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Life cycle analyses of energy technologies Literature review

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Contents

Introduction[edit]

The world is faced with the daunting challenge of continuing to meet rising energy demand while simultaneously reducing carbon emissions by 60% before the year 2050 [1]. Renewable energy technologies (RET) are emerging as means of meeting this challenge. The goal of this literature review was to explore the current status of RET globally as well as investigate Life Cycle Analyses pertaining particularly to the embedded carbon in energy production.

Global Status of Energy Technologies[edit]

It should be noted that every effort was made to obtain the most up to date data however the industries are evolving at such rapid rates that some of the information provided may be slightly outdated.

Energy Statistics of OECD Countries: 2005/2006: 2008 Edition” Energy 2008, vol. 2008, no. 11, pp. 1 - 434 (Complete Edition - ISBN 9264037268) [2][edit]

Compiled by the International Energy Association (IEA) this report outlines energy and heat utilization and production for both OECD and non-OECD countries. The breakdowns are more detailed for OECD countries however summary tables are available for non – OECD countries as well. 2005 and 2006 data were used and as such is somewhat outdated for this report however appears to be the most recent data for Solar PV and Geothermal global energy production.

International Energy Association: Renewables 2007, Global Status Report [3][edit]

This report compiled by the IEA is an overview of the Renewable Energy technology industry. Data is presented for growth rates, capacities, energy production, economic factors and trends as well as many other indicators and information pertaining to the global renewable energy industry. An update of this report was released in 2009.

International Energy Association: Renewables Global Status Report 2009 Update [4][edit]

This comprehensive report provides information on the installed capacities of multiple energy producing technologies as well as their annual growth rates, market and investment trends. The report has a global focus although notable projects are mentioned and policies on a national and municipal level are explored. This was an update to the 2007 Renewables report however it is not a complete report, just a brief update to the 2007 release.

International Energy Association: Renewables and Waste in the World 2006 [5][edit]

The IEA published this data table containing key statistics for global renewable energy and waste production as of the year 2006. This is somewhat outdated and more recent sources are hoping to be used whenever possible.

World Energy Association, World Wind Energy Report 2008 [6][edit]

Report compiled by the WEA outlining the developments in the past year of the wind industry globally. Information is provided for both the world as well as broken down into individual countries and continents. Global installed capacities as well as annual energy production statistics were found to be particularly relevant.

Ingvar B. Fridleifsson “The possible role and contribution of geothermal energy to the mitigation of climate change” IPCC Geothermal. 11 February 2008 [7][edit]

The current status of the geothermal electricity production industry is investigated in this report. The IPCC also provides ranges for embedded carbon in electricity production for different technologies. The potential and available resources of geothermal energy is also presented in the report. The findings of this report are in agreement with the IEA Global Status Report.

Ayhan Demirbas,”Global Renewable Energy Resources,” Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects 28, no 8(2006): 779 [8][edit]

This paper provides an overview of renewable energy sources in the world. The data was from the mid to late 1990’s and as such is a bit out of date. Micro-hydro power generation is briefly discussed and the generally accepted definition of micro-hydro as systems with less than 100 KW is explored.

UNDP, UNDESA ,World Energy Council,"World Energy Assessment Overview: 2004 Update" [9][edit]

This document is a joint venture between the UNDP, UNDESA and the World Energy Council, it provides information on global energy production from both fossil fuel and renewable sources. It also explores relationships between energy production and economic development. The primary purpose of the paper was to highlight energy’s role in sustainable global development.

International Energy Association, Key World Energy Statistics 2008 [10][edit]

Global statistics pertaining to both electric and thermal energy production are provided. Data indicating global consumption and production is provided for both thermal and renewable energy production. The report also provides economic factors and lists top net importer and net exporters of fossil fuels. There is also an outlook to 2030 section which estimates the future energy production by fuel as well as projected regional development.

Jacobson, M. Z., 2009. Review of solutions to global warming, air pollution, and energy security. Energy & Environmental Science, 2, 148-173 [11][edit]

This article explores the feasibility of large scale deployment of Alternative Energy Technologies in the current energy system.

Additional Literature[edit]

Mark Mehos. “Concentrating Solar Power” AIP conference Proceedings. Vol 1044 issue 1 pages 331-339. 2008 , [12]

Theocharis Tsoutsos, Niki Frantzeskaki and Vassilis Gekas “Environmental impacts from the solar energy technologies”. Energy Policy no. 33 (2005): 289 – 296 [13]

Paul Denholma, Robert M. Margolis “Evaluating the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in traditional electric power systems”.Energy Policy 35 (2007): 2852–2861 [14]

E.A. Alsema, E. Nieuwlaar. “Energy viability of photovoltaic systems” Energy Policy 28 (2000) 999}1010[15]

Niels Jungbluth1, Christian Bauer, Roberto Dones and Rolf Frischknecht. “Life Cycle Assessment for Emerging Technologies: Case Studies for Photovoltaic and Wind Power” Ecovenient Database: Energy Supply” [16]

Scott W. White a, Gerald L. Kulcinski b, “Birth to death analysis of the energy payback ratio and CO2 gas emission rates from coal, fission, wind, and DT-fusion electrical power plants”Fusion Engineering and Design 48 (248) 473–481 [17]

G.M. Joselin Herberta, S. Iniyanb, E. Sreevalsanc, S. Rajapandiand “A review of wind energy technologies” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 11 (2007) 1117–1145 [18]

Demirbas, A. H.(2008) “Global Geothermal Energy Scenario by 2040,” Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects,30:20,1890 — 1895[19]

T. J. Hammons. “Geothermal Power Generation Worldwide: Global Perspective, Technology, Field Experience, and Research and Development” Electric Power Components and Systems, 32:529–553, 2004 [20]

Energy 2008, vol. 2008, no. 15, pp. 1 - 778 “Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries: 2005/2006: 2008 Edition” (Complete Edition - ISBN 9264042296) [21]

Arnufl Jager-Waldau. “PV Status Report 2008, Research, Solar Cell Production and Market Implementation of Photovoltaics, 2008”. European Commission- Joint Research Centre[22]

Life Cycle Analyses[edit]

Vasilis Fthenakis, Erik Alsema “Photovoltaics energy payback times, greenhouse gas emissions and external costs: 2004 – early 2005 status” Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 14, no 3 (2006): 275-280[23][edit]

The goal of this paper was to provide an updated life cycle analysis of PV modules using methods based on the ExternE methodology. Different technologies all located in southern Europe or Germany were investigated and ranges for Energy Payback Times as well as carbon emissions over the life cycle of the module were presented.

Yolanda Lechon, Cristina de la Rua, and Rosa Saez, “Life Cycle Environmental Impacts of Electricity Production by Solarthermal Power Plants in Spain,” Journal of Solar Energy Engineering 130, no. 2 (May 0, 2008): 021012-7[24][edit]

Life Cycle Analysis was performed on a 17MW Central Tower CSP and a 50 MW CSP with Parabolic Trough technology both plants are located in Spain. For the purpose of this literature review the 50 MW Parabolic Trough plant was focused on. Greenhouse gas emissions over the plant’s life time were determined along with energy payback times and other environmental indicators (ex. Acidification, human toxicity, ozone depletion

E. Martínez et al., “Life cycle assessment of a multi-megawatt wind turbine,” Renewable Energy 34, no. 3 (March 2009): 667-673 [25][edit]

A Life Cycle Analysis of the 2 MW Gamesa onshore wind turbines (G8X model) installed in the Munilla Wind farm in La Rioja, Spain was performed in order to determine the embedded energy of the turbines. The individual components of the Turbine have been evaluated in order to determine the limiting elements on the energy payback time. The overall benefits of wind turbine installation with regards to sustainability and climate change mitigation are also highlighted.

A Celik, T Muneer, and P Clarke, “An investigation into micro wind energy systems for their utilization in urban areas and their life cycle assessment,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy 221, no. 8 (1, 2007): 1107-1117 [26][edit]

The potential of small (7.5 KW) wind turbines for urban area implementation was explored. Five different locations in Turkey are investigated and wind potentials as well as energy requirements are taken into account. A carbon and energy payback time is determined for each location.

Brice Tremaeac and Francis Muenier, “Life cycle analysis of 4.5 MW and 250W wind turbines” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews Article in Press. (Accepted January 13, 2009) [27][edit]

This paper provides a comprehensive life cycle analysis of both a 250 W and 4.5 MW (Eclipse Project) turbine, for the purpose of this literature review only information for the 4.5 MW turbine was deemed relevant. Embodied carbon was the primary focus and emissions were broken down into three primary phases; construction, operation and decommissioning. The turbine was theoretically located in the south of France and a 30% capacity factor was used.

Hiroki Hondo, “Life cycle GHG emission analysis of power generation systems: Japanese case,” Energy 30, no. 11-12 (2005): 2042-2056 [28][edit]

Life cycle analyses focused on carbon emissions were performed on nine different power generation technologies. The paper is focused on power generation technologies found in Japan. A double flash geothermal power plant was considered in this analysis. For nuclear the base case was used however a recycling case is also analyzed.

Vasilis M. Fthenakis and Hyung Chul Kim, “Greenhouse-gas emissions from solar electric- and nuclear power: A life-cycle study,” Energy Policy 35, no. 4 (April 2007): 2549-2557 [29][edit]

A summary and discussion of life cycle analyses performed for both the solar and nuclear electricity production industries was conducted. The analyses that were focused on GHG emissions investigated different technologies and locations. Emissions were broken down into different processes such as mining/milling, enrichment, construction etc. for Nuclear and the solar panel emissions were broken down into BOS, frame and module.

Comparison of Energy Systems using life cycle assessment. A special report of the World Energy Council [30][edit]

A comprehensive report of Renewable Energy technology status, projections and life cycle analysis. High and low ranges for CO2 emissions for numerous energy producing technologies were presented.

Naser A. Odeh and Timothy T. Cockerill, “Life cycle analysis of UK coal fired power plants” Energy Conversion and Management 49, no.2 (February 2008): 212-220 [31][edit]

The life cycle analysis with a focus on carbon emissions was conducted on a reference coal power plant which represented a typical plant found in the UK. Carbon emissions are broken down into four main sections: Combustion, Construction and Decommissioning, Non-combustion Operation and Methane Leakage. Carbon emissions for renewable technologies are also briefly presented; the values are a summary of studies performed by other authors around the world.

Luc Gagnon “Electricity Generation Options: Energy Payback Ratios” Hydro-Quebec (2005)[32][edit]

The energy payback ratios for several energy producing technologies are presented in a non academic report. The focus is on global technologies and many of the references are from international organizations. This publication is an informal update to the paper “Life-cycle assessment of electricity generation options: The status of research in year 2001” [33] which was published in 2002.

Luc Gagnon “Comparing Power Generation Options: Greenhouse Gas Emissions” Hydro-Quebec[34][edit]

The Greenhouse Gas emissions for both renewable and traditional energy technologies are presented in this publication. A range of CO2 emissions is provided for each technology. The lower value represents best available commercial technology for traditional technologies and ideal locations for renewable technologies, the higher value is based on existing technologies. The provided data is for typical eastern North American conditions

Additional Literature[edit]

R.Kannan et al., “LCA-LCCA of oil fired steam turbine power plant in Singapore” Energy Conversion and Management 45, no.18-19(November 2004): 3093-3107 [35]

SEFI, UNEP Global Trends in Sustainable Energy Investment 2009 [36]

Scott W. White and Gerald L. Kulcinsk “Birth to death analysis of the energy payback ratio and CO2 gas emission rates from coal, fission, wind, and DT-fusion electrical power plants” Fusion Engineering and Design Volume 48, Issues 3-4, September 2000, Pages 473-48[37]

National Renewable Energy Laboratory "Life cycle Assessment of a Biomass Gasification Combined-Cycle System" [38]

Melvin G. R. Cannell, “Carbon sequestration and biomass energy offset: theoretical, potential and achievable capacities globally, in Europe and the UK,” Biomass and Bioenergy 24, no. 2 (February 2003): 97-116 [39]

Franz Tried et al “Combined solar power and desalination plants for the Mediterranean region – sustainable energy supply using large-scale solar thermal power plants” Desalination 153, no 1-3 (February 10, 2003): 39-46 [40]

Annette Evans, Vladimir Strezov and Tim J.Evans, "Assessment of sustainability indicators for renewable energy technologies" Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews Volume 13, Issue 5, June 2009, Pages 1082-1088 [41]


Volume 13, Issue 5, June 2009, Pages 1082-1088

References[edit]

  1. James Hansen et al. “Target Atmospheric CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim?” The Open Atmospheric Science Journal 2, no.1 (11, 2008):217-231
  2. “Energy Statistics of OECD Countries: 2005/2006: 2008 Edition” Energy 2008, vol. 2008, no. 11, pp. 1 - 434 (Complete Edition - ISBN 9264037268)
  3. “Renewables 2007, Global Status Report” International Energy Association
  4. ”Renewables Global Status Report 2009 Update” International Energy Association
  5. “Renewables and Waste in the World 2006” International Energy Association’’
  6. “World Wind Energy Report 2008” World Energy Association
  7. Ingvar B. Fridleifsson “The possible role and contribution of geothermal energy to the mitigation of climate change” IPCC Geothermal. 11 February 2008
  8. Ayhan Demirbas,”Global Renewable Energy Resources,” Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects 28, no 8(2006): 779
  9. “World Energy Assessment Overview: 2004 Update” UNDP, UNDESA ,World Energy Council
  10. “Key World Statistics 2008” International Energy Association
  11. Jacobson, M. Z., 2009. Review of solutions to global warming, air pollution, and energy security. Energy & Environmental Science, 2, 148-173
  12. Mark Mehos. “Concentrating Solar Power” AIP conference Proceedings. Vol 1044 issue 1 pages 331-339. 2008
  13. Theocharis Tsoutsos, Niki Frantzeskaki and Vassilis Gekas “Environmental impacts from the solar energy technologies”. Energy Policy no. 33 (2005): 289 – 296
  14. Paul Denholma, Robert M. Margolis “Evaluating the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in traditional electric power systems”.Energy Policy 35 (2007): 2852–2861
  15. E.A. Alsema, E. Nieuwlaar. “Energy viability of photovoltaic systems” Energy Policy 28 (2000) 999-1010
  16. Niels Jungbluth1, Christian Bauer, Roberto Dones and Rolf Frischknecht. “Life Cycle Assessment for Emerging Technologies: Case Studies for Photovoltaic and Wind Power” Ecovenient Database: Energy Supply
  17. Scott W. White a, Gerald L. Kulcinski b, “Birth to death analysis of the energy payback ratio and CO2 gas emission rates from coal, fission, wind, and DT-fusion electrical power plants”Fusion Engineering and Design 48 (248) 473–481
  18. G.M. Joselin Herberta, S. Iniyanb, E. Sreevalsanc, S. Rajapandiand “A review of wind energy technologies” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 11 (2007) 1117–1145
  19. Demirbas, A. H.(2008) “Global Geothermal Energy Scenario by 2040,” Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects,30:20,1890 — 1895
  20. T. J. Hammons. “Geothermal Power Generation Worldwide: Global Perspective, Technology, Field Experience, and Research and Development” Electric Power Components and Systems, 32:529–553, 2004
  21. Energy 2008, vol. 2008, no. 15, pp. 1 - 778 “Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries: 2005/2006: 2008 Edition” (Complete Edition - ISBN 9264042296)
  22. Arnufl Jager-Waldau. “PV Status Report 2008, Research, Solar Cell Production and Market Implementation of Photovoltaics, 2008”. European Commission- Joint Research Centre
  23. Vasilis Fthenakis, Erik Alsema “Photovoltaics energy payback times, greenhouse gas emissions and external costs: 2004 – early 2005 status” Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 14, no 3 (2006): 275-280
  24. Yolanda Lechon, Cristina de la Rua, and Rosa Saez, “Life Cycle Environmental Impacts of Electricity Production by Solarthermal Power Plants in Spain,” Journal of Solar Energy Engineering 130, no. 2 (May 0, 2008): 021012-7
  25. E. Martínez et al., “Life cycle assessment of a multi-megawatt wind turbine,” Renewable Energy 34, no. 3 (March 2009): 667-673.
  26. A Celik, T Muneer, and P Clarke, “An investigation into micro wind energy systems for their utilization in urban areas and their life cycle assessment,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy 221, no. 8 (1, 2007): 1107-1117.
  27. Brice Tremaeac and Francis Muenier, “Life cycle analysis of 4.5 MW and 250W wind turbines” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews Article in Press. (Accepted January 13, 2009)
  28. Hiroki Hondo, “Life cycle GHG emission analysis of power generation systems: Japanese case,” Energy 30, no. 11-12 (2005): 2042-2056.
  29. Vasilis M. Fthenakis and Hyung Chul Kim, “Greenhouse-gas emissions from solar electric- and nuclear power: A life-cycle study,” Energy Policy 35, no. 4 (April 2007): 2549-2557.
  30. Comparison of Energy Systems using life cycle assessment. A special report of the World Energy Council.
  31. Naser A. Odeh and Timothy T. Cockerill, “Life cycle analysis of UK coal fired power plants” Energy Conversion and Management 49, no.2 (February 2008): 212-220.
  32. Luc Gagnon “Electricity Generation Options: Energy Payback Ratios” Hydro-Quebec (2005).
  33. Luc Gagnon, Camille Bélanger, and Yohji Uchiyama, “Life-cycle assessment of electricity generation options: The status of research in year 2001,” Energy Policy 30, no. 14 (November 2002): 1267-1278
  34. Luc Gagnon “Comparing Power Generation Options: Greenhouse Gas Emissions” Hydro-Quebec
  35. R.Kannan et al., “LCA-LCCA of oil fired steam turbine power plant in Singapore” Energy Conversion and Management 45, no.18-19(November 2004): 3093-3107.
  36. “Global Trends in Sustainable Energy Investment 2009” SEFI, UNEP
  37. Scott W. White and Gerald L. Kulcinsk “Birth to death analysis of the energy payback ratio and CO2 gas emission rates from coal, fission, wind, and DT-fusion electrical power plants” Fusion Engineering and Design Volume 48, Issues 3-4, September 2000, Pages 473-48.
  38. “Life Cycle Assessment of a Biomass Gasification Combined-Cycle System” National Renewable Energy Laboratory
  39. Melvin G. R. Cannell, “Carbon sequestration and biomass energy offset: theoretical, potential and achievable capacities globally, in Europe and the UK,” Biomass and Bioenergy 24, no. 2 (February 2003): 97-116.
  40. Franz Tried et al “Combined solar power and desalination plants for the Mediterranean region – sustainable energy supply using large-scale solar thermal power plants” Desalination 153, no 1-3 (February 10, 2003): 39-46.
  41. Annette Evans, Vladimir Strezov and Tim J.Evans, "Assessment of sustainability indicators for renewable energy technologies" Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews Volume 13, Issue 5, June 2009, Pages 1082-1088