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Lives Saved by Replacing Coal with PV

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Contents

Note to Readers[edit]

Please leave any comments on the Discussion page (see tab above) including additional resources/papers/links etc. Papers can be added to relevant sections if done in chronological order with all citation information and short synopsis or abstract. Thank You.

Literature Review[edit]

Coal Life Cycle: Adverse effects on human health[edit]

Health impacts of coal and coal use: possible solutions[edit]

Finkelman, R., Orem, W., Castranova, V., Tatu, C., Belkin, H., Zheng, B., Lerch, H., Maharaj, S., Bates, A. (2002). "Health impacts of coal and coal use: possible solutions," International Journal of Coal Geology, 50(1-4), 425-443.

  • coal will continue to be used by developing nations as primary energy source
  • First part: human health impacts due to burning coal in coal stoves in homes
  • Coal combustion in homes has caused severe human health problems due to high levels of arsenic, fluorine, selenium, and mercury
  • groundwater leaches toxic organic compounds from coal causing adverse health conditions such as: Balkan endemic nephropathy (found mainly in rural communities in Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania, Serbia
  • Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis- lung disease directly unique to coal mining; inhaled dust particulates

Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution[edit]

Pope, C.a., Burnett, R., Thun, M., Calle, E., Krewski, D., Ito, K., Thurston, G. (2002) "Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution," The Journal of the American Medical Association, 287(9), 1132-1141.

  • This study focuses on long-term exposure of PM2.5 or less
  • data collected after new standard for PM2.5 in place- requiring sites to collect data on this size
  • assessing mortality of target areas
  • generated models based on different levels of PM2.5 in different decades
  • Overal PM2.5 decreased over time- largest decrease observed in cities with highest levels of pollution in 1979-1983 years
  • Several great figures to view comparable mortality levels- stepwise regression for demographic factors and smoking vs former smoker vs non-smoker
  • Shows high association of risk for lung cancer and cardiopulmonary mortality and long-term exposure to fine particulate matter
  • doubling the time of follow-up researchers saw mortality numbers triple due to the causes listed above- relative to other studies

Carbon emission and mitigation cost comparisons between fossil fuel, nuclear and renewable energy resources for electricity generation[edit]

Sims, R., Rogner, H., Gregory, K. (2003). "Carbon emission and mitigation cost comparisons between fossil fuel, nuclear and renewable energy resources for electricity generation," Energy Policy, 31(13), 1315-1326.

  • Global electricity sector responsible for release of 7700 million + tons of carbon dioxide annually
  • mitigation tactics exist: more efficient conversion of fossil fuels, use of low carbon fossil fuels, decarbonization of fuels and flue gases, increasing nuclear power, and increasing use of renewable sources of energy
  • Table 1 provides total emission production due to different electrical generation from 1971-2020. Given in TWh
  • Table 2 provides cost estimates and emission reduction of mitigation technologies in comparison to coal

China's burning ambition[edit]

Aldhous, P. (2005). "China's burning ambition," Nature, 435, 1152-1154.

  • Extremely poor air quality
  • economic growth outstripping energy supplies
  • more than 6,000 workers were killed in mines in 2004
  • Between 75% and 80% of electricity is generated from coal, in China
  • Predictions for energy demand to rise to 3.5 billion tons of coal per year in 2020- does not provide what current energy demand is
  • Attempts to improve efficiency by using "cleaner coal"- not utilizing alternatives
  • does not provide mortality rates other than due to mining practices

Submicron ash formation from coal combustion[edit]

Buhre, B., Hinkley, J., Gupta, R., Wall, T., Nelson, P. "Submicron ash formation from coal combustion," Fuel, 84(10), 1206-1214.

  • submicron sized particulate matter are primarily formed by volatilised ash, soot, and char particles
  • This is experiment that burns bituminous coals to determine influence of coal characteristics and combustion environment on submicron ash yield
  • obtained ash with different chemical compositions due to varying combustion environments
  • This experiment does not address health implications of they different kinds of ash formed during combustion; in some cases, less volatile material was transformed to higher volatile material due to conditions

The global burden of disease due to outdoor air pollution[edit]

Cohen, A., Anderson, H., Ostra, B. Pandy, K., Krzyzanowski, M., Kunzli, N., Futschmidt, K., Pope, A., Romieu, I., Samet, J., Smith, K. (2005). " The global burden of disease due to outdoor air pollution," Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 68 (13-14), 1-7.

  • air pollution from combustion of fossil fuels causes range of adverse health effects from "eye irritation to death"
  • man-made combustion of fossil fuels creates mixture of toxic chemicals, namely particulate matter
  • study focuses on mortality (death) due to inhaled particulate matter
  • mortality in this study is due to cardiopulmonary, lung cancer, or acute respiratory infections in children
  • results include: 3% of adult mortality due to cardiopulmonary, 5% of lung cancer (includes tracheal, bronchial), 1% acute respiratory in children
  • 0.8 million premature deaths and 6.4 million lost life years (not really defined here)
  • author's point their results may be underestimation of what is actually occurring (due to fact that they only assessed mortality- not acute infections or serious morbidity)
  • great mortality rates found in developing countries

Adverse health effects of outdoor air pollutants[edit]

Curtis, L., Rea, W., Smith-Willis, P., Fenyves, E., Pan, Y. (2006). "Adverse health effects of outdoor air pollutants," Environment International, 32(6), 815-830.

  • Review article- good information and different case studies of different health affects correlation with certain outdoor air pollutants
  • Check for updated adult inhalation stat
  • outdoor air pollution due to motor vehicles and industrial chemicals
  • high prevalence of outdoor air pollution developing countries
  • Air pollutants included in this assessment

1. particulates- combustion from industry, construction, pesticides, bioaerosols; toxicity depends on size- with smaller particulates considered more toxic

2. ozone

3. carbon Monoxide

4. sulfur oxides- produced by burning of coal, vehicle emissions, emissions from oil/gas fields

5. nitrogen oxides-industrial/vehicle combustion

6. lead

7. volatile organic compounds, solvents, pesticides, and methane

  • Health effects covered in study- increased risk due to outdoor air pollution

1. Respiratory due to particulates, ozone, sulfur/nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide

2. Cardiovascular system effects due to particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen oxide

3. Lung cancer due to particulate matter, nitrogen oxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

4. Reproductive and developmental effects

5. Neurological and neuropsychiatric effects

6. Mortality- cite several studies that show increase in mortality and morbidity in response to increase in particulate matter- check data, but consistent studies show increase in 10ug/m3 particulate matter produced these results

7. Infection

8. Other health effects such as hematological (blood) and immunological

A guide to life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from electric supply technologies[edit]

Weisser, D. (2007). "A guide to life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from electric supply technologies," Energy, 32(9), 1543-1559.

  • provide life cycle analysis of different electrical generation technologies to produce more accurate emissions per kwh
  • GHG emissions for four coal technologies: pulverized fuel, fluidised bed combustion, integrated coal gasification combined cycle, and steam turbine condensing
  • For PF: 750-1300 gcarbon dioxide per kwh, IGCC: 600-800 g carbon dioxide per kwh, FBC:700-1000 g carbon dioxide per kwh, STC:750 g carbon dioxide per kwh
  • for fossil fuel tech, majority of ghg emissions comes from operation of power plant
  • present coal operation stage: 800-1000 g carbon dioxide per kwh,
  • solar pv: 40-73 g carbon dioxide per kwh
  • provides nuclear, wind, hydro, biomass, and oil if need for comparison
  • many recommendations including- increased renewables, increase nuclear, increase efficiency of fossil fuel plants

Mortality from heart, respiratory, and kidney disease in coal mining areas of Appalachia[edit]

Hendryx, M. (2007). "Mortality from heart, respiratory, and kidney disease in coal mining areas of Appalachia," International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 82(2), 243-249.

  • environmental pollutants correlated with high risk of heart, respiratory, and kidney disease
  • particulate matter from coal mining associated with health hazards
  • This study assesses whether higher rates of mortality and morbidity are due to smoking, sociodemographic factors, or residence/exposure to coal mining
  • significantly higher mortality (death rates) in Appalachian mining areas, higher chronic heart, respiratory, and kidney disease


Electricity generation and health[edit]

Markandya, A., Wilkinson, P. (2007) "Electricity generation and health", The Lancet, 370(9591), 979-990.

  • electricity may have contributed to economic development and increases in overall well being- it comes with adverse effects on health
  • article splits between developed and developing nations
  • Pathway of emissions- methods of paper

1.emissions from power source are dispersed- temperature, precipitation, wind speed all factor on dispersal

2.health burden assessed- in each phase: extraction of fuel, transportation, transforming to electricity,

3.estimates of air pollution effects

4.value effects in monetary terms- to best of ability

Developed nations

  • Fuel cycles given for coal, lignite, oil/gas, biomass, an nuclear
  • focusing here on coal and lignite

1.occupational health effects with mining

2. 12% of coal miners develop several potentially fatal diseases (found on page 981)

3.primary and secondary particles- sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides among other particles

  • Coal contributions to carbon dioxide- direct emissions-960 g/kWh, indirect- 330 g/kWh
  • Deaths from air pollution and accidents involving workers and public for coal- ~25TWh
  • Accident related deaths percentages provided: 44% deaths for public, 99% for workers
  • Serious illness from air pollution for coal- ~225TWh
  • Air pollution from coal: deaths, serious illness, minor illness percentages provided: 85%, 84%, and 94% respectively

Developing nations

  • case studies in China, India, and Brazil
  • China- from coal-fired plant- 77 deaths per TWh, severe morbidity (def for this paper found on page 984)- 975 per TWh compared to 225 per TWh in Europe
  • provides health effects of renewables- focus here on solar
  • limited health effects addressed- only concerns with production, handling, and disposal of PV materials

A global perspective on energy: health effects and injustices[edit]

Wilkinson, P., Smith, K., Joffe, A., Haines, A. (2007). "A global perspective on energy: health effects and injustices", The Lancet, 370(9591), 965-978.

  • energy production/use poses health risks through industrial hazards, pollution, and injury
  • while substantial burden on a global scale, there are differences between rich and poor nations
  • climate change effects- flooding, acid rainfall, droughts, extreme weather events that all have adverse effects on populations
  • risks associated with energy are found in extraction, transportation, and burning of fossil fuels
  • 80% of energy use is oil, gas, and coal
  • risks from drilling, mining, and harvesting of resources are less than risks from other steps in the fuel cycle
  • risks lessened from fossil fuel burning in developed nations, however developing nations see rapid growth coupled with low environmental regulations so high risk
  • 16/20 most polluted cities are in china- see page 7 for numbers of lives lost or years lost due to pollution
  • climate change deaths-cited in paper from WHO- is ~150,000, 99% of these are in poor countries- this is 2000 data

Mortality Rates in Appalachian Coal Mining Counties: 24 Years Behind the Nation[edit]

Hendryx, M. (2008). "Mortality Rates in Appalachian Coal Mining Counties: 24 Years Behind the Nation," Environmental Justice, 1(1), 5-11.

  • coal mining areas linked to higher hospitalization rates
  • This study looks at mortality rates, and tries to determine if increases are a cause of coal mining practices
  • Retrospective study from years: 1979-2004
  • Mortality rates include: deaths due to homicide, suicide, motor vehicle accident, and other
  • Mortality rates (per 100,000 people) highest in heavy coal mining areas of Appalachia, lowest in non-coal mining areas
  • 5048 excess annual deaths in Appalachia coal mining areas from 1999-2004
  • Interesting inclusion: age-adjusted mortality rates for Appalachian coal mining lags about 24 years behind national rates outside Appalachia
  • Figure 2 shows mortality rates over time due to coal, rates in Appalachia, and the nation

Human health effects of air pollution[edit]

Kampa, M., Castanas, E. (2008). "Human health effects of air pollution." Environmental Pollution, 151(2), 362-367.

  • air pollutant defined as: substance that harms organisms
  • pollutants contribute to increase mortality, illness, or other hazards
  • pollutants grouped into 4:

1.Gaseous pollutants

2.Persistent organic pollutants

3.Heavy metals

4.Particulate matter

  • for this article focus on gaseous pollutants and particulate matter caused by burning fossil fuels
  • burning coal results in release of sulfur dioxide
  • gaseous pollutants mainly cause respiratory problems, but more severe problems are haematological (related to blood) and cancerous
  • particulate matter: sources are: factories, power plants, incinerators, vehicles
  • size of particles determines where in respiratory tract they will deposit
  • strong evidence to support that ultra fine and fine particles more hazardous that larger ones- mortality, heart, and respiratory problems
  • absorbed through inhalation and ingestion
  • effects range: nausea, difficulty breathing, skin irritation, cancer, developmental delays, death
  • Article addresses air pollutant effects on respiratory, cardiovascular, nervous, urinary, and digestive systems
  • impacts determined by a number of factors: type, concentration, length of exposure, and susceptibility

Estimating the health impacts of coal-fired power plants receiving international financing[edit]

Penney, Sarah, Jacob Bell, and John Balbus. (2009). "Estimating the health impacts of coal-fired power plants receiving international financing." Report at ENVIRONMENTAL DEFENCE FUND.

  • Study that estimates emissions and consequential deaths from heart and lung disease/cancer-specifically attributed to 88 public-financed coal-fired power plants
  • Used populations with varying distances from plant
  • Factored in air pollution control technologies
  • ~6000 to 10,700 annual deaths to air pollution from these 88 plants
  • Table 1 provides great breakdown of top three emissions from coal: PM, SO2, NO2 and the attributable health outcomes plus mortality in each case
  • estimate that if all 88 plants used pollution control, deaths would drop to ~2710
  • Table 2 provides coal plants with 3 largest contributions to mortality- developing nations
  • Only go to 1000km radius from plant- not any further

Mortality due to lung, laryngeal and bladder cancer in towns lying in the vicinity of combustion installations[edit]

Perez, J., Pollan, M., Boldo, E., Gomez, B., Aragones, N., Lope, V., Ramis, R., Vidal, E., Abente G. (2009). "Mortality due to lung, laryngeal and bladder cancer in towns lying in the vicinity of combustion installations," Science of the Total Environment, 407(8), 2593-2602.

  • Standardized mortality rations from 1994-2003, estimated population exposure to pollution, proximity to plant- located in Spain
  • Look at several types of combustion- will focus on coal for this paper
  • Total deaths- not controlled: from 1994-2003: 172142 deaths due to lung cancer, 18175 to laryngeal cancer, 38396 due to bladder cancer
  • Table 1, 2, 3 show observed cases for towns located within certain distances of combustion cites
  • Found that lung cancer- significant risk for any fuel combustion, laryngeal cancer is higher when exposed to coal combustion
  • overall excess risk to combustion of coal
  • Observed deaths less than 5km from coal: total- ~1107, from oil/gas/natural gas as fuel: 2582, coal and other fuels: 400

Coal's assault on human health[edit]

Lockwood, A., Welker-Hood, K., Rauch, M., Gottlieb, B. (2009). "Coal's assault on human health," Report from Physicians For Social Responsibility, 3-16.

  • Four of five leading causes of mortality: heart disease, cancer, stroke, chronic lower respiratory diseases
  • Health effects associated with each aspect of coals life cycle: mining, hauling, preparation, combustion, disposal
  • Coal mining leads industries in fatal injuries
  • Transportation: engines and trucks release over 600,000 tons of nitrogen oxide, 50000 tons of particulate matter
  • coal combustion: 30% of carbon dioxide pollution
  • Table 1 has great description of adverse health effects- along with components of coal combustion that contribute
  • Indirect effects of coal combustion through climate change: WHO estimates; 166000 deaths in 2000 due to mortality from malaria, malnutrition, diarrhea, drowning
  • Table 2 shows predicted and expanded health effects from climate change

The impacts of combustion emissions on air quality and climate - from coal to biofuels and beyond[edit]

Gaffney, J., Marley, N. (2009). "The impacts of combustion emissions on air quality and climate - from coal to biofuels and beyond," Atmospheric Environment, 43(1), 23-36.

  • 2.1 pounds of carbon dioxide emitted per kWh of coal output- these are 1998 levels
  • provides background information on coal formation and uses- however does not list human health impact statistics from coal
  • broad review

Air pollution in the last 50 years- from local to global[edit]

Fenger, J. (2009). "Air pollution in the last 50 years- from local to global," Atmospheric Environment, 43(1), 13-22.

  • Size of particles significant in determine how far particles travel into respiratory system- adverse health effects in humans
  • particles with size below PM2.5 have significant impact on people suffering from respiratory, cardio-pulmonary diseases, and daily mortality (death)
  • in modern times, causes nearly 100 extra deaths per 1 million people
  • air pollution is not a local problem- it has not boundaries-
  • combustion of fossil fuels contributes heavily to carbon dioxide in atmosphere- increasing global climate change


Higher coronary heart disease and heart attack morbidity in Appalachian coal mining regions[edit]

Hendryx, M., Zullig, K. (2009). "Higher coronary heart disease and heart attack morbidity in Appalachian coal mining regions," Preventive Medicine, 49(5), 355-359.

  • high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) correlated with coal mining areas
  • factors include environmental, behavioral, genetic, demographic, and available healthcare
  • Coal mining areas linked to low socioeconomic status relative to non-coal mining areas
  • elements that contribute to CVD: arsenic, cadmium, non-specific particulate matter, and polycyclic hydrocarbons- all present in coal and introduced to areas with coal extraction and processing
  • Study controls for factors such as smoking, obsesity, co-morbid diabetes, alcohol consumption (does a before and after)
  • after adjusting for other factors, risk of CVD remained high in coal mining areas of Appalachia
  • study found that environmental pollution attributed to higher prevalence of CVD risk; however coal mining risks were also specific to Appalachia and not other mining (does not specify what kind of mining) regions in U.S.
  • uses self-reported data- so does not include mortality rates in coal-mining areas of Appalachia

Uncertainty and variability in health-related damages from coal-fired power plants in united states[edit]

Levy, J., Baxter, L., Schwartz, J. (2009). "Uncertainty and variability in health-related damages from coal-fired power plants in united states," Risk Analysis, 29(7), 1000-1014.

  • This study models and monetized damages associated with coal-fired plants across U.S. (407 power plants to be exact)
  • Focus on PM2.5 (fine particle) and its health related effects, provide estimate of economic value of a statistical life, used 1999 PM2.5 levels
  • Used emissions from electricity generation, coal had to be primary fuel; 407 plants with three indicators- 11.7 million tons of sulfur dioxide, 5.0 million tons of nitrogen oxides, 600,000 tons of PM2.5, selected plants emitted over 90% of the national PM2.5, SO2 emissions
  • Variation of previous study-slope changes of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 micrograms/meters cubed; found a 1.2% increase in mortality per microgram/m-cubed increase of annual average PM2.5-by characterizing uncertainty as within individual plants as well as across all plants; factors in population exposure
  • Calculated median health-related damages- based on 1999 emissions: $0.02-$1.57 per kWh with highest values found in Midwest
  • Damages per kWh: 75% of total for sulfur dioxide, 14% for PM2.5, 8% for nitrogen oxides (if want specifics, ranges are provided for each on pg 1010
  • Study finds that improvements to technologies (again based on 1999 data) would result in ~2000 fewer deaths per year

Mountaintop mining consequences[edit]

Palmer, M., Berhardt, E., Schlesinger, W., Eshleman, K, Foufoula-Georgiou, E., Hendryx, M., Lemly, A., Likens, G., Loucks, O., Power, M., White, P. Wilcock, P. (2010). "Mountaintop mining consequences", Science, 327, 148-149

  • 30 year increase in surface mining
  • specifically in Appalachia to find buried coal
  • Ecological losses, downstream impacts- forests destroyed, burial of headwater streams, more than 5-10% of watershed areas affected by mining
  • Human health impacts: water samples show groundwater with higher levels of chemicals from mining- when compared to non-mining areas in same region
  • Toxins show up in fish, airborne toxins
  • Hospitalizations due to chronic pulmonary disorders (potential blod clotting), hypertension (high blood pressure)
  • Higher rates of mortality, lung cancer, heart, lung, kidney disease

Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease an update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association[edit]

Brook, R., Rajagopalan, S., Pope, C.A., Brook, J., Bhatnagar, A., Diez-Roux, A., Holguin, F., Hong, Y., Luepker, R., Mittleman, M., Peters, A., Sicovick, D., Smith, S., Whitsel, Laurie., Kaufman, J. (2010). "Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease an update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association," Circulation, 121, 2331-2378.

  • PM2.5 leads to 800,000 premature deaths per year (13th leading cause of worldwide mortality)- main source is combustion of fossil fuels
  • short-term PM exposure: cardiovascular diseases account for 69% of increase in mortality rates, 28% for pulmonary diseases
  • Table 3- great summary of several studies on mortality increases with exposure to PM2.5
  • Long-term exposure to PM2.5 decreases life expectancy from months to several years

Estimating the Global Public Health Implications of Electricity and Coal Consumption[edit]

Gohlke, J., Thomas, R., Woodward, A., Campbell-Lendrum, D., Pruss-Ustun, A., Hales, S., Portier, C. (2011). "Estimating the Global Public Health Implications of Electricity and Coal Consumption," Environmental Health Perspectives, 119(6), 821-826.

  • Public health impacts of fossil fuel based power generation represent 70% of the external costs associated
  • There are direct health impacts due to particulate matter and other emissions during power generation
  • Cited 2010 National Research Council: 2005 total costs of externalities total $120 billion (double check to see if these are valuation estimates or include costs such as hospital/medical charges
  • Same source to double check $30/ton of carbon dioxide climate related damages
  • Environmental burden of disease, disability adjusted life years and total mortality all included in results
  • Figure 2- good description of life expectancy and infant mortality over time
  • Results: coal consumption negatively affects health; even with controls to reduce PM and sulfur oxides, coal plants still generate large amounts of air pollution; more carbon intensive than any other energy system


Full cost accounting for the life cycle of coal[edit]

Epstein, P., Buonocore, J., Eckerle, K., Hendryx, M., Stout B., Heinberg, R., Clapp, R., May, B., Reinhart, N., Ahern, M., Doshi, S., Glustrom, L. (2011). "Full cost accounting for the life cycle of coal," Ecological Economics Reviews, 1219, 73-98.

  • Coal predominant fuel for electric generation
  • 2005- coal use generated 7334 TWh, 7.856 Gt carbon dioxide emissions from electricity, 3.124 Gt of carbon dioxide from non electrical generation
  • coal mined in 25 U.S. states, with Appalachia comprising newer mining models- mountaintop removal
  • Coal produces 1.5 times more carbon dioxide emissions than oil, and 2x more than natural gas
  • Coal mining and combustion releases harmful materials that affect the climate, toxic metals and particulate matter- harms public health,ecological systems
  • This study conducts a life cycle analysis of coal- measurable, quantifiable, and qualitative costs of coal
  • Climate impacts for social costs of carbon=- $30/ton of carbon range from $10-$100
  • Hazards come from extraction, processing, transportation, combustion, occupational hazards from underground mining, mountaintop removal
  • great table on pages 78-79 of economic, human health, and environmental effects at each stage of the coal life cycle
  • coal produces damages ~$2.2 billion in social costs from carbon
  • coal combustion waste or fly ash- toxic chemicals and heavy metals- cancer, birth defects, reproductive disorders, neurological damage, development issues, kidney and diabetes
  • includes local water contamination, carcinogen emissions, and community health effects
  • ecological impacts reviewed if necessary
  • combustion- carbon dioxide, methane, particulates, sulfur and nitrogen oxides, mercury- reviews effects from each
  • huge contributor to climate change
  • conclusion from life cycle analysis: $345.3 billion- 17.8 cents/kWh. Low estimate: $175 billion, a little over $0.09/kWh (these are conservative estimates where closer costs amount to $523.3 billion, $0.27/kWh

Public Health Impacts of Combustion Emissions in the United Kingdom[edit]

Yim, S., Barrett, S. (2012). "Public Health Impacts of Combustion Emissions in the United Kingdom," Environmental Science and Technology, 46(8), 4291-4296

  • PM2.5 is the air pollutant most consistently and strongly correlated with premature death
  • Premature mortality estimated in this study for UK- 2007 data
  • For this paper will only focus on power generation- other factors included: commercial, residential, agricultural, industry, road transport, other transport
  • Avg PM2.5 concentration for each sector displaying Fig 1
  • premature deaths due to combustion in power sector: 1700 . Total UK combustion 9000 deaths annually
  • important to note the transboundary effects apprx 2micrograms per meters cubed comes from non UK EU sources
  • Also includes economic impacts of combustion emissions: ~6-62 billion pounds/year

Air pollution and early deaths in the United States. Part I: Quantifying the impact of major sectors in 2005[edit]

Caiazzo, F., Ashok, A., Waitz, I., Yim, S., Barrett, S. (2013). "Air pollution and early deaths in the United States. Part I: Quantifying the impact of major sectors in 2005," Atmospheric Environment, 79, 198-208.

  • ambient PM2.5 associated with premature death and morbidity outcomes
  • 2010- EPA estimates (double check source)- ~160,000 premature deaths to PM2.5
  • This study looks at several sectors of PM2.5- based on 2005 emissions- since replacing coal with PV as source of electrical generation, focusing only on electrical sector
  • Table 3 shows total PM2.5 concentrations, based on population. Electrical sector: 2.27 of 8.73 microgram per meter cubed- this was largest contribute to PM2.5 in 2005
  • Table 4- provides preamture deaths total in U.S. in 2005 due to long term exposure to PM2.5- 52,200
  • Table 5 shows premature mortalities and mortality rate (# of deaths per 100,000 ppl) for the lower 48- each sector. Kentucky largest mortality rate (39.7), Ohio largest number of premature deaths (4223)

Energy and human health[edit]

Smith, K., Frumkin, H., Balakrishnan, K., Butler, C., Chafe, Z., Fairlie, I., Kinney, P., Kjellstrom, T., Mauzerall, D., McKone, T., McMichael, A., Schneider, M. (2013). "Energy and human health," Annual Review of Public Health, 34, 159-188.

  • Provides great picture of fuel cycle- primary and secondary coupled with adverse health effects at each stage
  • Electricity considered secondary source of energy as traditionally formed from combustion of fossil fuels
  • Factor in household fuel use- such as coal for cooking- indoor air pollution here
  • Health effects from fossil fuels span across life cycle: mining to transport to combustion to waste management
  • Coal: major energy source: ~25% energy use, ~40% of electrical use, ~40% contribution to climate change through carbon dioxide
  • Coal mining dangerous to workers: ~15,000 mining injuries per year, ~3800-6000 premature deaths per year in China (numbers correct have direct source in lit rev)
  • Injuries from mining accidents (explosions, floods, falling rocks, misuse of machinery) and respiratory exposures to silica and coal dust, along with risk of lung cancer
  • Areas near coal mining operations report higher risk of CVD, pulmonary, kidney diseases
  • Once transported for electricity- occupational hazards include:dust and carcinogen exposure
  • Combustion: cited as heaviest health burden- double check source- carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur and nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, mercury, other metals
  • Particulate matter: results in acute and chronic death; no well defined safe threshold for PM
  • Small assessment on solar: major health concern is related to the crystalline silicon, other materials such as: copper indium diselenide, copper indium galium diselenide, gallium arsenide, and cadmium telluride
  • Mining for silica risk of silicosis (lung disease caused by inhalation), exposure to toxic metals (cadmium, arsenic,chromium, lead) and gases (arsine, phosphine, silane) during manufacturing
  • Cited that health impacts of solar are far less than any fossil fuel

Air pollution and early deaths in the United States. Part II: Attribution of PM2.5 exposure to emissions species, time, location and sector[edit]

Dedoussi, I., Barrett, S. (2014). "Air pollution and early deaths in the United States. Part II: Attribution of PM2.5 exposure to emissions species, time, location and sector," Atmospheric Environment, 99, 610-617.

  • Will focus on electrical generation sector for this paper
  • data from 2005
  • Looks at premature mortalities (death): spatial and temporal factors included in this model
  • Electrical generation responsible for 75% of health impacts- due to sulfur dioxide emissions
  • electrical power generation 4x the emissions in the summer than in the winter- this does not align with other research, however this is more recent
  • combustion emissions: 12% from California, 7% from Pennsylvania, 5.8% from Ohio

Coal mine fires and human health: what do we know?[edit]

Melody, S., Johnston, F. (2015). "Coal mine fires and human health: what do we know?," International Journal of Coal Geology, 152(Part B), 1-14.

  • Nature of coal fire emissions varies with nature of combustion- attempt to show comprehensive list
  • carbon monoxide, benzene, mercury, toluene, carbon dioxide; soot (particulate matter); harmful trace elements: selenium, arsenic, mercury
  • carbon dioxide emissions vary 12kg to 8200kg
  • Table 1 provides description of emissions and health impacts
  • 82% chance of death in 70,000 people surrounding coal mine fire (double check source)
  • Hazelwood mine fire: 9.2 additional monthly deaths when in proximity to mine fire
  • Only provides support that there is a correlation between exposure to coal mine fire smoke and increased mortality- does not go into detail with number of deaths

Health Effects of Technologies for Power Generation: Contributions from Normal Operation, Severe Accidents and Terrorist Threat[edit]

Hirschberg, S., Bauer, C., Burgherr, P., Cazzoli, E., Heck, T., Spada, M., Treyer, K. "Health Effects of Technologies for Power Generation: Contributions from Normal Operation, Severe Accidents and Terrorist Threat," Reliability Engineering and System Safety,'145, 373-387.

  • emissions of normal operation of power plants contributes to increased mortality and morbidity
  • This study includes results from both Europe and China
  • mortality is expressed in years of life lost (YOLL) per kwh
  • coal power plants without emission reduction yield highest health damages per unit of electricity produced
  • provide great figures to show fatalities per kWh due to accidents, life years lost, disability adjusted life years- for several types of fossil fuel combustion
  • Premature fatality caused by air pollution corresponds to roughly 10 life years lost
  • ulitmately- fatality rates due to normal operation are much higher than due to accidents- waiting to interpret numbers

Mitigation tactics for Coal Emissions[edit]

Energy Pay-back Time and CO2 Emissions of PV Systems[edit]

Alsema, E. (2000). "Energy Pay-back Time and CO2 Emissions of PV Systems," Progress in Photovoltaic Research and Applications,8(1), 17-25.

  • Emission and energy pay back addressed here; emissions focused only on production of pv modules
  • energy required to produce multicrystalline: 2400-7600 MJ/meters squared, for single-crystalline: 5300-16500 MJ/meters squared
  • Energy pay back period- a concern when considering alternative technologies
  • Present day systems (point this is in 2000) is 3-4 years, may have improved since then; projected to decline to 1-2 years
  • Figure 2 provides carbon dioxide emission of rooftop solar: in 1999 mc-silicon 50 kWh/m2/yr; projected this to decrease to 30 in 2010; again numbers may have improved significantly more since then

Effects of air-pollution control on death rates in Dublin, Ireland: an intervention study[edit]

Clancy, L., Goodman, P., Sinclair, H., Dockery, D. (2002). "Effects of air-pollution control on death rates in Dublin, Ireland: an intervention study," The Lancet, 360(9341), 1210-1214.

  • looking at improvements in air quality's effects on daily mortality and life expectancy
  • 1980's Ireland shifted from oil to combustion of coal
  • 1990 government banned use of bituminous coal (black coal) in Dublin- study compares levels of pollution before and after ban
  • totaled individuals who died of respiratory infection/disease, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular
  • Found: pollution declined following ban of combustion of black coal
  • found: overall decline in mortality, largest reduction found in seasons where coal use was highest (winters, spring)- significant results found 403 fewer deaths per year following bituminous coal ban
  • broken down: Respiratory: avg 116 fewer deaths, cardiovascular: avg 243 fewer deaths
  • mitigation tactic: ban on bituminous coal sales, marketing, use, combustion, etc

Mitigating energy-related GHG emissions through renewable energy[edit]

El-Fadel, M., Chedid, R., Zeinati, M., Hmaidan, W. (2003). "Mitigating energy-related GHG emissions through renewable energy," Renewable Energy, 28(8), 1257-1276.

  • In 2003, energy industry contributed 74% to global carbon dioxide emissions
  • This includes transportation
  • This study is conducted in Lebanon- could be used as case study, but maybe not overall numbers
  • Author suggests solar is most promising renewable source in middle east, but does not think it will penetrate market due to investment costs
  • Estimates that solar if only 5% of energy generation from solar- reduction to 832 Gg/year in carbon dioxide emissions

Can Reducing Black Carbon Emissions Counteract Global Warming?[edit]

Bond, T., Sun, H. (2005). "Can Reducing Black Carbon Emissions Counteract Global Warming?," Environmental Science and Technology,39(16), 5921-5926.

  • Black carbon is produced by poor combustion of coal
  • second/third largest warming agent
  • including black carbon in ghg emissions is difficult as effects are still relatively unclear
  • black carbon- poor combustion- so suggesting smaller combustion sources, as larger have better/efficient practices
  • suggest 1kg black has same forcing effect as 680kg carbon dioxide
  • suggestions to decrease black carbon include: more efficient indoor cookware, better technology for diesel engines
  • does not suggest use of alternative energy and fuels to mitigate these in homes

Environmental impacts from the solar energy technologies[edit]

Tsoutsos, T., Frantzeskaki, N., Gekas, V. (2005). "Environmental impacts from the solar energy technologies," Energy Policy, 33(3), 289-296.

  • Positive environmental impacts
  • Reduced carbon dioxide emissions, generally see absence in air and waste emissions
  • reclamation of degraded land
  • reduction of transmission lines from traditional electric grid
  • improved quality of water
  • positive socioeconomic impacts
  • increase national energy dependency (still only at regional level)
  • increase jobs
  • diversify and secure energy supplies
  • support deregulated energy markets
  • more advantages located in generic issues section- provide how solar improves site conditions, flora fauna, etc
  • Negative impacts addressed depends on size and nature of project
  • pollutant from leakage of coolant change (double check)
  • accidental release of chemicals- during operation pv systems do not emit these things, however this could occur with improper management and operation practices
  • land use- large projects reduce cultivable land (later could site agriphotovoltaics?)
  • visual intrusion- able to incorporate solar into building designs
  • occupational hazards: accidental release of heat transfer fluids, fatal accidents (minimal) with use of liquid sodium system, light intensities that damage eyesight
  • water pollution due to thermal discharges or accidental discharges, air pollution: transport emissions, otherwise low
  • loss of habitat: counter with environmental impact statements for areas to avoid
  • deplete natural resources: research underway to reduce these impacts
  • provides solutions for most the environmental issues addressed above

Greenhouse-gas emissions from solar electric- and nuclear power: A life-cycle study[edit]

Fthenakis, V., Chul-Kim, H. (2007). "Greenhouse-gas emissions from solar electric- and nuclear power: A life-cycle study," Energy Policy, 35(4), 2549-2557.

  • looks at entire life cycle to account for all ghg emissions
  • EU has a measure: External Costs of Energy for energy projects
  • This assessment- in 2003 showed PV in Germany emitting 180g carbon dioxide/kWh (double check against other sources), also showed toxic gas emissions
  • This study readdresses this as the methodology of the ExternE may not be entirely accurate
  • Life cycle of solar PV: material production, module production, balance of system production, system operation and maintenance, system decomissioning, and disposal or recycle
  • GHG emissions involved: 18 g carbon dioxide/kWh (cited from another study- double check), other studies find 12 g carbon dioxide/kWh
  • Total energy required in life cycle of U.S. cadmium tellurdie PV was 1200MJ/meters squared
  • Total GHG involved in BOS(balance of system production) was found to be an avg of 24 g carbon dioxide/kWh for utility grounded and 20 g carbon dioxide/kWh for residential rooftop (These are U.S. numbers)
  • European modules has less carbon involved and numbers are around 16 g carbon dioxide/kWh
  • did not really break down where these numbers come from- only show final/totals

Emissions from photovoltaic life cycles[edit]

Fthenakis, V., Chul Kim, H., Alsema, E. (2008). "Emissions from photovoltaic life cycles," Environmental Science and Technology, 42(6), 2168-2174.

  • Taking into account full life cycle of solar- can have emissions
  • fossil fuel energy to create solar
  • Life cycle studies on crystalline silicon, fewer studies on thin film solar pv
  • Energy payback times for silicon: roughly 3.5 years (double check) for thin film: range from 1.1-2.7 years
  • Look at four commercial PV systems: ribbon-silicon, multicrystalline silicon, monocrystalline silicon, and thin-film cadmium telluride
  • Most emissions are indirect due to use of fossil fuels to generate energy
  • direct emissions come from mining for metals- although noted: liquid and solid waste are mostly recycled
  • Life cycle steps-brief

1.mining for quartz sand for silicon, and metal ore for cadmium telluride

2.heating to obtain optimal silicon structure

3.cadmium telluride; smelting from zinc and copper

4.production of polycrystalline silicon most energy consuming stage

  • 2004 greenhouse gas emissions of silicon modules are within 30-45 g carbon dioxide equivalent per kWh, 24g carbon dioxide equiv per kWh for cadmium telluride
  • Direct cadmium emissions during whole life cycle estimates: 0.015 g/GWh during mining, smelting, purification, and synthesis, 0.004 g/GWh during manufacturing, accidental release: 0.02 g/GWh. This estimates to 90-300 times lower than emissions from coal
  • Indirect cadmium emissions: researchers concluded that cadmium telluride PV displacing other electricity prevents significant amount of Cd from being released to the air;
  • Great figures (4 and 5) show emission breakdown for metals in pv life cycle

Life cycle assessment of photovoltaic electricity generation[edit]

Stoppato, A. (2008). "Life cycle assessment of photovoltaic electricity generation," Energy, 33(2), 224-232.

  • Breakdown of emissions for each step in life cycle addressed in table 5
  • Breaks down of air, water, waste, and other emissions
  • Carbon dioxide at both the Silica transformation and n-film formation phases: 4.5 kg/kg mg-Si, 0.01 g/wafer, respectively
  • Total of life cycle from this assessment: 80 kg equivalent carbon dioxide per panel contributes to global warming
  • Great table shows carbon dioxide content for several countries- Table 8

Air emissions due to wind and solar power[edit]

Katzenstein W., Apt, J. (2009). "Air emissions due to wind and solar power," Environmental Science and Technology, 43(2), 253-258.

  • A study that looks at emission changes when renewables (wind and solar) involved in cogeneration- natural gas
  • natural gas plant is used as baseload- generates when solar and wind not generating
  • Looked at only carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions- issue- maybe should have looked at methane emissions as well that comprise greenhouse gases
  • different variables of renewable penetration- below 65% penetration found smaller reduction in nitrogen oxides
  • carbon dioxide reductions from wind or solar paired with natural gas baseload: 75-80%
  • does not address other emissions when using alternative generation to fill-in for renewables when they do not generate

Fine-Particulate Air Pollution and Life Expectancy in the United States[edit]

Pope, C., Ezzati, M., Dockery, D. (2009). "Fine-Particulate Air Pollution and Life Expectancy in the United States," The New England Journal of Medicine, 360, 376-386.

  • Question of study: "Do improvements in air quality result in measurable improvements in human health and longevity?"
  • assessed associations between life expectancy and fine-particulate matter
  • life expectancy not explicitly defined in article- how long individual will live based on external factors
  • study from years 1980-2000
  • PM2.5 concentrations declined from 1980's to 1990's- correlating with: increased life expectancy
  • 10 microgram/ meters cubed increase in PM2.5 resulted in 1-2 years decrease in life expectancy (avg)
  • 10 microgram/meters cubed decrease in PM2.5 resulted in 0.61 year increase in life expectancy, avg increase in life expectancy from 1980-2000 was 2.72 years

Life cycle assessment of solar PV based electricity generation systems: A review[edit]

Sherwani, A., Usmani, J., Varun. (2010) "Life cycle assessment of solar PV based electricity generation systems: A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14(1), 540-544.

  • noted that solar PV does emit greenhouse gases
  • briefly address synthesis of PV module using silicon solar cells
  • Life cycle analysis for amorphous, mono-crystalline, poly-crystalline, and other PV modules

1. Amorphous: energy consumption for PV plant- 13,000-21000 kWh/kWp, carbon dioxide emissions- 3.360 kg-CO2/kWp, energy pay back period 2.5-3 years for rooftop (with 50-60 g/kWh carbon dioxide emissions in 2010), 3-4 for ground mounted

2. Mono-crystalline: carbon dioxide emissions: 5.020 kg-carbon dioxide/kWp, energy pay back ~4 years- (provide different systems for different years with very different carbon dioxide emissions

3. Poly-crystalline: energy pay back- 3.3-4.1 years, again shows very different ares of power systems with very different GHG emissions

  • addresses tradeoffs such as: efficiency vs emission to produce and use, in the different modules
  • Ranges are for (1) 15.6-50 gcarbon dioxide/kWh, (2) 44-280 g carbon dioxide/kWh, (3) 9.4-104 g carbon dioxide/kWh
  • paper recommends using solar pv for drastic carbon dioxide reduction

Role of renewable energy sources in environmental protection: A review[edit]

Panwar, N., Kaushik, S., Kothari, S. (2011) "Role of renewable energy sources in environmental protection: A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(3), 1513-1524.

  • Carbon dioxide levels for different regions presented in table 4: these include OECD countries, China, the rest of the world, and world totals
  • Solar water heating system (100 L per day capacity) can mitigate 1237 kg of carbon dioxide emissions (check sources- as this is review)
  • Solar thermal power- does not provide mitigation- table 5 shows emissions in comparison to coal-natural gas turbines
  • Solar PV- diesel operated solar pv pump mitigates 2085 kg carbon dioxide, petrol operates mitigates 1860 kg carbon- again check sources
  • provides similar data for other alternatives- could be used in discussion to provide support for solar pv

Environmental impacts from the installation and operation of large-scale solar power plants[edit]

Turney, D., Frthenakis, V. (2011). "Environmental impacts from the installation and operation of large-scale solar power plants," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(6), 3261-3270.

  • Looking at geographic areas of importance: forest, grassland, desert shrubland, true desert, and farmland (biodiversity, biomass density, and cloud cover)
  • Impacts include: land use, human health and well-being, wildlife and habitat, geohydrological resources, climate and greenhouse gases
  • For this paper, will only look at human health and well-being and climate and greenhouse gases (others can be revisited for the discussion/conclusion sections
  • Good table that lists human impacts on page 3265
  • Most impacts are positive;checkout sources that provide numbers for emissions reductions;
  • in some cases solar is considered "out of bounds" either due to ecosystem impacts or visual and recreational impacts; does not go into full detail, however provides why solar would be better option to open up recreation in other areas (e.g. mercury reduction for more fishing, reduce mountaintop mining)
  • reduces carbon dioxide (more research needs for solar in forests- although large solar plant in forest seems counterintuitive...
  • Table 4- shows emissions of carbon dixoxide from the full ife cycle of large-scale solar: overall- much lower than fossil fuels

Wildlife Conservation and Solar Energy Development in the Desert Southwest, United States[edit]

Lovich, J., Ennen, J. (2011). "Wildlife Conservation and Solar Energy Development in the Desert Southwest, United States," Bioscience, 61(12), 982-992.

  • This source is being utilized to double check evidence cited in another paper
  • will focus on the emissions released by developing utility scale solar
  • USSED uses dust suppressants for industrial applications: water, salts and brines, nonpretroleum products, synthetic polymers, organic petroleum, electrochemical substances, clay additives, and mulch/fiber mixtures
  • utilized dust suppressants did have an effect on hydrology- increased runoff volume
  • evidence from this paper is negative impacts on wildlife- could be good in discussion to show potential arguments against solar transition

Solar energy: Markets, economics and policies[edit]

Timilsina, G., Kurdgelashvili, L., Narbel, P. (2012). "Solar energy: Markets, economics and policies," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(1), 449-465.

  • market penetration: 1.4 GW global solar in 2000 to 40 GW in 2010.
  • Could use this- what lives saved as of now, how much more do we need to go
  • provides cost competitiveness of solar
  • cost of solar declining so rapidly
  • cost of air pollution due to fossil fuels: range from $0/tcarbon dioxide to $100/ tcarbon dioxide
  • did not discuss GHG mitigation in depth- only noted that these emissions are zero when in operation, minimal during production

Demographic change and carbon dioxide emissions[edit]

O'Neill, B., Liddle, B., Jiang, L., Smith, K., Pachauri, S., Dalton, M., Fuchs, R. (2012). "Demographic change and carbon dioxide emissions," The Lancet, 380(9837), 157-164.

  • Population size widely viewed as important driving force of future emissions
  • This study focuses on demographic changes and effects on carbon dioxide emissions from energy production
  • as expected- decrease in rate of population growth has potential to reduce global emissions
  • urbanization leads to increase in emissions- also as expected
  • solutions involved population and economic policies to reduce growth at both levels in hopes that future will see decrease in global carbon dioxide emissions

Prevented Mortality and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Historical and Projected Nuclear Power[edit]

Kharecha, P., Hansen, J. (2013). "Prevented Mortality and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Historical and Projected Nuclear Power," Environmental Science and Technology, 47(9), 4889-4895.

  • Utilize article to show advantages and disadvantages of alternatives- why is solar better
  • This article provides projects on deaths and GHG emissions if nuclear power were completely eliminated
  • calculated 1.84 million deaths prevented by nuclear- years range from 1971-2009- historical data
  • Calculated nuclear causes 4900 deaths- again from 1971-2009- compare to solar- historical data
  • Also provide projections: prevented deaths from 2010-2050: 4.39-7.04 million (low-high end projections)
  • GHG emissions: historical data 1971-2009: prevented 64 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide
  • Projections for 2010-2050: will prevent 150-240 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide
  • does not address externalities associated with nuclear power

Review on life cycle assessment of energy payback and greenhouse gas emission of solar photovoltaic systems[edit]

Peng, J., Lu, L., Yang, H.(2013). "Review on life cycle assessment of energy payback and greenhouse gas emission of solar photovoltaic systems," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 19, 255-274.

  • provides life cycle analysis of both crystalline and thin film pv modules
  • ultimately energy payback is significant as it is a policy dispute on whether to adopt technology
  • GHG emissions in US were reported to be 22-49 g co2 equivalent/kWh
  • energy pay back in US: 2.5-4.9 years; obviously this will vary depending on irradiance of area- seems to be higher with lower irradiance
  • breakdown of energy pay back and emissions for silicon and thin film- above is used a general measure
  • Table 5, 6, 8, provide breakdown of life cycle analysis for mono-si, multi-si, cdte pv systems

The potential for air-temperature impact from large-scale deployment of solar photovoltaic arrays in urban areas[edit]

Taha, H. (2013). "The potential for air-temperature impact from large-scale deployment of solar photovoltaic arrays in urban areas," Solar Energy, 91, 358-367.

  • Evaluate and quantify the indirect impacts on the atmosphere of large-scale solar
  • Focus on rooftop solar in Los Angeles
  • Measure albedo changes in response to solar
  • Does large-scale solar generate larger heat islands?
  • impacts on albedo and consequent heat islands due to 10% efficient large scale solar are virtually non-existent
  • Albedo remains essentially the same with or without the presence of solar in urban areas
  • Similar results for 15%, but for 20%- saw some evidence of cooling
  • Also provide estimates for future, with reasonable deployment and high deployment of PV cells
  • Results show: no negative effect (on atmospheric conditions) by deploying large scale solar
  • Results specific to estimates from Los Angeles

Environmental impacts of utility-scale solar energy[edit]

Hernandez, R., Easter, S., Murphy-Mariscal, M., Maestre, F., Tavassoli, M., Allen, E., Barrows, C., Belnap, J., Ochoa-Hueso, R., Ravi, S., Allen, M. (2014). "Environmental impacts of utility-scale solar energy," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 29, 766-779.

  • Figure 2- great image of all impacts
  • Several impacts worth mentioning- for sake of this project will pull only those related to human, climate impacts
  • Human Health and Air Quality
  • Hazards to air quality, health of employees, public- through industrial sized utility
  • Release soil-born pathogens
  • Increases in PM2.5 (will double check sources cited on this
  • decreases in visibility for drivers (double check source for clarification)
  • soil disruption contaminates water reservoirs and air quality
  • Positive- recycle of materials during decommissioning
  • Rooftop Solar PV shown to reduce heat flux- decreasing illness and mortality
  • Utility-scale solar and Albedo
  • reflectivity and solar conversion efficiency- tend to have an effective albedo- shows to increase temperatures
  • However other studies show no effect on air temperatures, or creating heat islands- double check sources
  • Overall- solar can have significant positive effects on atmosphere land relations- reduced impacts on climate change are 30 times lower than increased impacts of reduced albedo
  • High ambient temps reduce PV efficiency-? go in depth
  • Take a look at alternative source to confirm- if PV took up 10% of grid, carbon dioxide reduced from 6.8%-18.8%