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This entry is about the impact the Open Source movement is having in many different fields of our lives. The term "open source" refers to something that can be modified because its design is publicly accessible.

While it originated in the context of computer software development, today the term "open source" designates a set of values—what we call the open source way. Open source projects, products, or initiatives are those that embrace and celebrate open exchange, collaborative participation, rapid prototyping, transparency, meritocracy, and community development.


What is open source?[edit]

The term open source refers to something that can be modified by everyone because its design is publicly accessible. It originated in the context of computer software but today it has many applications. Open source projects, products or initiatives are those, that embrace and celebrate open exchange, collaborative participation, rapid prototyping, transparency and community development.

Platzhalter für: Hier wird die Definition von Open Source stehen. Erst Allgemein. Dann evt noch auf was sich das ganze noch auswirkt bzw in welchen Feldern/Themen Open Source eine Rolle spielt.

Chronology[edit]

Past[edit]

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Present[edit]

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The future[edit]

In the near-term, I think that open hardware is very interesting. I remember when Sun open sourced their NAND Ram, and I realized that open hardware was going to be much more prevalent in the future. I even wrote an article about it back in 2006 when Sun open sourced the designs for their Sparc T1 chip. Samsung had also open sourced their One NAND RAM, and now more and more companies are following suit.

In the data center, Open Compute has huge potential. Not because I think every company will start building their own servers like Facebook, but because it’s putting the innovation in the hands of the expert users and data center managers. I think that you’ll see more end-users driving improvements in heating and cooling as well as power utilization with these hackable hardware form factors as well as having more options in processing as ARM becomes more powerful.

Along those lines, Intel has released the MinnowBoard, an open source PC for less than $200. The BeagleBoard and Raspberry Pi are already very popular hackable ARM platforms as well. My generation had Heathkits to learn about electronics. Kids today have awesome, powerful hackable hardware, and the benefit of that is that it’s raising a new generation of hackers who are being taught not to accept things the way they are, and to drive improvements.

3D printing is also very exciting; especially since the price point has become so low. There’s a rapidly growing community driving the trend in manufacturing; people are sharing their designs for MakerBot’s 3D printers for example. As a result, I believe that we’ll see more and more opportunities for democratizing production and we’ll see a more diverse supply chain were more companies can deliver highly customizable products on demand. Just last month I saw an open design for airplanes, so I think the idea of open is taking root in that industry.

As I said in my keynote, I think that the medical field could benefit the most, but it requires a culture change for that industry. My example of the Open Prosthetics Project highlights an industry where technology hasn’t made any significant advances in over 100 years and is ripe for change.

Trade secrets seem to be held tightly, but hopefully as more people grow up in a world driven by open source they’ll adopt that mindset. Duplicating effort is inefficient and we are at the point where research can be shared across companies while still allowing them to make a profit. When we start seeing large amounts of research and ideas being shared between government, education, and private sectors I think we’ll see a huge leap forward in medicine. I for one would love to see open ultimately be the cure for cancer.

Weitere Links : http://www.infoworld.com/article/2653601/applications/the-future-of-open-source.html http://opensource.com/life/13/8/open-source-won https://www.alexandria.unisg.ch/export/DL/62765.pdf

Important people[edit]

Christine Peterson is an American nanotechnologist, futurist, and the co-founder of Foresight Institute. She coined the term 'Open Source'.

Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often known by his initials, rms, is a software freedom activist and computer programmer. He campaigns for software to be distributed in a manner such that its users receive the freedoms to use, study, distribute and modify that software. Software that ensures these freedoms (on receipt) is termed free software. He is best known for launching the GNU Project, founding the Free Software Foundation, developing the GNU Compiler Collection and GNU Emacs, and writing the GNU General Public License.

Tim O'Reilly (born June 6, 1954) is the founder of O'Reilly Media (formerly O'Reilly & Associates) and a supporter of the free software and open source movements.

Linus Torvalds is a Finnish American software engineer, who was the principal force behind the development of the Linux kernel. He later became the chief architect of the Linux kernel and now acts as the project's coordinator. He also created the revision control system Git as well as the diving log software Subsurface. He was honored, along with Shinya Yamanaka, with the 2012 Millennium Technology Prize by the Technology Academy Finland "in recognition of his creation of a new open source operating system for computers leading to the widely used Linux kernel". He is also the recipient of the 2014 IEEE Computer Society Computer Pioneer Award.

Applications[edit]

Software[edit]

like computer-software (see here for a long list of open source software on Wikipedia: List of free and open-source software packages or open-source-games (see here for a list on Wikipedia: List of open-source video games on Wikipedia)

Definition of open source software[edit]

There are many aspects which define what software can be labeled open source. Open source doesn't only mean that the source code of a program or a piece of software is accessible by everyone, but it also has to pass a number of criteria for it to be called open source.

1. Open source software is not by its license restricted to be sold or given away by any person as a component of a different software containing various programs. A fee or a royalty as a requirement for the software to be used in such a sale is not allowed.

2. The source code of the program must be included or accessible via the internet and it must be allowed to be distributed by anyone free of charge. It should also be in a form that any programmer can modify it so that the program can evolve.

3. The source code may be restricted from being distributed in a modified form, only if the license allows the distribution of patch files, or the derived work carries a different name or version number than the original software.

4. The license of the open source software is not allowed to lock certain groups or persons out of using the software. The software can also not be restrictedfrom being used in a business or for genetic research, it may be used in any field of endeavor.

Computer hardware[edit]

Open source hardware has its initial specifications published and made available to everyone. This enables anyone to copy, modify and redistribute it free of charge.

Digital content[edit]

Digital open source content remains free for re-use by anyone.

Abschnitt über usw: -wikipedia
-duolingo
-ted

Science and engineering[edit]

ToDo: Information about ROS (an open source Framework for linux for communication and controlling of all kinds of robots, sensors, motors and so on)

Other[edit]

Foodstuff[edit]

Open source beverages, such as open source cola or open source beer have their recipe made open source so that anyone can modify it and help develop it. cocktails or recieps for example chefkoch.de [1]


Fashion[edit]

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Medicine[edit]

Also in medicine open source has it's place. There are huge open source projects,such as Openmrs , that are being worked on by lots of people to improve the healthcare system. These open source projects are cutting research costs and puts practitioners in charge instead of the software developers. Hospitals are able to tailor the open source software to their needs and doesn't put large software developers in control.

Government[edit]

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Pros and cons[edit]

Pros[edit]

  • Free software.
  • Continually evolving.
  • Modability of software.
  • Tailor the software to your needs.
  • Crowdsourcing

Cons[edit]

  • Not a lot of support if problems occur. You need to rely on user forums.
  • Less security.
  • Requires technical Knowhow.
  • The project are never really complete.

Patent absurdy[edit]

The open source community[edit]

free software =/ open source[edit]

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From the Free Software Foundation:

A program is free software if the program's users have the four essential freedoms:
  • The freedom to run the program as you wish, for any purpose.
  • The freedom to study how the program works, and change it so it does your computing as you wish. Access to the source code is a precondition for this.
  • The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor.
  • The freedom to distribute copies of your modified versions to other. By doing this you can give the whole community a chance to benefit from your changes. Access to the source code is a precondition for this.
Differences between Free Software and Open Source:
In practice, open source stands for criteria a little weaker than those of free software. As far as we know, all existing free software would qualify as open source. Nearly all open source software is free software, but there are exceptions. First, some open source licenses are too restrictive, so they do not qualify as free licenses. Fortunately, few programs use those licenses.
Second, and more important, many products containing computers (including many Android devices) come with executable programs that correspond to free software source code, but the devices do not allow the user to install modified versions of those executables; only one special company has the power to modify them. We call these devices “tyrants”, and the practice is called “tivoization” after the product where we first saw it. These executables are not free software even though their source code is free software. The criteria for open source do not recognize this issue; they are concerned solely with the licensing of the source code. -- Why Open Source misses the point of Free Software, by Richard Stallman.

GNU/Linux[edit]

Debian[edit]

Ubuntu[edit]

GNU[edit]

absolutely free operating system[edit]

blag is an operating system. blag has a suite of graphics, internet, audio, video, office, and peer to peer file sharing applications. you can replace a windoz installation with blag. if you would like to install and run blag, download and burn it to cd.

Dragora is a trustworthy GNU/Linux-Libre distribution based on the concept of simplicity with the goal of being a multi-purpose operating system. Dragora respects the freedom of the user with the values of free software and provides control to those who use it. It is developed entirely by volunteers and it is published under the terms of the GNU General Public License.

Dyne-bolic is one of the GNU/Linux distributions recommended by the Free Software Foundation: no proprietary software is inside, no closed source firmware. You are free to study, modify, redistribute and even sell this operating system, as long you grant the same freedom to others.

gNewSense is a fully free software GNU/Linux distribution based on Debian, with sponsorship from the FSF.

Musix, a GNU+Linux distribution based on Knoppix, with special emphasis on audio production.

Parabola GNU/Linux, a distribution based on Arch that prioritizes simple package and system management.

Trisquel, a GNU/Linux distribution based on Ubuntu that's oriented toward small enterprises, domestic users and educational centers.

Ututo XS, a GNU/Linux distribution based on Gentoo. It was the first fully free GNU/Linux system recognized by the GNU Project.

Other operating system[edit]

References[edit]