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Review of Seminars[edit | edit source]

Source:Reece Arnett, "The RepRap Project—Open Source meets 3D printing", Dunedin, New Zealand, 2008. (Unpublished)

This presentation discusses the reasons why 3d printing can be used for, such as printing toys, prototypes, fix broken parts of technology, and build original devices that could be used for various things. Self replication is very important as it allows cost to go down to make these printers, to fix present machines and create new types of printers. It highlights why open source is important and how building a Reprap can be made easier. He continues to discuss the past, present and future of Reprap. He discusses how making Repraps has become easier with electronics being made by makerbot and other kits that have been put together. The future is to expose the masses to this technology. They have already started creating scaffolding to print things that is more then 45 angles.
talk: reprap talk
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Extruder Design[edit | edit source]

I. Gubson, D.W. Rosen, B. Sucker,"Extrusion Based Systems", Additive Manufacturing Technologies, Springer US, pp 143-169, 2010.

  • looks at prototyping technology that uses extrusion (layers of material) to form objects
  • how the extruder works
  • creating supports for overhangs that are not generally possible
  • Stratasys FDM machine
  • Bioextrusion makes porous scaffolds to host animal cells, or creat something to help head trauma (look into this) – Osteopore
  • hydro gels as scaffolding
  • melt extrusion for scaffolding (3D bioplotter system)

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Balint Domolki et al, "Information Society Technology Perspectives", Panorama, National Council for Communication and Information Technology, 2007.

  • pg 25: a field called atomic precise manufacturing may help reprap to work with other materials other then plastic (allowing full self replications)

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Materials Information[edit | edit source]

Vik Olliver, "Construction of Rapid Prototyping Testbeds using Meccano",Diamond Ace Solutions LTD., Laingholm, Waitakers, New Zealand, 2005.

The report covers an investigation into using recycled high density polyethylene for a rapid prototyping machine. The paper examines the right deposition, temperature and speed that the plastic should be put down on a surface. The main device that was used for extrusion is a modified glue gun. No HDPE extruder.*
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Ian Gibson, David W. Rosen, Brent Stucker, "The Use of Multiple Materials in Additive Manufacturing", Additive Manufacturing Technologies, Springer US, pp. 423-436, 2009. (text missing page 421-423)

  • "Almost since the very beginning, experimenters have tried to use more than one material in Additive Manufacturing machines. In fact, multiple materials are a fundamental benefit to how some AM technologies work. The Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM) process, for example, was one of the earliest AM technologies developed and required that sheet material (paper) be combined with a resin to bond the sheets together to form a composite object of paper and resin." (Gibson, Rosen, Stucker, 2009)
  • porous multiple material process (multiple heads/materials/colours)
  • looks at select inhibition sintering (another form of rapid prototyping using a powder)
  • powder mixtures to create materials

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Colby Leider, Douglas Mann, Daniel Plazas, Personalized Tools to Enhance Musical Creativity: Toward Customized Hardware for Audio Manipulation, Frost School of Music, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, United States of America.

  • "Our first controller designed under this strategy, the elBo, is based on a joystick-like shape that is customized to the user's unique hand shape. It has been used as a controller for live sound diffusion in sound-reinforcement settings, for example in performances of electronic music in which a two-channel composition of pre-recorded music must be upmixed in real time into a large array of loudspeakers (typically eight, sixteen, or more) spaced around a concert hall." (Leider, Mann, Plazas)
  • the elBo was prototyped on a 3d printer

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Håkan Edeholt, Michael Johansson, Simon Niedenthal, Designer or Artisan-Design versus Craftsmanship in Digital Design",Arts and Communtication, Malmoe University, Sweden.*

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Branka Lozo, Maja Stanić, Sonja Jamnicki, and Sanja Mahović Poljaček, "Three-Dimentional Ink Jet Prints- Impact of Infiltrants", Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, Volume 52, Issue 5, pp. 051004-(8), September/October, 2008.

  • "Three-dimensional prints are usually finished by an infiltrant agent prior to the final use. Epoxy resin, cyanoacrylate, and a polyurethane-based agent are regularly used. The impact of infiltrant type on the selected mechanical properties and surface appearance of 3D ink jet prints was the focus of the study. The type of infiltrant agent used greatly contributes to the discussed final properties of the prints. As a case study, the application of 3D printing in conventional printing technology was studied. The 3D prints can be used as a negative matrix for conventional photopolymer flexographic printing plate production. It is important that the applied infiltrant does not influence the 3D print dimensions, as well as provide the optimum combination of mechanical and surface properties. " (Lozo et al,2009)
  • looked at material properties of inkjet 3d printing
  • looking at using 3d printing to make a flexography printing plate

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Product Possibilities[edit | edit source]

Source: B. Lenman, M. Vermeulen, T Clasessens, P. Van Ransbeeck, "Towards Cost-efficient RPM Technology for Patient Specific PIV Models", University College Ghent, Belgium, 2009.

The article discusses the uses of the Reprap from a bio mechanical view point, and how the Reprap can be used as a learning tool, for diagnostic purposes, and surgery planning. Models are done from scans of a cystic fibrosis patients lower lung and then modeled by Reprap.*
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Ed Sells and Adrian Bowyer, "Directly Incorporating Electronics into Conventional Rapid Prototypes",Centre for Biomimetic and Natural Technology, University of Bath, Bath, England.

This paper discusses the possibilities of printing circuit boards by combining rapid prototyping and direct writing technology. The idea is to print a board made of abs plastic and to use Wood's metal as conductors for the circuit. The metal was heated and squeezed into place by a syringe. A syringe holder was printed by the reprap to keep the metal from cooling. After this was perfected, a way of inputting a chip into the system was design as well as a battery holder.*

Jacob Bayless, Mo Chen, and Bing Dai, Wire Embedding 3D Printer, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, 2010.

The bulk of the paper concerns the project which the authors undertook to make an extruder that allow reprap to print copper into plastic. The paper goes on to discuss the current developments of printing metal. The paper also discusses the improvements they made to Mendel.*

Till Bovermann, Risto Koiva, Thomas Herman, Helge Ritter, "TUImod-Modular Objects for Tangible User Interfaces", pervasive, 2008.

  • "In this paper we describe the design and construction of TUImod, a modular system of physical objects with different features. TUImod supports fast prototyping of tangible user interfaces by providing a broad range of elements that can easily be assembled into a variety of objects exhibiting different features. The strength of this system lies in its modular structure, allowing a huge number of object designs." (Bovermann et al)
  • there is one block that acts as a computer inface, others to change height, to allow interlock between the blocks or to add colour identification. One can also have a magnetic block and tracking on their specially designed desk. These all can be stacked on one another
  • rapid prototyping machine was used to create some of the blocks

search: [3] Micheal Edwards, "Pleech: A Process for Creating and Disseminating a Low-Voltage Wind-Powered Generator", Parsons the New School for Design, MFADR, 2008.

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Evan Malone, Hod Lipson, "Multi-Material Freeform Fabrication of Active Systems", ESDA2008-59313, Haifa, Israel, Jul 7-9, 2008. (used)

  • demonstrate that, "...(1)Solid Freeform Fabrication systems can employ many materials and multiple processes during the course of building a single object, (2) that such systems can produce complete, active, electromechanical devices, rather than only mechanical parts, and (3) that such multi-material SFF systems can be made accessible to, and are of interest to the general public." (Malone, Lipson, 2008)
  • this technology would cause more inventiveness (to make new technology)
  • describes how fab@home works
  • created Zn-air Batteries with a solid freeform fabricator
  • created electromagnets, circuit board
  • investigated making Inonomeric Polymer-Metl Composite Actuator or other rotary electromagnetic motor
  • created free form transistors
  • investigated making electromechanical relays*

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Juan Gonzalez-Gomez, Javier Gonzalez-Quijano, Houxiang Zhang, Mohamed Abderrahim, "Toward the sense of touch in snake modular robots for search and rescue operations"(used)

  • about the use of snakes modular robots to be used in Urban Search and Rescue
  • finds uses for the robot, such as removing gravel from in front of a trapped victim
  • suggests repraps can build parts for this machine to so it cheap

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Matthew S. Moses�, Hiroshi Yamaguchi, Gregory S. Chirikjian, "Towards Cyclic Fabrication Systems for Modular Robotics and Rapid Manufacturing", Whiting School of Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

  • "A cyclic fabrication system (CFS) is a network of materials, tools, and manufacturing processes that can produce all or most of its constituent components. This paper proposes an architecture for a robotic CFS based on modular components. The proposed system is intended to self-replicate via producing necessary components for replica devices. Some design challenges unique to self-replicating machines are discussed." (Moses, Yamagushi, Chirikjian)
  • created a three dimensional manipulator that is low in metal components (like reprap but no extruder head)

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Lawrence Sass, "Materializing Palladio's Ideal Village: Computational Reconstruction through Physical Representation of Digital Information", Digital Design and Fabrication Group, Department of Architecture and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America.

  • use 3d printing to render 3d models of architectural drawing
  • the CAD drawings for this specific project are posted online and can be used by schools and organizations to print their own 3d model (though perhaps a little to detailed for the reprap/Rapman, as well there would be overhangs)
  • used FDM to print and zcorp (printed in plaster)

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Ricardo F. M. Garcia, Jonathan D. Hiller, Hod Lipson, "A Vacuum-Based Bonding Mechanism for Modular Robots", Modular Robots: State of the Art, IEEE 2010 International Conference on Robotics and Automation Workshop, pg. 63-68, May, 2010.

  • "We present our progress on the design and implementation of Vacuubes, a set of robotic modules that exploit vacuum as adhesive force to form and hold structures. We use a first prototype to perform basic experiments that demonstrate the vacuum sealing capabilities of the modules, as well as the proper actuation of a valve designed to propagate vacuum between two of these modules." (Garcia, Hiller, Lipson, 2010)
  • used 3d printer to make this

Kathryn Port D'Epagnier, "A Computational Tool for the Rapid Design and Prototyping of Propellers for Underwater Vehicles", Masters of Science paper, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2007.

  • "An open source, MATLAB™-based propeller design code MPVL was improved to include rapid prototyping capabilities as well as other upgrades as part of this effort. The resulting code, OpenPVL is described in this thesis. In addition, results from the development code BasicPVL are presented. An intermediate code, BasicPVL, was created by the author while OpenPVL was under development, and it provides guidance for initial propeller designs and propeller efficiency analysis. OpenPVL is part of the open source software suite of propeller design codes, OpenProp. OpenPVL is in the form of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) which features both a parametric design technique and a single propeller geometry generator. This code combines a user-friendly interface with a highly modifiable platform for advanced users. This tool offers graphical propeller design feedback while recording propeller input, output, geometry, and performance. OpenPVL features the ability to translate the propeller design geometry into a file readable by a Computer Aided Design (CAD) program and converted into a 3D-printable file." (D'Epagnier, 2007)
  • "The focus of this study is based on the need of propeller users to have an open source computer-based engineering tool for the rapid design of propellers suited to a wide range of underwater vehicles." (D'Epagnier, 2007)
  • a program that allows information to be put in to design a propeller that can be transferred into CAD and then printed by a 3d printer
  • used FDM printer


Eric Schweikardt, "Designing Modular Robots", Thesis Proposal for PhD in Computational Design, School of Architecture, Carnegie Mellon University, 2008.

  • "This thesis is about heterogeneous modular reconfigurable robotics: a class of physical

systems made up of a number of simpler, computational components that include sensing and actuation. Although this is a new type of system and not in widespread use for any purpose, the current research interest and potential benefits of future effective systems suggest that it will be soon. I aim to make two contributions related to the design of these systems. In an attempt to inform robot designers, this thesis will analyze the properties and parameters of roBlocks, an instance of this class of systems. Design issues related to mechanics, data flow, power, etc. will be addressed, and I will use a notation based on the process calculi for describing and working with concurrent robotic processes." (Schweikardt, 2008)

  • the bodies of the blocks are made by a 3d printer

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Any Sun, "Field Fabrication of Solar-Thermal Power Stream Turbines for Generation of Mechanical Power", Master of Science in Media Arts and Sciences Thesis, School of Architecture and Planning, Massachusetts School of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, 2006.

  • designs a "...field producible, small-scale turbine that uses solar thermal energy to provide mechanical energy. I investigated solar thermal steam-driven turbine system and build and evaluate several versions in field fabrication lab locations around the world. I consider the efficacy of deployment in rural developing areas." (Sun, 2006)
  • use the 3d printer to print out parts for the turbine (used z-corp)

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Fabienne Abadie, Iannis Mahiros, Corina Pascu, "European Perspectives on the Information Society: Annual Monitoring Synthesis and Emerging Trend", JRC Scientific and Technical Reports, 2008.

  • mentions scanning for hearing aids and custom shoes *

search: [3]

Fab@home[edit | edit source]

A Tan, T Nixon, "Rapid Prototype Manufacturing System", The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.

The paper discusses a rapid prototyping machine that was made at the university based on fab@home Model 1. It discusses that as a rapid prototyper has finally become cheap enough for an average person to afford, people can now design and make their own objects. It discusses the possibility of printing circuit boards to build at home robots. The paper highlights the various other ways rapid prototyping has been developed and the various materials that can be used for this. It continues on to say how the fab@home model was created. The fab@home model uses a piston to extrude rather have plastic pushed at a constant rate, melted and extruded. They tested different materials to see which would be the best for extrusion. A new extrusion tool was designed that would allow small balls of plastic to be used as filament.*
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  • about: " successfully build and commission the Fab@Home desktop rapid prototyping machine, to test and evaluate new materials for implementation in the system and finally to identify and evaluate potential applications for the system." (Bona, Bullas, Impey, Krumpel, Pattinson, Scott-Dempster, 2008)
  • discussed limitations of fab@home, but probably have changed by now
  • attempted surface finishing in metal, but to expensive and time consuming (material is not very strong)
  • materials discussion on best materials for fab@home and possible fillers for the materials (rates them)
  • discuss printing wax molds that can be covered in ceramics and used as molds
  • ideas for production: ear inserts (for noise blockage), hand grips for bikes, shoes lasts (made from a scan of ones foot to fin you properly), replacement parts for household appliances, car parts, and personal designs *

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Robin Havener, John Boyea, Evan Malone, Daniel Bernards, John DeFranco, George Malliaras, Hod Lipson, "Freeform Fabrication of Organic Electrochemical Transistors" (used)

  • "Solution-processable organic semiconductors can be used to print transistors under ambient conditions which are

robust enough to function on flexible substrates, and are useful for inexpensive, disposable, and/or flexible applications. Specifically, organic electrochemical transistors (ECT) function at low voltages and with large feature sizes, making them good candidates for freeform fabricated devices. Here we report the first functional ECTs produced via freeform fabrication on glass substrates." (Havener et al)
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Daniel Periard, Evan Malone, Hod Lipson, "Printing Embedded Circuits". (used)

  • "Automated manufacturing technologies such as freeform fabrication can greatly reduce the cost and complexity of infrastructure required to manufacture unique devices or invent new technologies. Multi-material freeform fabrication processes under development have the potential to automatically build complete functional devices including electronics. Making this technology available to creative individuals will revolutionize art and invention, but requires extensive simplification and cost reduction of what is still a laboratory technology. The combination of a Fab@Home Model 1

personal fabrication system and commercially available materials allows the demonstration of simple and inexpensive freeform fabrication of functional embedded electrical circuits, and useful devices. Using this approach, we have been able to demonstrate an LED flashlight, functional printed circuit boards in 2-dimensions and 3-dimensions that are actually entirely printed, and a child's toy with embedded circuitry. These results, and the materials and methods involved in producing them will be presented in detail." (Periard, Malone, Lipson)
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Leslie Gordon, "Fab it Now", Machine Design, 2008.

  • contains materials used
  • wants to build another robot with this device, just not another fab@home

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Wayne M. Johnson, Cameron W. Coates, Patrick Hager, and Nyrell Stevens, "Employing Rapid Prototyping in a First Year Engineering Graphics Course", Armstrong Atlantic State University.

  • Discusses how teaching rapid prototyping in schools would be useful

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Adaleena Mookerjee, Daniel L. Cohen, David H. Peng, Lawrence J. Bonassar, Hod Lipson, "A Study of Variable Stiffness Alginate Printing for Medical Applications".

  • "Technologies for multi-material 3D-printing of anatomical shapes are useful both for fabrication of heterogeneous cell-seeded implants as well as for fabrication of synthetic models for surgical planning and training. For both these applications, it would be desirable to print directly with biological materials to best emulate the target's properties. Using a novel material platform, we describe a series of experiments attempting to print variable-stiffness hydrogels. We vary compliances by alternating 2% alginate hydrogel and a Dextran-infused calcium chloride post-crosslinker. Stiffness throughout the construct ranged from 4 kPa to 20 kPa as a function of post-crosslinker concentration, which was spatially specified by the user." (Mookerjee et al)

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Irene Posch, Hideaki Ogawa, Christopher Lindinger, Roland Haring, Horst Hortner, "Introducing the FabLab as Interactive Exhibition Space", Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children, 254-257, 2010.

  • "This paper introduces an approach to include a fab lab into an interactive exhibition space of a museum. Fab labs, as coined by Neil Gershenfeld, have established a great point of view for educational access to modern means of invention and technological empowerment. However realizations so far have been mainly focused on technical equipment and peer- to-peer project based training. Given the context of a museum, we focused on providing an open and easy for every visitor accessible design and fabrication space focusing on identified key elements like creative prototyping and shared creativity within the range of the realized integrative system. We describe our findings based on the work for the FabLab at the Ars Electronica Center (AEC) in Linz, Austria." (Posch et al, 2010)

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John Boyea, Evan Malone, Hod Lipson, "Electrochemical Transistors on Printed Substrates Patterned with Ink-Jet Printing". (used)

  • "By using solution processable materials (a conjugated polymer) and other printable materials (in an additive patterning method), an electrochemical transistor device is produced. Films are patterned on epoxy and polyvinyl phenol. Gating the device causes modulation in current." (Boyea, Malone, Lipson)
  • printing electromagnetic relay with a Fab@home and Hewlett-Packard 51604A thermal ink-jet printer head

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Ayeeshik Kole, Bao Nguyen, Jeffery R. Enders, Todd R. Graham, P. Anthony Weil, Kevin T. Seale,, John A. McLean, John P. Wikswo, "Monitoring of real-time protein concentrations in cellular yeast secretomes".

  • printing yeast for an experiment, don't have enough biology background to truly understand

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L. Hao, S. Mellor, O. Seaman, J. Henderson, N. Sewell, M. Sloan, "Material Characterization and Process Development for Chocolate Additive Layer Manufacturing" Virtual and Physical Prototyping, Volume 5, Issue 2, 57-64, June 2010.

  • How to print in chocolate

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Y. Ariadi, A.E.W Rennie, "Templates for Consumer Use in Designing Customized Products", Lancaster Product Development Unit, Engineering Department, Lancaster, United Kingdom, 2008.

  • "This research proposes a new design system for consumers who would use the product to run an easy-to-operate design and selection tool by themselves instead of conventional Computer Aided Design (CAD). In terms of manufacturing the product, several studies focus on involving the consumer as much and as early as possible. However, recent developments of Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM) technologies have led to a renewed interest in allowing the consumers to develop customized products. As a result, manufacturing is being brought closer to consumers. This paper would simplify the CAD

stages by utilizing design templates for consumer use in customising additive layer manufactured products." (Ariadi, Rennie, 2008)
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Hod Lipson, "Printable 3D Models for Customized Hands-on Education", Sibely School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA

  • "Physical models are an important form of hands-on active learning that is increasingly being replaced by virtual simulations. In this paper I propose that rapid prototyping technology has the potential to reverse this trend, and reap the educational benefits while eliminating many of the logistic difficulties that have lead to it. Moreover, the use of rapid prototyping can offer new opportunities to enhance accessibility to physical teaching models and customize them for specific personal learning needs, thereby opening new educational possibilities. To accelerate this opportunity, we have established a repository of 3D-Printables models for education at." (Lipson)

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Evan Malone, Hod Lipson, "Freeform Fabrication of a Complete Electromagnetic Relay", Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA. (used)

  • "We seek to produce electromechanical relays entirely via freeform fabrication as part of a larger effort to freeform fabricate complete electromechanical devices. Relays which can switch using an input current of less than 100 microamperes, gain greater than 10, and an open/closed resistance ratio of greater than 103 will make feasible the control of freeform fabricated actuators by printable organic polymer transistor circuits, opening up a design space of completely freeform fabricated electromechanical actuation systems." (Malone, Lipson)

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Dan Periard, Noy Schaal, Maor Schaal, Evan Malone, Hod Lipson, "Printing Food",

  • "This paper examines the possible applications of food as a raw material in freeform fabrication, and provides several demonstrations of edible three-dimensional objects. The use of edible materials offers several advantages: First, it opens the door to the application of SFF technology in custom food industry, such as manufacturing of complex confections with

specialized geometries and intricate material compositions. For pedagogical purposes, edible materials provide an easily accessible, nontoxic and low cost way to experiment with rapid prototyping techniquesusing educational systems such as Fab@Home. For more traditional SFF technologies, food materials with appropriate rheological properties can serve as sacrificial, bio-degradable, bio-compatible or recyclable materialsfor structural support and draft-printing. We have used the Fab@Home personal fabrication system to produce multi-material edible 3D objects with cake frosting, chocolate, processed cheese, and peanut butter. These are just indicative of the range of potential edible materials and applications." (Periard et al)
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