Cut the clearest Seville oranges into two, take out all the juice and pulp into a basin, and pick all the skins and seeds out of it. Boil the rinds in hard water till they become tender, and change the water two or three times while they are boiling. Then pound them in a marble mortar and add to it the juice and pulp; put them next into a preserving pan with double their weight in loaf sugar, and set it over a slow fire. Boil it rather more than half an hour, put it into pots; cover it with brandy-paper and tie it close down.
To make Transparent Marmalade.
Cut very pale Seville oranges into quarters, take out the pulp, put it into a basin and pick out the skins and seeds. Put the peels into a little salt and water and let them stand all night, then boil them in a good quantity of spring-water until they are tender, cut them in very thin slices and put them into the pulp. To every pound of marmalade put 1 1/2 pounds of double-refined beaten sugar; boil them together gently for 20 minutes; if they are not transparent boil them a few minutes longer. Stir it gently all the time, and take care not to break the slices. When it is cold put it into jelly and sweetmeat glasses tied down tight.
Mash the barberries in a little water on a warm stove, pass them through a hair sieve with a paddle, weigh the pulp and put it back on the fire; reduce it to 1/2, clarify a pound of sugar and boil it well; put in the pulp and boil it together for a few minutes.
Take quinces that are quite ripe, pare and cut them in quarters, take out the cores, put them in a stewpan with spring-water, nearly enough to cover them, keep them closely covered and let them stew gently till they are quite soft and red then mash and rub them through a hair sieve. Put them in a pan over a gentle fire, with as much thick clarified sugar as the weight of the quinces; boil them an hour and stir the whole time with a wooden spoon to prevent its sticking; cut it into pots and when cold tie them down.
Take of the juice of Seville oranges, 2 pints. yellow honey, 2 lbs. Boil to a proper consistence.
Boil 1/2 a pound of hartshorn in 3 quarts of water over a gentle fire till it becomes a jelly; when a little hangs on a spoon it is done enough. Strain it hot, put it into a well-tinned saucepan, and add to it 1/2 a pint of Rhenish wine and 1/4 of a pound, of loaf sugar. Beat the whites of 4 eggs or more to a froth, stir it sufficiently for the whites to mix well with the jelly, and pour it in as if cooling it. Boil it two or three minutes, then put in the juice of 4 lemons, and let it boil two minutes longer. When it is finally curdled and of a pure white, pour it into a swanskin jelly-bag over a China basin, and pour it back again until it becomes as clear as rock-water; set a very clean China basin under, fill the glasses, put some thin lemonrind into the basin, and when the jelly is all run out of the bag, with a clean spoon fill the rest of the glasses, and they will look of a fine amber color. Put in lemon and sugar agreeable to the palate.
Mix the whites of 8 eggs, a quart of thick cream and 1/2 a pint of sack, sweeten them to taste with double refined sugar. It may be perfumed with a little musk or ambergris tied in a rag and steeped in a little cream. Whip it up with a whisk, and some lemon-peel tied in the middle of the whisk. Then lay the froth with a spoon in the glasses or basins.
Beat 1/2 a pound of pistachio nut kernels in a mortar with a spoonful of brandy. Put them into a pan with a pint of good cream and the yolks of 2 eggs beaten fine. Stir it gently over the fire till it grows thick, and then put it into a China soup plate. When it is cold stick it over with small pieces of the nuts and send it to table.
To a pound of any preserved fruit add a quart of good cream, squeeze the juice of 2 lemons into it and some sugar to taste. Let the whole be rubbed through a fine hair sieve, and if raspberry strawberry, or any red fruit, add a little cochineal to heighten the color; have the freezing can nice and clean, put the cream into it and cover it, then put it into the tub with ice beat small, and some salt, turn the freezing can quickly, and as the cream sticks to the sides scrape it down with an ice spoon, and so on till it is frozen. The more the cream is worked to the side with the spoon, the smoother and better flavored it will be. After it is well frozen take it out and put it into ice-moulds with salt and ice; then carefully wash the moulds for fear of any salt adhering to them; dip them in lukewarm water and send them to table.
Another Method - (Water-ice).
Bruise 1 quart of strawberries in a basin with 1/2 a pint of good cream, a little currant jelly, and some cold clarified sugar, rub this well through the tammy and put it into an ice can well covered; then set it in a tub of broken fee with plenty of salt, when it grows thick about the sides, stir it with a spoon and cover it close again till it is perfectly frozen through, cover it well with ice and salt both under and over, and when it is frozen change it into a mould and cover well with ice. Sweeten a little plain cream, with sugar and orange-flower water, and treat it the same; likewise any other fruit, without cream, may be mixed as above. This is called water-ice.
Blackberry Brandy - U. S. Sanitary Commission Receipt.
Ten quarts of blackberries make 1 gallon of juice, To 1 gallon of juice add 4 pounds of white sugar. Boil and skim it. Add 1 ounce of cloves, 1 ounce of ground cinnamon, 10 grated nutmegs; boil again. When cool add 1 quart of best whiskey or brandy.
To 1 quart of strained blackberry juice add 1 pound of white sugar, 1 teaspoonful of powdered allspice, 1 teaspoonful of ground cloves. Boil a few minutes, then remove from the fire, and add a pint of fourth-proof brandy or good Monongahela whiskey. Bottle and cork close. It is fit for immediate use. On no account use inferior brandy,
Extract of Blackberries.
Fill a quart bottle half full of ripe berries, add 1 teaspoonful of whole allspice and a few cloves. Fill the bottle with best whiskey. At the end of a month it will be fit for use. In using mix with a little sugar and water.
To 1 gallon of blackberry juice add 4 pounds of white sugar; boil and skim off, then add 1 ounce of cloves, 1 ounce of cinnamon, 10 grated nutmeg and boil down till quite rich; then let it cool and settle, afterward drain off, and add 1 pint of good brandy or whiskey.
Take 2 pounds of the smaller blackberry roots and 2 gallons of water, and boil them down to 3 quarts, add 5 pounds of crushed sugar and 1 pint of best brandy. To 60 gallons thus prepared add 8 pounds of allspice and 2 pounds each of cloves and cassia. The smaller roots are much better than the larger ones, on account of their possessing superior astringent qualities.
To 2 quarts of blackberry juice add 1/2 an ounce each of powdered nutmeg, cinnamon and allspice, and 1/4 of an ounce of powdered cloves. Boil these together; and, while hot, add a pint of pure French brandy, and sweeten with loaf sugar.
The following is given by the Tribune as an excellent recipe: To 2 quarts of blackberry juice put 1 1/4 pounds of white sugar, 1/2 an ounce of cinnamon, 1/2 an ounce of nutmeg, 1/2 an ounce of cloves, 1 ounce of allspice; let it boil a few minutes, and when cool add 1 pint of brandy.
Superior Receipt for Ice Cream.
One gallon of cream, 2 pounds of rolled loaf sugar, 1 teaspoonful of oil of lemon. If for vanilla cream, 2 eggs beaten and 1 1/2 tablespoonfuls of tincture of vanilla should be used; mix well and freeze in the usual way. The vanilla or lemon should be well mixed with the sugar, before et is added to the cream; by this means the cream will all be flavored alike
Freezing Ice Cream.
Take a bucket of ice and pound it fine; mix with it salt (2 quarts), place your cream in a Freezer, cover it close, and put it in the bucket draw the ice round it so as to touch every part in few minutes, put in a spoon and stir it from the edge to the centre. When the creamis put in a mould, close it and move it in the ice, instead of using a spoon.
Lemon Ice Cream.
Boil 2 fresh lemons in as much powdered loaf sugar as will be sufficient to sweeten 1 quart of rich cream; if the juice is wished, you can put some in with more sugar, freeze it. A good plan is to rub the lemon on a large lump of sugar, and then use the sugar in sweetening the cream.
Ice Cream with Fruit.
Mix the juice of the fruit with the sugar before you add the cream, which need not be very rich.
Split the feet, and soak them in cold water four or five hours; wash them and boil in 6 quarts of water; when it is reduced one-half strain it through a colander, and skim off all the fat that is on the top; set it away to cool, and when the jelly is very stiff, wipe it with a towel, to take off any grease that should remain; cut it in pieces, and pare off all The dark parts, put it in your preservingkettle, with 3 gills of wine, the juice and peel of 2 lemons, sugar and mace to your taste, and the shells and whites of 6 eggs; after it has boiled twenty minutes, pour in some cold water to make it settle, if any scum arises, take it off; let it boil five minutes longer, and take it off the fire; keep it covered for about an hour; when done, strain it through a beg that has been dipped in hot water, and put it in your glasses.
Take the juice of red currants, 1 pound; sugar, 6 ounces. Boil down.
Take the juice of red currants, add white sugar’ equal quantities. Stir it gently and smoothly for three hours, put it into glasses, and in three days it will concrete into a firm jelly.
Black Currant Jelly.
Put to 10 quarts of ripe dry black currants 1 quart of water; put them in a large stewpan, the paper close over them, and set them for two hours in a cool oven. Squeeze them through a fine cloth, and add to every quart of juice 1 1/2 pounds of loaf sugar broken into small pieces. Stir it till the sugar is melted; when it boils, skim it quite clean. Boil it pretty quickly over a clear fire, till it jellies, which is known by dipping a skimmer into the jelly, and holding it in the air; when it hangs to the spoon in a drop it is done. If the jelly is boiled too long, it will lose its flavor and shrink very much. Pour it into pots, cover them with brandy papers, and keep them in a dry place. Red and white jellies are made in the same way.
Take of apple juice strained, 4 pounds; sugar, 1 pound. Boil to a jelly.
Take of the juice of strawberries 4 pounds; sugar, 2 pounds. Boil down.
Dissolve sugar in about half its weight of water, and boil, it will be nearly solid when cold; to this syrup add an equal weight of gooseberry juice, and give it a boil, but not long; for otherwise it will not fix.
Rub 1 quart of raspberries through a hair sieve’, and take out the seeds, andmix it well with cream; sweeten it with sugar to your taste, then put it into a stone jug, and raise a froth with a chocolate mill. As The froth arises, take it off with a spoon, and lay it upon a hair sieve. When there is as much froth as wanted, put what cream remains in a deep China dish, and pour the frothed cream upon it, as high as it will lie on.
Pour 1 quart of vinegar on 1 quart of raspberries, the next day strain it upon another quart of the fruit, and repeat this every day for six days. Then add 1 pound of white sugar to every pint of the vinegar, and put it into a jar, which must be placed in a pot of boiling water to be scalded through.
To 1 quart of currant juice put 2 quarts of water and I pound of sugar. After mixing, let these stand twentyfour hoers; then skim and put into a jug or barrel unstopped, and leave it to ferment in a cool place for a week or so. Then cork tightly, and bottle off when clear.
Mash a quantity of fine, ripe, dry raspberries, strew on them their own weight of loaf sugar, and half their weight of white currant juice. Boil them half an hour over a clear slow fire,, skim them well, and put them into pots or glasses; tie them down with brandy papers, and keep them dry. Strew on the sugar as quick as possible after the berries are gathered, and in order to preserve their flavor they must not stand long before boiling them.
Bruise very fine some scarlet strawberries gathered when quite ripe, and put to them a little juice of red currants. Beat and sift their weight in sugar, strew it over them, and put them into a preserving-pan. Set them over a clear slow fire, skim them, then boil them twenty minutes, and put them into glasses.
Mash 1 quart of raspberries, strain one-half’ and put the juice to the other half; boil them a quarter of an hour, put to them a pint of red currant juice, and let them boil all together, till the raspberries are done enough. Then put 1 1/2 pounds of double-refined sugar into a clean pan, with as much water as will dissolve it, boil it to a sugar again; then put in the raspberries and juice, scald and pour them into glasses. Put them into a stove to dry, and turn them when necessary.
Peel a pineapple of about 1 pound weight, cut it into slices about a quarter of an inch thick, and put these into a basin. Clarify 1 pound of loaf sugar with 1 pint of springwater, the juice of 2 lemons, and half the white of an egg whipped with a little water. when thoroughly skimmed strain the syrup on to the pineapple, allow it to boil for three minutes, then cover it down with a sheet of paper twisted round the basin, and allow the infusion to stand for several hours in order to extract the flavor. When about to mix the jelly, strain the syrup through a napkin into a basin, and put the pieces of pineapple to drain upon a sieve; add 2 ounces of clarified isinglass to the pineapple syrup, and then pour the jelly into a mould previously embedded in rough ice.
Currant and Raspberry Jelly.
Pick the stalks from 1 quart of red currants and I quart of raspberries; then put these into a large basin with 1/2 a pound of pounded sugar and a gill of springwater, bruise them thoroughly by squeezing them with the back part of the bowl of a wooden spoon against the sides of the basin; then throw the whole into a beaver jelly-bag and filter the juice, pouring it back into the bag until it runs through perfectly bright; next add 1/2 a pint of clarified syrup and 2 ounces of clarified isinglass to the juice, and pour the jelly into a mould placed in rough ice to receive it.
Put the prepared stock from 4 calves-feet into a stewpan to melt on the stove fire: then withdraw it, and add thereto the following ingredients: Two pounds of loafsugar, the juice of 6 lemons and 4 oranges, the rind of 1 Seville orange and of 4 lemons, 1/2 a nutmeg, 12 cloves and 2 sticks of cinnamon, a small cup of strong green tea, a pint of rum, and 1/2 a pint of brandy. Stir these well together, then add 6 whites and 2 whole eggs whipped up with a little Sherry and spring-water, and continue whisking the punch on a brisk stove fire until it begins to simmer; then set it down by the side of the fire and cover the stewpan with its lid containing some live embers of charcoal; about ten minutes after pour the jelly into a flannel or beaver filtering-bag; keep pouring the jelly back into the bag until it becomes quite clear and bright, and when the whole has been run through set it in a mould in ice in the usual way.
Roast 8 ounces of Mocha coffee-berries in a small preserving-pan over a stove fire, stirring it the whole time with a wooden spoon until it assumes a light brown color; then blow away the small burnt particles and throw the roasted coffee into a stewpan, and set it aside to allow the infusion to draw out the flavor of the coffee. Next strain this through a napkin into a stewpan containing 8 yolks of eggs and 12 ounces of sugar; add a very small pinch of salt, stir the cream over the stove fire until it begins to thicken; then quicken the motions of the spoon, and when the yolks of eggs are sufficiently set strain the cream through a tammy or sieve into a large basin. Mix 1/2 a pint of whipped cream and 1 1/2 ounces of clarified isinglass in with this; pour the whole into a mould ready set in rough ice for the purpose and when the cream has become firm dip the mould in warm water and turn the cream out on its dish.
Boil the fruit in a sufficient quantity of water to cover it. strain the pulp through a very coarse sieve; to each pound add 4 ounces of sugar. Boil it till it begins to candy on the sides, then pour it into the moulds. Other kinds of plums may be treated in the same way, as also cherries, and several kinds of fruit.
An Omelette Souffle.
Put 2 ounces of the powder of chestnuts into a skillet, then add 2 yolks of new-laid eggs, and dilute the whole with a little cream, or even a little water; when this is done and the ingredients well mixed, leaving no lumps, add a bit of the best fresh butter about the size of an egg and an equal quantity of powdered sugar; then put the skillet on the fire, and keep stirring the contents; when the cream is fixed and thick enough to adhere to the spoon, let it bubble up once or twice, and take it from the fire then add 1/3 of the white of an egg to those you have already set aside, and whip them to the consistency of snow; then amalgamate the whipped whites of eggs and the cream, stirring them with a light and equal hand; pour the contents into a deep dish, sift over with doublerefined sugar, and place the dish on a stove, with a fire over it as well as under, and in a quarter of an hour the cream will rise like an omelette or souffle; as soon as it rises about four inches it is fit to serve up.
Blanch and pound 3/4 of a pound of sweet and 1/4 of a pound of bitter almonds; pound them in a mortar and wet them sufficiently with orange flower water, that they may not boil. When they are pounded fine add 3/4 of a pound of finely powdered sugar to them and mix the whole in a stiff paste, which put into pods for use. It will keep six months; when wanted to be used take a piece about the size of an egg and mix it with 1/2 a pint of water and squeeze it through a napkin.
Pate de Guimauve
Take of decoction of marshmallow roots 4 ounces; water 1 gallon. Boil down to 4 pints and strain; then add gum arabic 1/2 a pound, refined sugar 2 pounds. Evaporate to an extract; then take from the fire, stir it quickly with the whites of 12 eggs previously beaten to a froth; then add, while stirring, 1/2 ounce of orange-flower water. Another. - Take of very white gum arabic and white sugar, each 2 1/4 pounds, with a sufficient quantity of boiling water. Dissolve, strain and evaporate without boiling to the consistency of honey; beat up the white of 6 eggs with 4 drachms of orange-flower water, which mix gradually with the paste, and evaporate over a slow fire, stirring it continually till it will not stick to the fingers, it should be very light, spongy and extremely white.
Pate de Jujubes.
Take of raisins, stoned, 1 pound, currants, picked jujubes, opened, each 4 ounces; water, a sufficient quantity. Boil, strain with expression, add sugar 2 1/2 pounds, gum arabic 2 1/2 pounds, previously made into a mucilage with some water and strain; evaporate gently, pour into moulds, finish by drying in a stove, and then divide it.
This branch of domestic economy comprises a great variety of articles, which are essentially necessary to the convenience of families. It is at the same time too prevalent a practice to make use of brass utensils to give pickle a fine color. This pernicious custom is easily avoided by heating the liquor and keeping it in a proper degree of warmth before it is poured upon the pickle. Stone jars are the best adapted for sound keeping. Pickles should never be handled with the fingers, but by spoon kept for the purpose.
To Pickle Onions.
Put a sufficient quantity into salt and water for nine days, observing to change the water every day; next put them into jars and pour fresh boiling salt and water over them; cover them close up till they are gold; then make a second decoction of salt and water, and pour it on boiling. When it is cold drain the onions on a hair sieve and put them into wide-mouthed bottles, fill them up with distilled vinegar. put into every bottle a slice or two of ginger, a blade of mace and a teaspoonful of sweet oil, which will keep the onions white. Cork them up in a dry place.
To make Sour Krout.
Take a large, strong, wooden vessel or cask resembling a salt-beef cask, and capable of containing as much as is sufficient for the winter’s consumption of a family. Gradually break down or chop the cabbages (deprived of outside green leaves) into very small pieces; begin with one or two cabbages at the bottom of the cask, and add others At intervals, pressing them by means of a wooden spade against the side of the cask until it is full. Then place a heavy weight upon the top of it, and allow it to stand near to a warm place for four or five days. By this time it will have undergone fermentation, and be ready for use. Whilst the cabbages are passing through the process of fermentation, a very disagreeable, fetid, acid smell is exhaled from them; now remove the cask to a cool situation and keep it always covered up. Strew aniseeds among the layers of the cabbages during its preparation, which communicates a peculiar flavor to the saur kraut at an after period.
In boiling it for the table, two hours is the period for it to be on the fire. It forms an excellent nutritious and antiscorbutic food for winter use.
Piccalilli - Indian method.
This consists of all kinds of pickles mixed and put into one large jar - sliced cucumbers, buttor onions, cauliflowers, broken in pieces. Salt them, or put them in a large hair sieve in the sun to dry for three days, then scald them in vinegar a few minutes; when cold put them together. Cut large white cabbage in quarters, with the outside leaves taken off and cut fine; salt it, and put it in the sun to dry three or four days, then scald it in vinegar, the same as cauliflower, carrots, three parts, boiled in vinegar and a little bay salt. French beans, reddish pods, and nasturtiums all go through the same process as capsicums, etc. To 1 gallon of vinegar put 4 ounces of ginger bruised, 2 ounces of whole white pepper, 2 ounces of allspice, 1/2 ounce chillies bruised, 4 ounces of turmeric, 1 pound of the best mustard, 1/2 pound of shallots, I ounce of garlic and 1/2 pound of bay salt. the vinegar, spice, and other ingredients, except the mustard, must boil half an hour, then strain it into a pan, put the mustard into a large basin, with a little vinegar, mix it quite fine and free from lumps, then add more. When well mixed put it into the vinegar just strained off, and when quite cold put the pickles into a large pan, and the liquor over them; stir them repeatedly, so as to mix them all. Finally, put them into a jar, and tie them over first with a bladder and afterwards with leather. The capsicums want no preparation.
To Pickle Samphire.
Put the quantity wanted into a clean pan, throw over it two or three handsful of salt and cover it with springwater twenty-four hours; next put it into a clean saucepan, throw in a handful of salt and cover it with good vinegar. Close the pan tight, set it over a slow fire, and let it stand till the samphire is green and crisp, then take it off instantly, for should it remain till it is soft it will be totally spoiled. Put it into the pickling-pot and cover it close; when it is quite cold tie it down with a bladder and leather, and set it by for use. Samphire may be preserved all the year by keeping it in a very strong brine of salt and water; and just before using it put it for a few minutes into some of the best vinegar.
Put the smallest that can be got into spring-water and rub them with a piece of new flannel dipped in salt. Throw them into cold water as they are cleaned, which will make them keep their color; next put them into a saucepan with a handful of salt upon them. Cover them close, and set them over the fire four or five minutes, or till the heat draws the liquor from them; next lay them betwixt two dry cloths till they are cold; put them into glass bottles, and fill them up with list tilled vinegar, with a blade of mace and a teaspoonful of sweet oil into every bottle; cork them up close and set them in a dry cool place. As a substitute for distilled vinegar, use white wine vinegar, or ale. Alegar will do, but it must be boiled with a little mace, salt, and a few slices of ginger, and it must be quite cold before et is poured upon the mushrooms.
Bruise a quantity of well-grown flaps of mushrooms with the hands, and then strew a fair proportion of salt over them; let them stand all night, and the next day put them into stewpans; set them in a quick oven for twelve hours, and strain them through a hair sieve. To every gallon of liquor put of cloves, black pepper, and ginger 1 ounce each, 1/2 pound of common salt; set it on a slow fire, and let it boil till half the liquor is wasted, then put it into a clean pot, and when cold bottle it for use.
Let them be as free from spots as possible. Take the smallest that can be got, put them into strong salt and water for nine days, till they become yellow; stir them at least twice a day; should they become perfectly yellow, pour the water off and cover them with plenty of vineleaves. Set the water over the fire, and when it boils, pour it over them, and set them upon the hearth to keep warm. When the water is almost cold make it boil again, and pour it upon them; proceed thus till they are of a fine green, which they will be in four or five times; keep them well covered with vine-leaves, with a cloth and dish over the top to keep in the steam, which will help to green them.
When they are greened put them in a hair sieve to drain, and then to every 2 quarts of white-wine vinegar put 1/2 an ounce of mace, 10 or 12 cloves, 1 ounce of ginger cut into slices, l ounce of black pepper, and a handful of salt. Boil them all together for five minutes; pour it hot on the pickles, and tie them down for use. They may also be pickled with ale, ale vinegar, or distilled vinegar and adding 3 or 4 cloves of garlic and shallots.
Pare green walnuts very thin till the white appears, then throw them into spring-water with a handful of salt; keep them under water six hours then put them into a stewpan to simmer five minutes, but do not let them boil; take them out and put them in xold water and salt; they must be kept quite under the water with a board otherwise they will not pickle white; then lay them on a cloth and cover them with another to dry; carefully rub them 6.4. PICKLING. 387 with a soft cloth, and put them into the jar, with some blades of mace and nutmeg sliced thin. Mix the spice between the nuts and pour distilled vinegar over them, when the jar is full of nuts pour mutton fat over them, and tie them close down with a bladder and leather, to keep out the air
To a peck of sprats put 2 pounds of salt, 3 ounces of bay salt, l pound of saltpetre, 2 ounces of prunella, and a few grains of cochineal; pound all in a mortar; put into a stone pan first a layer of sprats and then one of the compound, and so on alternately to the top. Press them down hard; cover them close for six months, and they will be fit for use, and will really produce a most excellent-flavoured sauce.
Boil the fish gently till done, and then take it up, strain the liquor, add bay leaves, pepper corns, and salt; give these a boil, and when cold add the best vinegar to them, then put the whole sufficiently over the fish to cover it, and let it remain a month at least.
To Preserve Fish with Sugar.
Fish may be preserved in a dry state, and perfectly fresh, by means of sugar alone, and even with a very small quantity of it. Fresh fish may be kept in that state for some days, so as to be as good when boiled as if just caught. If dried, and kept free from mouldiness, there seems no limit to their preservation; and they are much better in this way than when salted. The sugar gives no disagreeable taste.
This process is particularly valuable in making what is called kippered salmon; and the fish preserved in this manner are far superior in quality and flavor to those which are salted or smoked. If desired, so much salt may be used as to give the taste that may be required, but this substance does not conduce to their preservation. In the preservation it is barely necessary to open the fish, and to apply the sugar to the muscular parts, placing it in a horizontal position for two or three days, that this substance may penetrate. After this it may be dried; and it is only further necessary to wipe and ventilate occassionally, to prevent mouldiness.
A tablespoonful of brown sugar is sufficient in this manner for a salmon of five or six pounds weight; and if salt is desired, a teaspoonful or more may be added. Saltpetre may be used instead, in the same proportion, if it is desired to make the kipper hard.
To Salt Hams.
For three hams pound and mix together 1/2 peck of salt, 1/2 ounce of salt prunella, l 1/2 ounces of saltpetre, and 4 pounds of coarse salt; rub the hams well with this, and lay what is to spare over them, let them lie three days, then hang them up. Take the pickle in which the hams were, put water enough to cover the hams with more common salt, till it will bear an egg, then boil and skim it well, put it in the salting tub, and the next morning put it to the hams; keep them down the same as pickled pork, in a fortnight take them out of the liquor, rub them well with brine, and hang them up to dry.
To Dry-salt Beef and Pork.
Lay the meat on a table or in a tub with a double bottom, that the brine may drain off as fast as it forms, rub the salt well in and be careful to apply it in every niche, afterwards put it into either of the above utensils, when it must be frequently turned; after the brine has ceased running, it must be quite buried in salt, and kept closely packed. Meat which has had the bones taken out is the best for salting. In some places the salted meat is pressed by heavy weights or a screw, to extract the moisture sooner.
To Pickle in Brine.
A good brine is made of bay salt and water, thoroughly saturated, so that some of the salt remains undissolved; into this brine the substances to be preserved are plunged, and kept covered with it. Among vegetables, French beans, artichokes, olives, and the different sorts of samphire may be thus preserved, and among animals, herrings.
To Salt by another method.
Mix brown sugar, bay salt, common salt, each 2 pounds; saltpetre, 8 ounces; water, 2 gallons; this pickle gives meat a fine red color, while the sugar renders them mild and of excellent flavor. Large quantities are to be managed. by the above proportions.
To Preserve Fruits.
Some rules are necessary to be observed in this branch of confectionery. In the first place, observe in making syrups that the sugar is well pounded and dissolved, before it is placed on the fire, otherwise their scum will not rise well, nor the fruit obtain its fine color. When stone fruit is preserved, cover them with mutton suet rendered, to exclude the air, which is sure to ruin them. All wet sweetmeats must be kept dry and cool to preserve them from mouldiness and damp. Dip a piece of writing paper in brandy, lay it close to the sweetmeats, cover them tight with paper, and they will keep well for any length of time; but will inevitably spoil without these precautions.
The fruit, if succulent, is first soaked for some hours in very hard water, or in a weak alum water, to harden it, and then to be drained from the fruit, either prepared or not; pour syrup, boiled to a candy height; and half cold; after some hours the syrup, weakened by the sauce of the fruit, is to be poured off, re-boiled, and poured on again, and this repeat several times. When the syrup is judged to he no longer weakened, the fruit is to be taken out of it, and well drained.
To Bottle Damsons.
Put damsons, before they are too ripe, into widemouthed bottles, and cork them down tight, then put them into a moderately heated oven, and about three hours more will do them; observe that the oven is not too hot, otherwise it will make the fruit fly. All kinds of fruit that are bottled may be done in the same way and they will keep two years; after they are done, they must be put away with the mouth downward, in a cool place, to keep them from fermenting.
To Preserve Barberries.
Set an equal quantity of barberries and sugar in a kettle of boiling water, till the sugar is melted, and the barberries quite soft; let them remain all night. Put them next day into a preserving-pan, and boil them fifteen minutes, then put them into jars, tie them close, and set them by for use.
To Preserve Grapes.
Take close hunches, whether white or red, not too ripe, and lay them in a jar. Put to them 1/4 pound of sugar candy, and fill the jar with common brandy. Tie them up close with a bladder and set them in a dry place.
To Dry Cherries.
Having stoned the desired number of morello cherries, put 1 1/4 pounds of fine sugar to every pound; beat and sift it over the cherries, and let them stand all night. Take them out of their sugar, and to every pound of sugar, put two spoonfuls of water. Boil and skim it well, and then put in the cherries, boil the sugar over them, and next morning strain them, and to every pound of syrup put 1/2 pound more sugar; boil it till it is a little thicker, then put in the cherries and let them boil gently. The next day strain them, put them in a stove, and turn them every day till they are dry.
To Clarify Honey.
The best kind is clarified by merely melting it in a water bath, and taking off the scum; the middling kind by dissolving it in water, adding the white of an egg to each pint of the solution, and boiling it down to its original consistence, skimming it from time to time. The inferior kind requires solution in water, boiling the solution with 1 pound of charcoal to 25 pounds of honey, adding when an excess of acid is apprehended, a small quantity of chalk or oystershell powder; next by straining it several times through flannel, and reducing the solution to its original consistence by evaporation.
To Preserve Candied Orange-flowers.
Free them from their cups, stamina and pistils, put 4 ounces into 1 pound of sugar, boil to a candy height, and pour on a slab, so as to form them into cakes. Fruits in Brandy or other Spirits.
Gather plums, apricots, cherries, peaches, and other juicy fruits, before they are perfectly ripe, and soak them for some hours in hard water to make them firm; as the moisture of the fruit weakens the spirit, it ought to be strong, therefore add 5 ounces of sugar to each quart of spirit.
Seville Oranges whole.
Cut a hole at the stem end of the oranges, the size of a five or ten cent piece, take out all the pulp, put the oranges in cold water for two days, changing it twice a day; boil them rather more than an hour, but do not cover them, as it will spoil the color; have ready a good syrup, into which put the oranges, and boil them till they look clear; then take out the seeds, skins, etc. from the pulp first taken out of the oranges, and add to it one of the whole oranges, previously boiled, with an equal weight of sugar to it and the pulp; boil this together till it looks clear, over a slow fire, and when cold fill the oranges witb this marmalade, and put on the tops; cover them with syrup, and put brandy paper on the top of the jar. It is better to take out the inside at first, to preserve the fine flavor of the juice and pulp, which would be injured by boiling in the water.
Take an equal weight of fruit And double-refined sugar, lay the former in a large dish, and sprinkle half the sugar in fine powder; give a gentle shake to the dish, that the sugar may touch the under side of the fruit. Next day make a thin syrup with the remainder of the sugar, and allow 1 pint of red currant-juice to every 3 pounds of strawberries; in this simmer them until sufficiently jellied. Choose the largest scarlets, and not dead ripe.
Infuse young apricots before their stones become hard into a pan of cold spring-water, with a plenty of vine leaves, set them over a slow fire until they are quite yellow, then take them out and rub them with a flannel and salt to take off the lint: put them into a pan to the same water and leaves, cover them close at a distance from the fire, until they are a fine light green, then pick out all the bad ones. Boil the best gently two or three times in a thin syrup, and let them be quite cold each time before you boil them. When they look plump and clear make a syrup of double refined sugar, but not too thick; give your apricots a gentle boil in it, and then put them into the pots or glasses. Dip It paper In brandy and lay it over them; tie them close, and keep them in a dry place. To keep Fruit fresh without Sugar.
Air-tight cans are now made by which, with proper care, peaches, plums, cherries, tomatoes, or other fruit or vegetables may be kept for almost any length of time with all the qualities of the fresh article. All that is required is to heat the can containing the fruit sufficiently to drive out the air, and then seal it tightly. The following plan has also succeeded perfectly:
Cut the fresh peaches (always choosing the best varieties) in half, after paring them, and take the stones out. Put them in the can, which will generally hold a pint, and which should be entirely filled; and then solder the lid closely. Place the can in a kettle containing cold water enough to cover it, and bring the water to a boil. If there be any part of the can not air-tight, it will be shown by bubbles escaping from it; and the can must then be taken out, and the leak carefully soldered over.
Further reading[edit | edit source]
- B. Howard Rand; James C. Booth; C. W. Cresson (1918). The Household Cyclopedia.